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After a drill of this kind, if I wanted to put on the board 2 x 4, they knew what it meant. It meant two


but I much prefer to draw the latter and let them deduct the former.

Now, this taught them +, x, 12, 14, 16, 1/16, 73, and 33, without explaining anything. It did not teach them, but they were ready for it the next year.

It did not teach them the multiplication tables, for they were first and second-graders; and I am thankful to say those who ruled over us knew that they ought not to know the tables.

If a few will earnestly try this—I give it five minntes a day-you will find yourself as enthusiastic as I in the fact that you are teaching relations first and that figures become really symbols.

Mothers' Club Department.


“Children should be trained into instant and totally unreasoning obedience to their fathers, mothers, and tutors." —RUSKIN.

Mrs. Raynsford Taylor addressed the Golden Gate Mothers' Club, Wednesday, October 17. The subject for discussion was: “The Most Important Thing in the Training of Children.” Mrs. Taylor spoke briefly on the lessons to be learned from books, pictures, order, and cleanliness. Above everything else stands obedience — the keystone in the arch formed for mothers and teachers.

"Nearly all accidents, sickness, and a hundred other things are brought on by disobedience; therefore, disobedience works ruin. 'To obey is better than sacrifice.' If a child obey the laws of father and mother, he will obey the laws of God and man. If the heart of a child turn to the parent and the heart of the parent turn to the child, then is the child ready to do your will cheerfully. How, then, can we attain the obedience such as mothers and teachers desire? There is nothing more humiliating than to let a child have his own way. It is better to command very seldom, but, when you do, use tact and command carefully; if possible, command them to do things they want to do.”

Miss Fairchild here took up the subject and said: "I wonder where we are coming out on this question of disobedience. At home you learn individual conditions; we have to win out where we know they do not want to obey. Sometimes it is a sulky disposition that we have to deal with more than wanting to be disobedient. There is a 'symposium in the 'American Kitchen Magazine,' which all should read, on how children should see others obey in regimen, etc."

There was some discussion as to whether obedience should hold full sway. Love, induced by a religion that makes people pleasant to live with,” was thought to be worthy of first place.

This Club will meet again the third Wednesday in October,

MISS JEAN PARKER delighted the Laguna Honda Mothers' Club with an informal talk and read an interesting paper on the subject of “Truth Telling." There were bits of pbilosophy in her talk and in her paper that will last thruout the ages of Mothers' Clubs. Miss Parker apologized for coming before a "mothers' " club by giving a bit of experience she had with the mother of an unruly boy. She had done all she could with the boy and failed; then she sent for the mother, expecting to have a row with her. After pouring forth her grievances, she said: "I suppose you think I don't know much about children?”' but the mother answered, “On the contrary, I should take you to be the mother of a large family."

“Children are inclined to tell the truth and only are perverted by successful lying. Looking for the truth, I rarely get anything else. I remember having a mother complain that some girls at school were saying improper things in the bearing of her little girl. I could not think these heretofore exemplary girls guilty, but promised to investigate. With their arms around me, they said: 'It is every word true.' I was thunderstruck, and the parents neither ate nor slept that night, but it was really a time for congratulation. It is the greatest mistake to feel badly when such things are found out; it is a time for rejoicing. Ignorance is not innocence, and should not be so confounded. In all my varied experience I have never found children doing worse things than I did [laughter). I remember having taken (she said stolen) a box. My mother asked me where I got it. I said, “Oh, I picked it up at a little girl's house.' 'Well, you march right back and tell her mother I do not allow you to pick up things." Do you suppose I was going to humiliate myself by repeating her command. I went back of course, and when unobserved, dropped the box among other playthings. At one time a purse belonging to one of the teachers was missing. As principal, I was called in to use my detective ability. The children were all called up, and during my little talk to them I settled in my own mind just who took

Looking in her desk we found many stolen articles, but no purse. We afterwards went to the mother and asked her about it. She said, 'Why, yes; my little girl did bring home a purse, and said she had found it.' Many other things had found their way into that house, and the mother was too busy or careless to look into the matter-criminal carelessness.

