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linen when one can be clean, to laugh at cheap jokes, to read the sensational newspaper. The forces that make for vulgarity lead to obscenity. The city of the future will not permit the existence of slums and tippling houses, for the same reason that it prohibits cesspools and pigpens. Profanity is one form of vulgarity. The bravest of men are soft of tongue and quiet of action.
The fifth short-cut is that of intemperance. Pain is the warning to the brain that something is wrong. Thru abnormal conditions this pain, such as that caused by nerve-exciting drugs, is sometimes interpreted as keenest pleasure. Every drug leaves a scar on the nerve. Moderate drinking is not so very bad so long as it is moderate. Some of the best men in the world are moderate drinkers and smokers; some of the worse scoundrels are most abstemious. But, whatever one may think of table drinking, perpendicular drinking, the drinking to get drunk, destroys the vigor of life. A normal man can be convivial without drinking.
Some turbulent spirits plunge into sin because they revolt against conventionality. For these there is hope. When they realize the bonds of conventionality is sin by which they are surrounded, they will again revolt. It is such spirits that have been the great conversions, that are the brands spatched from the fire. The time will come when the only opening for the man of intemperate habits will be politics. The railroad, the steamship lines, the big corporations have cast him off. Only the long-suffering people, liberal and generous, are left as his resource. Municipal politics have become his specialty. For this reason our cities will continue to reek with the scandal of political jobbery.
Emotional excess is a woman's form of drunkenness. Nervous prostration is her delirium tremens. To cultivate emotion for emotion's sake is to live a sensuous life.
Among the desired short-cuts to happiness is jealousy of the man more successful than you. To live to enjoy life is to live to enjoy it to the end. Idleness does not bring rest; rest does not bring pleasure.
AGRICULTURE AS A SCIENCE FOR THE ELEMENTARY
BY JOSEPH CARTER,
Superintendent of City Schools, Champaign, Il. Science does not seem likely to take a permanent place in the elementary schools under the name of Nature Study as the term is now understood. Yet nature study is so very valuable, and its results of such high educational and economic worth, that it should be continued. How can this be done? Any science may best be taken up on the side nearest the experience of the pupil. No other subject is so near the experience of so many children as agriculture. Agriculture has at its foundations very many of the sciences. It deals with nature living nature. It is a subject about which all lines of nature study are easily correlated.
The teacher might begin with a window garden and teach the germination of seeds, the development of plants, the effect of sunlight on them, and many other things. Probably eighty per cent of our pupils are in schools where it is possible to have a garden out of doors where not only vegetables, but the larger fruits — apples, plums, pears and the like - could be raised. Here could be studied many things that pertain to the growth of plants — the insects that visit them, and what insects are beneficial and what are injurious. and also how to destroy the injurious ones. The life history of these insects can be studied. This garden can be made a labratory where most delightful experiments can be made, and where knowledge can be gained at first hand. Here the soil can be studied. Its origin and nature can be discovered — its evolution from a fiery rock to the fertile food for plants. The birds will visit this garden and they, too, can be studied.
Agriculture is a science whose study takes people out of doors. There is a growing tendency in our schools to adopt the sedentary life of the literary man. Too much we are leading the children to think that wisdom is found only at the desk of the literary fellow. Too many children there are whose school training is mainly an effort to give them the ability to apprehend what was in the mind of the author of some so-called literary masterpiece. We work laboriously to teach them to say: "I think thy thoughts after thee, O De Quincy," instead of leading them where they joyously can say, “I think Thy thoughts after Thee, O God.”
The average child comes to school all saturated with nature — all alive to its every change, and eager for its wonderful and delightful story. Instead of teaching him along the lines of his experience, we turn him in the direction of literature and myth and fairy mysticism, thereby pullifying all the apperceptive capital he has previously accumulated. We do not object to this literary matter in toto, but we do object to its being the total of his training, and we think the teaching of agriculture offers a satisfactory supplement to it.
BY W. H. SNYDER,
We Americans of all nations should be students of geography. Our isolation, extent of territory, commercial and expansive spirit make it ex. pedient that we should acquaint ourselves in all ways possible with the rest of the world. Altho the American is by nature a traveler, yet our home geography extends over such vast distances, and the oceans so effectually shut off our shoulder to shoulder intercouise with other nations, that it is only thru study that the most of us will ever be brought to appreciate the conditions of other peoples. These conditions must be appreciated if we are ever to wisely take the position for which we as a nation seem foreordained.
This appreciation will, however, never be attained by a purposeless or aimless study.
Then, too, if ever geography is to attain a commanding position in our educational system, it must show its value as a disciplinary as well as an informational subject. The simple acquiring of information does not train citizens. The why and the because must play as important a part as the behold and the remember. Probably most of us can remember when physics and chemistry were taught entirely from books, and consisted simply of a mass of information which was accepted on authority. During the past few years this kind of presentation has been superseded by a rational method and, I believe, we are destined to see in the near future the same rational method applied to geography. To attain its highest efficiency, geography must become to a considerable extent a laboratory subject, in which actual work is done, and the principal use of the text-book is as a guide and fount of reference, and not as something to be learned and recited.
The government during recent years has gone to great expense in making contour maps of different parts of the country. How many of our educated people even are able to intelligently use these? What does great circle sailing mean to the average student of geography?
