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How great a part in the settlement of our own loved land was taken by profoundly religious men, is a thought familiar to every school boy. How deeply and permanently the motives and circumstances of that early settlement have affected the character and history of the country, are problems which can be but partially solved by the greatest scholar.

Among the leading facts of the past century are missionary efforts and their results. It is everywhere acknowledged that in the recent strange political complications with China the labors of the missionaries made an important factor as cause, and also an element which must not be ignored in the arrangement of terms. These things are matters of current history freely discussed by newspapers and magazines.

When we turn from history to institutional life, we find Christianity a factor no less potent.

Nature is cruel; by her law the weak is ever sacrificed to the strong, and many must perish that one may live. So it has been in human society - the rich has crushed the poor, the powerful has enslaved the helpless. In the world of human life it still often seems true that if one man succeeds it implies the failure of someone else. For example, it is difficult to see in such a relation of demand and supply as exists in the anthracite coal regions in our own country, how it can be otherwise than that the success of the mine owner implies the crushing of the mine worker.

But the law of Christ's kingdom is, "We then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves."

Slowly this idea has permeated thought and borne fruit in life.

It has brought about the elevation of woman to a position of honor and influence and has opened to her avenues of self-improvement and usefulness.

Even within the last twenty years it has caused the devastating African slave trade to disappear.

It has done much to educate and elevate the black race after the shackles have fallen from his limbs. Booker T. Washington, the greatest living representative of that race, in his unique and fascinating autobiography, "Up From Slavery," says: “If no other consideration had convinced me of the value of Christian life, the Christlike work which the church of all denominations in America has done during the last thirty-five years for the elevation of the black man would have made me a Christian."

It is the Christ spirit in our civilization which bas taught the blind to see, the deaf to hear, the dumb to speak; which has cared for the insane in homes where they have social joys; which has trained the feeble-minded and epileptic to such ideas of order and obedience as render life in normal conditions tolerable. It furnishes homes to orphan and worse than orphan children, to the aged and infirm. It treats the inebriate in hospitals and soothes those hopelessly sufferiog frim incurable diseases. It leagues men to prevent cruelty to animals; it protects women and children by factory legis ation.

It is doing much for the criminal und degraded classes. There is a growing conception of prison reform, an effort to make punishment helpful to the criminal, to render him of value to himself and to the community. In pursuance of the social settlement plan men and women have left pleasant and often wealthy homes to live among the poor, the ignorant, the degraded, that they may set before them an example of a cleaner, more wholesome, higher life than they have known, and that by the warm buman touch they may lead them upward.

Christianity has lessened the frequency of wars, has brought about arbitration, originated the Hague Conference, with its permanent court of arbitration. It has lessened the cruelty of wars; its spirit breathes in the Red Cross Society, with its equal care of friend and foe.

It is struggling with the problems of industrial competition, and men are asking not chiefly, “How may the wretched be relieved?" but "How can the con

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ditions of business and trade be so modified that there may be no poor and wretched?” Meanwhile great fortunes are being freely given that universities and libraries may be open to all.

The joys of social life are fed from religious springs. Easter, filled with the gladness of springtime, is the great festival of the church. Our own national Thanksgiving day commemorates the bounty of the autumn and calls together families and friends in gratitude to God for personal and for national blessings. And Christmas, while it yearly renews thoughts of the Christ Child, everywhere brings fresh joy to all childlike hearts.

The literature of Christendom is filled with Christian problems and ideals, and is replete with Scripture allusions and paraphrases. To his religious conceptions Dante owes the gloomy sublimity of his pictures.

The life of the times which Chaucer so cheerfully depicts would be strangely incomplete without prioress and pun, monk and friar. Milton and Goethe and Heine and Wordsworth and Browning all have drawn copiously from the same great Book, and prose is scarcely less a debtor than verse.

One of the most magnificent forms of architecture owes its existence to the Christian religion. The spires and pinnacles of Gothic chapels, abbeys, cathedrals give expression to the Christian's aspiration. How the traveler welcomes the sight of the parish churches, in which England is so rich; the ruins of Melrose Abbey under the light of the full moon as Sir Walter Scott has pictured it; Westminster Abbey, to whose architectural attractions is added such wealth of historical and literary associations. The Rhine would lose much of its picturesqueness if it did not look up to these Gothic structures of which the spires of Strasburg and Cologne are the most magnificent. Paris, with her many attractions, would lament the loss of her remarkable church of Notre Dame, and Milan would be shorn of her greatest glory if her cathedral were no longer even a memory.