“When the mother understood that her child was likely to be branded as a thief, she asked for a transfer card, but this was refused. Was the child to go where she was not known to carry on the same practices ? She must stay right here or else go 'properly labeled.' She needs the help we are now in a position to give her. She will not be 'downed'-certainly not; few would be standing if all the faulty ones were treated so."

While Miss Parker can be, as she says, "fierce," with children, a sym pathetic understanding and a real mother instinct makes hier more than successful with the life-long work she has had in hand.

the purse.

Teaching as a Profession. .

MRS. J. E. WILLIAMS. Read before the Glenn County Institute, October 28, 1901. Many years ago, when I knew a great deal more than I now know about everything, especially school teaching, I heard this subject discussed at a teachers' institute in Colusa by a very great man from San Francisco (for this was before Berkeley had professors to loan), who declared teaching was not, and never could be, classed with the professions, because men used the calling as a stepping stone to law and medicine. while the women taught only until they had earned enough money to buy their trousseau, when they left the schoolroom to embark on the matrimonial sea - and he said this as tho it were not a woman's right to marry.

The men didn't mind what he said, but we women were furious; for one of the teachers was married, another was engaged, while the rest of us were only waiting for an opportunity to be so. After returning from institute, we held an indignation meeting, and, after exhausting all the adjectives without finding one adequate to the occasion, we further relieved our feelings by drawing the great man's picture on the wall and battering it with our shoes. From that time on I had never considered teaching as one of the professions, so you may be able to appreciate my feelings when commanded by our superintendent to talk about something that did not exist.

Again and again I said, "What shall I say?" At length my eyes rested upon the dictionary. "I will see what Webster says about it,” thought I, and turning to the right place I read: “profession — a pretense.” Teaching as a "pretense" did not sound pleasant, so I looked further and found this: "profession — the occupation, if not mechanical, to which one devotes himself, the business one professes to understand and to follow for subsistence." "Ah, surely, then," thought I, "teaching is a profession,” But the following caused my heart to sink within me: "the three learned professions are theology, law, and medicine."

It is very evident from this that up to the time of Webster, teaching was not called a profession. Nevertheless, long ages before Webster or the great man from San Francisco, there came to earth a perfect Child, who grew to manhood, the only perfect man Earth ever knew. He chose the vocation of teaching because of its unlimited possibilities for good to humanity. He sacrificed His life for the principles He held to be true.

Then who shall say that teaching is not the noblest. calling in which the powers of man can be engaged? In importance, ours stands at the head of all professions. In our hands the clay becomes a living, thinking soul; from chaos comes order; the future men and women are formed; principles of citizenship are instilled.

Fellow-teachers, your earnest, anxious faces tell me that you feel the responsibility of your positions and the importance of cultivating in ourselves such traits as we wish to perpetuate. Our high ideals may never be realized, but may be approximated each day.

In your faces I read, too, the traces of conflicts in which you have well nigh lost courage; but these are the opportunities for soul growth and should cause but a passing sigh. There are difficulties to be encountered in all the walks of life, not more in ours than in others. Then let us stand up like true women and brave men and unflinchingly look fate in the face, feeling that we are each a spark of Divinity, and that our efforts are united with the efforts of the All-Wise, with Whom we are co-workers and partners in the great plan; and may the lessons we teach live in the memories of our pupils, and, like those of the great Teacher of mankind, go down the ages making the world better for our having lived.


H. T. GAGE, President of the Board

..Governor, Sacramento. THOMAS J. KIRK, Secretary of the Board .Superintendent Public Instruction, Sacramento. BENJAMIN IDE WHEELER..

President University of California, Berkeley. FLETCHER B. DRESSLAR, Prof. of Theory and Practice of Education, University of Cal., Berkeley. MORRIS ELMER DAILEY.