The aim in geography should be to impart a scientific knowledge of the surface of the earth. This scientific knowledge, however, is not general information. It is the experimental knowledge which enables us to understand exactly what sort of topography is represented by a contour map, to form a mental picture of a region when properly described, and by means of photographs, maps, and description to be able to appreciate and explain the phe. nomena discovered. It is necessary, therefore, to have a material equipment for the teaching of geography. There must be an actuality about the subject, not a mere hearsay. Chicago by its school museum, which it has prepared to move from school to school, is the first city to supply one of these needs. The larger part of the apparatus for this subject has not yet been invented, and it devolves upon those who are today teaching the science to construct and bring together the tools. The first decade of the twentieth century will see this done.
SOME OF OUR MISTAKES.
BY PRIN. GEORGE M. GRANT.
Queen's University, Kingston, Ont. 1. We have undervalued the teaching profession. All history shows how great is this mistake, for teachers have determined every permanent advance of the thought and life of humanity Aristotle, Plato, Socrates and the Greek dramatists were the teachers of their time, and Europe and America still sit at their feet. So in the east with Guatama and Confucius. Jesus was known simply as rabbi or teacher. What was the characteristic of those great teachers? That they spoke with authority, because they had mastered what they taught.
2. We have fancied that there is a royal road to knowledge, and so we have encouraged intellectual levity and trifling in our children. There is no such road. If we would know any subject, we must work. But if strong drink bas slain its thousands, idleness has slain its ten thousands. The mission of the school is to teach the young to subordinate pleasure to duty. Interest by inspiring, not by amusing them.
We have fancied that there is a royal road to the making of teachers, and so have tried short cuts. The study of psychology is good for graduate students, but useless for average teachers. It deals with abstractions and each pupil is a concrete being.
These mistakes are rooted in low ideals of life. How shall we correct them? Give such inducements to the best men to enter and remain in the profession as they give in England. Honor teachers by a right attitude to them in the home, as in Scotland and Germany. And as the attitude of the teacher determines in the long run the attitude of the public to learning, let him show that he regards it as an end and not merely a means to a material end.
NECESSARY ELEMENTS IN WORK AND PLAY AND
BY C. GERALDINE O'GRADY.
Teachers' College, New York.
Activity: co-operation, to some extent; progression, and rhythm, orderly alternation of activity, seem to be necessary elements in all wholesome work and play. Rhythm is the special point we shall discuss at present. It is observable in so many physical and natural conditions of the world around us and is so much a part of our make-up, that it must be considered in all activity, whether of work or play. Some of it we cannot escape from; but in other cases it is a variable quantity. Variation and spontaneous impulse are also necessary elements in educative work or play, and the make-up of children differs so much on account of mixed heredity and varying nutrition, environment, etc., that allowance for individual growth and differing needs must prevent our planning too many stereotyped forms of rhythmic exercise for young children. Early childhood is especially the time of trial, experiment and gradual selection in all activity and growth in co-ordination; but to allow for this, activities must not become stereotyped too soon. Many teachers are giving too definite and co nplex form of rhythmic exercise to the children. There is danger in the blind enthusiasm and energy with which young teachers seize a new idea and lose sight of all others for the time. We need balance and sanity in this as in other things. Some mention of experiments with rhythm and their results observed with children concluded the paper.
PROGRESS IN EDUCATION.
BY BISHOP JOHN L. SPAULDING
Peoria, Illinois. Bishop Spaulding sketched the great epochs in the progress of education from the time of the Romans up to the present. He then said, in part: "At the opening of the nineteenth century there is an enthusiasm such as never before existed. Education being a process of conscious evolution, those who assist and guide it must themselves continue to grow.
The work accomplished in the United States during the last fifty years in the organization of a great system of schools was never before equaled in the history of any people. In our white native people at present illiteracy has almost ceased to exist. Our progress in higher education has been even more rapid. The number of colleges has more than doubled in the last quarter of a century, while the standards for admission into almost all of them have been raised. Original investigation along scientific lines has been introduced and developed to a wonderful extent. In scientific and technical education, in agricultural and industrial education, we are making genuine and rapid progress. The bishop said that the normal schools of the country had rendered important service in the past, but that their training alone is insufficient, as teachers should have more than mere professional skill. "The more comprehensive our grasp of the power and the meaning of teaching becomes, the easier it shall be to persuade the best men and women to devote themselves to teaching, for we shall make them feel that the teacher does not take up a trade, but the highest art. Education is the furtherance of life, and instruction is education only when the knowledge acquired gives truer ideas of the worth of life and supplies motives for right living.”
The struggle among the school book publishers of the country to secure the contracts for furnishing the books for the schools of Utah for the five years following next June has already begun. A. S. Barnes, one of the biggest school book men in the country, was in the city yesterday looking after the interests of Ginn & Co., of Chicago. Other book men are expected. Under the laws of Utah the school books can be changed every five years.
The first five years will expire next June, and the fight will be on from this time out to get control of the business of the state for the five years to follow. Salt Lake Herald.
It is excellent
- William Shakspere. They say best men are moulded out of faults.
- William Shakspere. There was never yet philosopher That could endure the toothache patiently.
- William Shakspere.