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Association. Mr. Faulkner has secured some lecturers of national reputation. In the symposium, matters will be discussed of vital interest to teachers; such as measures to raise the business of teaching from a makeshift and a lottery where the fittest least often survive, to the level of an ideal profession. Altogether it bids fair to be one of the most memorable meetings in the history of the Association.

Elisha Benjamin Andrews. Elisha Benjamin Andrews was born in Hinsdale, N. H., January 10, 1844. His father and grandfather had been Baptist ministers. His father, a lecturer of repute, was several years a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives and of the Massachusetts Senate. Young Andrew's earliest education was received in a district school at Montague, Franklin County, Mass. He was preparing for college at the Connecticut Literary Institute at Suffield, Conn., at the outbreak of the War of the Rebellion. He promptly enlisted at the age of seventeen in the Fourth Connecticut Infantry for three years. The regiment was later known as the First Connecticut Heavy Artillery, and Mr. Andrews, passing thru various grades of promotion, and receiving a command before Pittsburg, Pa., August 24, 1864, was mustered out as second lieutenant, October 30, 1864. After the war he attended two terms at Powers Institute, Bernardston, Mass., and one at Wesleyan Academy, Wilbraham, Mass. He entered Brown University in 1866, and graduated in 1870. Graduating from Newton Theological Institution (Mass.) in 1874, he was ordained a Baptist clergyman the same year, and was pastor of the First Baptist Church, in Beverly, Mass., 1874-5. He resigned his pastorate to accept the presidency of Denison University, in Ohio, which post he left to assume the professorship of homiletics and pastoral theology in Newton Theological Institution. In 1882, he resigned, and went to Germany to study history and political economy in the universities of Berlin and Munich, having already been appointed professor of history and political economy in Brown University. On his return from Europe he filled that chair until 1888, when he accepted the professorship of political economy and finance in Cornell University. In 1889, he was elected president of Brown University, occupying the chair of moral and intellectual philosophy. In 1892, he was appointed by President Harrison one of the members of the International Monetary Conference at Brussels. In 1898, Dr. Andrews was elected superintendent of schools of Chicago, which position he filled until 1900. In August, 1900, he entered upon his duties as chief executive of one of the most progressive educational institutions in the west, the State University of Nebraska.

Chancellor Audrews received the degree of D.D. from Colby University in 1884, and that of L.L.D. the same year from the University of Nebraska. In 1900 he received the degree of L.L.D. from Bunn University. The University of Chicago bestowed the same on him in August, 1901, giving as the special reason for the bestowal Mr. Andrew's successful services in improving the administration of the Chicago schools. He has published a large number of volumes, as well as an immense number of addresses, lectures,

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ELISHA BENJAMIN ANDREWS

President State University, Nebraska. Principal Speaker at the California Teachers' Association, Pacific Grove, 1901. and magazine articles. His principal books are: “Brief Institutes of Constitutional History, English and American," 1886; “Brief Institutes of General History," 1887; "Institutes of Economics," 1889 (new edition, 1900); “The Duty of a Public Spirit," 1892; Droysen's “Outlines of the

Principles of History,” translation, 1893; “Wealth and Moral Law," 1894; “ An Honest Dollar, with Seven Other Essays on Bimetallist," 1894; “ History of the United States in the Last Quarter Century,''two volumes, 1896; and "The Problem of Cosmology,” 1901.

He is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, the Loyal Legion, the Delta Upsilon Fraternity, the Massachusetts Military Historical Society, and the American Economic Association. In politics he inclines to a liberal interpretation of the Constitution, and believes in a positive foreign policy. He is an ardent international bimetallist; favors a low tariff as a general policy, but a high and even prohibitive tariff against foreign monopolies, and free trade, if necessary, as a defense against home monopolies.

An article in the New York Education for January, 1899, says:

Elisha Benjamin Andrews, LL.D., formerly president of Brown University, is one of the most interesting characters, in American life. We do not pretend to be able to measure Dr. Andrews or his work. We are quite confident, however, that in breadth of scholarship, soundness of training, keenness of intellect, he is far and away above many of the educational Cagliostros that have persistently kept themselves in the public eye in educational matters for the past ten years. It is safe to say that in general preparation for comprehensive educational work only such men as Dr. Harris or Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler are in the same class with him. The career of such a map cannot but be intensely interesting.

M. Vincent O'Shea

Professor of the Science and Art of Education.