President State Normal School, San Jose. E. T. PIERCE..

President State Normal School, Los Angeles. C. C. VAN LIEW

. President State Normal School, Chico. SAMUEL T. BLACK

.President State Normal School, San Diego. FREDERIC BURK....

President State Normal Scbool, San Francisco

SACRAMENTO, October 24, 1901. County Superintendent Baldwin submitted to District Attorney Hon. T. L. Lewis of San Diego County, the following three questions:

I. “Have County Boards of Education power to grant permanent certificates on primary certificates?"

2. “Do certificates of the primary grade become permanent upon second renewal?”

3. “Do primary certificates granted and renewed the second time and teaching on same five years prior to July 1st, 1901, and still in force and effect, become permanent by the late enactment of State Legislature, without action of the County Board of Education?"

Attorney Lewis in his written opinion, copy of which has been courteously sent to the State office, shows that he devoted much thought and time to the entire law respecting certification of teachers. He reached conclusions which in my judgment are the correct interpretation of the law: The first question was answered in the affirmative, and the second and third in the negative.

It is contrary to the spirit, if not to the letter, of the law for teachers and boards of education to extend the grammar school work into what is clearly the domain of the high school. By so doing they infringe upon the interest and right of the primary and grammar schools. It is no serious difficulty to determine what in general constitutes the common or elementary school

The subjects or studies to be pursued in the primary and grammar schools are restricted to those mentioned in section 1665 of the Political Code.

Pupils that have completed the course of the grammar school may return to school and review, but may not lawfully in such schools take up higher branches.


By the provisions of Section 1712 of the Political Code, all orders by boards of school trustees for books or apparatus must first be submitted to and approved by the County Superintendent of Schools before such books or apparatus can lawfully be purchased. In case this is not done the County Superintendent may with hold his requisition against the funds of the district, notwithstanding the trustees may have given an agent an order for such books or apparatus.

*** There is no law authorizing the use of public school funds for the transportation of pupils to and from school. Such a measure has been frequently discussed in educational gatherings recently, but no law has been passed touching the matter.

A child prepared by private instruction to enter from the 5th to the 6th grade of the public schools should be admitted to such 6th grade as tho it had been regularly prepared in the public school. A child should be assigned to a grade in school to which its attainments entitle it. Fitness and test for promotion, however, are to be determined by the teacher or by the teacher and the county board together, as the rules of the county board may prescribe. It would be an unwarranted and arbitrary rule to say that a pupil should not be promoted from one grade to another because the preparation for advancement was not made in the public school. Public schools are open to the admission of all children between the ages of six and twenty-one years that reside in the district, except foreign born Mongolians.



Plaintiff and Respondent,

E. B. WRIGHT, as County Superintendent of Common Schools of
San Joaquin County,

Defendant and Appellant.

SCHOOLS APPORTIONMENT OF FUNDS - CONSTRUCTION OF SECTION 1858, POL. C. The words “average daily attendance,” used in subdivision 4 of Section 1858 of the Political Code, in regard to apportionment of funds, means average daily attendance in the common schools of the district, and does not include the high schools and evening schools. All State and county school moneys are intended to be used exclusively for the support of the primary and grammar district schools. Appeal from the Superior Court of San Joaquin County. - Joseph H. Budd, Judge.

For Appellant, A. H. Ashley.

For Respondent, Ed. R. Thompson and J. G. Swinnerton. This appeal is from a judgment awarding plaintiff a writ of mandate against defendant, in his official capacity, commanding him to apportion to plaintiff $4630.13 of public school moneys.

A demurrer was filed to the petition and upon its being overruled defendant answered, setting forth facts, which are practically conceded to be true. As the facts are substantially agreed upon, it will not be necessary to pass upon the ruling on the demurrer.

Plaintiff is a school district of the county of San Joaquin, and defendant is the County Superintendent of Common Schools in said county.

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