From the History of the University of Wisconsin. Born in Le Roy, Genesee County, New York. Fitted at the Le Roy Academic Institute. Graduated from Cornell in 1892. Took graduate work in philosophy at Cornell, and in developmental psychology at Clark. Was professor of psychology and pedagogy, and director of the practice school at State normal school, Mankato, Minnesota, 1895-97, and professor of educational psychology and child study, and supervisor of model teaching at the Teachers' College, Buffalo, 1895-97. Joined the University of Wisconsin faculty in 1897, teaching for the first year educational psychology, child study, principles of teaching, and method of the recitation; and has since added to these, mental development, genetic psychology, and observation and practice of teaching Professor O'Shea has delivered courses of extension lectures in Wisconsin at Sheboygan, Beloit, Oshkosh, Eau Claire, Green Bay, Columbus, Ashland, Phillips, and Dodgeville; in Michigan, at. Menominee and Battle Creek; in Iowa, at Des Moines, Dubuque, and Davenport; in Nebraska at Lincoln; in Ohio at Cleveland, Youngstown, and Canton. Since coming to the University of Wisconsin, he has delivered courses of lectures at the Boston School of Art, the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, the Martha's Vineyard Summer Institute, and the University of Virginia Sum mer School; also in New York City, Bethlehem, Rochester, Utica, and Chicago; besides many individual lectures in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Michigan, Indiana, and Wisconsin. He has published "Suggestions to Teachers from the Ob. servation and Study of Children” (Mankato, Minn., 1894); and "Aspect of Mental Economy,” University of Wisconsin “Bulletin." "He is now editor of the Educational Department of the “World Review," and has contributed articles to “Atlantic Monthly," "Popular Science Monthly," "North American Review," "Chatauqua," "Outlook," "Educational Review," "Educa. tion," "Intelligence," "Primary Education," "School Education," "Normal Instructor,” and other educational journals; also to the publications of the National Child Study Society, National Educational Association, and North Central Association of Secondary Schools and Colleges. He was in 1898, made chairman of the department of child study of the National Superintendents' Conference, and later elected president of the National Association for Child Study, and, in 1899, president of the Wisconsin Association for Child Study. He organized the Wisconsin Educational Club, and served as its presiding officer.

Primary Number Work. .

BY MERRIL MONROE. How many of us have experienced the fact that when we positively must do a thing-no wriggling out, no surrender, no excuses to be made, to say nothing of being accepted, when these conditions are placed around uswe usually find in ourselves the ability to rise to the occasion and become master of the situation. For instance, a young lady of my acquaintance had learned to ride a wheel, but she "positively could not mount and never would be able to.” This was in the early stages, of course, but it was a deeply rooted conviction, and as she seldom rode alone, there was always someone to hold her wheel. It was several weeks before she found herself rather unexpectedly off her wheel a mile or two away from any assistance. Think you she trundled her wheel home? No; she rode home radiant.

Another example rather more personal, I imagine, is the case of the timid, inexperienced young teacher who receives the following note: “I have placed you on the program for Institute, for a ten-minute paper on and down in the corner is added, “No excuses will be considered.” It is awful! She knows she positively can't-she will faint, she knows she will; whole rows of horrid old critical pedagogues who have taught as long as she is old. She can't do it, and that is all there is about it. But when the time comes she reads a paper so full of enthusiasm and theory and originality that her friends congratulate her, and she feels - well, just a little puffed up, for it is her first paper. The moral of all this is: create a necessity and it will be overcome.

This paper deals with number, I believe, and I really have been thinking of number all this time.

One of my smallest boys came in the other day saying he could count to eighty. Then he showed me a salt sack half full of marbles, and said, "I have eighty marbles." My second grade were playing tomball, or something in which, if the ball is caught on the bounce the striker is half out, and if on the second bounce, one-quarter out. Some one caught the ball on the first bounce, “Half out," everyone shouted. This was followed by the ball being caught on the second bounce; again the chorus, “Half and a quarter out.” Then one little voice quickly added, “Three-quarters out." There you are, y2 + 14 = 34, — no theory; just a keeping pace with the times.

Can we use this in school ? Yes, I presume we have all filled the quart with the pint measure, and the gallon with the quart measure, till the children knew all about it. But to come down to the signs, it is not hard with the + and the —, but do not some of them always get stuck when it comes to the x and : ?

The diagrams in the absence of models which Speer advocates, are such splendid eye-trainers and such fascinating things. These will constitute the fundamentals for some time:*

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First, simply A + B are used; ask for relations and you will find ready answers: “2 A's make B, and A is 2 of B, and B 2 times A.After a few oral expressions, write A = 1 of B, B = 2 X A ; telling the children x stands for "times." Add the square C, and the children and yourself included will be surprised at the number of relations. Write them all down before them, but don't ask them for any written work. When you add D, you may think you have a-now, the boys term it a "corker," and so it is, with regard to its relations to A; but some one, bristling with victory, will have it D is 16 x A, and the retaliating cry will be immediate, A=1/16 of D. Now, they have by this time copied the figures once or twice, and may have the diagrams on the board, and be told to write the relations. You will see what fun it is if it is thoroly understood orally. I put the oblong E in to see what they would make of it. Several had it. They saw E was 2 x B. They knew C was 2 x B. They had never been told that two things equal to a third are equal to each other, but they knew it, and put it down, E = C, and went over the relations, putting E in C's place, and oh what an extensive family of relations we had.

One day, when relations were growing tiresome, I said, “ Now, A is a field, it has two acres; find out how many acres in as many of these fields as you can.” Not everyone "got” all, but all "got some, and as one remarked, it was a "pretty smart trick."

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