Modern sculpture had its origin in the purpose to adorn the churches. The cathedrals of Florence and St. Peter's, Cologne and Strasburg, show panel and altar, choir and baptistery with the noblest work in relief and statue which the modern world has produced.

Italy is the cradle of modern painting. This art took its rise in religious sentiment. It chose religious subjects for its themes and had for its object the the adornment of Christian churches. All the common people, ignorant of reading, were educated in art. Then when the Renaissance came with its intellectual awakening, there blossomed the greatest age of the pictorial art. Much of the religious spirit fled; art was loved for her own sake. But religious subjects still remained the favorites, and the light of Correggio is shed about the sweetness of cherub faces; the beauty and grace of Raphael has depicted the Madonna again and again; the sublime strength of Michael Angelo was devoted to the representation of Biblical scenes.

Music, the most sensuous of the arts, is great also in extent and range and power on its devotional side. How much would be lost if organ and voice were never again attuned to praise! What tenderness in hymn! What beauty and dignity in sacred song! What solemn exaltation in anthem! What stateliness is added to worship by Te Deum and Mass and Recessional! To what height does music rise in the sacred oratorios, the melodious "Creation” of Haydn, the dramatic “Elijah” of Mendelssohn, the sublime "Messiah” of Handel!

It is sometimes said that science is materialistic. When Kepler discovered the laws of the movement of the planets he reverently bowed his head and said: "I thank thee, O God, that I am permitted to think thy thoughts after thee." And to many another scientist it has seemed that “the eye of man looked forth

upon the boundless mystery (of the universe) and saw the shadow of the presence of the infinite God."

Speaking of the conversicns which occurred during the year 1900 in the colleges and universities of the United States, John R. Mott, General Secretary of the World's Student Christian Federation, says: "It is significant that a larger number of the converts have come from the students of science than from any other class of students.” I quote from Spalding: “Science is not material. It is the product of intellect and will; and the great founders of modern science, Copernicus, Kepler, Bacon, Descartes, Galileo, Newton, Leibnitz, Ampere, Liebig, Fres. nel, Faraday, and Mayer were Christians. “However paradoxical it may sound,' says Du Bois-Reymond, 'modern science owes its origin to Christianity.'

ITS PLACE IN EDUCATION. Into a world whose civilization is a Christian civilization, then, comes the baby horn among us. How shall we educate him?

Nicholas Murray Butler "separates civilization into man's science, his literature, his art, his institutional life, and his religious beliefs," and continues, "Education must include knowledge of each of the five elements named, as well as insight into them all and sympathy with them all.” And again: "The child is entitled to his scientific inheritance, to his literary inheritance, to his æsthetic inheritance, to his institutional inheritance, and to his religious inheritance. Without them he cannot become a truly educated or cultured man."

Spalding says: The ideal of culture embraces the whole man, physical, moral, religious, and intellectual, and the loss of health or morality or faith cannot but impede the harmonious development of the mind itself.”

Nay, more. The religious faculty is not only one of the powers of the soul; it is the highest of them all. Because there is an affinity in man's spirit with the Spirit of the Infinite Maker and Ruler of the universe, the human soul can be come a sharer in the Divine life. The child needs religious training, then, that he may be symmetrically developed, and especially that his highest powers may not become atrophied.

In the mind of the child religiously trained, religious images begin to form early. The idea of God is probably at first always grossly anthropomorphic.

Those who have ever read John Fiske's portrayal of his childhood conception of God will not easily forget it:

"I remember distinctly the conception I had formed when five years of age. I imagined a narrow office just over the zenith, with a tall standing desk running lengthwise, upon which lay several open ledgers bound in coarse leather. There was no roof over this office, and the walls rose scarcely five feet from the floor, so that a person standing at the desk could look out upon the whole world. There were two persone at the desk, and one of them - a tall, slender man, of aquiline features, wearing spectacles, with a pen in his hand and another behind his earwas God. The other, whose appearance I do not distinctly recall, was an attendant angel. Both were diligently watching the deeds of men and recording them in the ledgers. To my infant mind this picture was not grotesque, but ineffably solemn, and the fact that all my words and acts were thus written down, to confront me at the day of judgment, seemed naturally a matter of grave concern."

Less gifted minds than John Fiske may retain these crude conceptions a few years longer, and tho they may more readily forget them in later years, they are not likely to form more spiritual conceptions in early childhood.

So painful to mature minds are these pictures, so much like caricatures do they seem, that some have said, “It is better not to try to teach religion until the child is old enough to understand it. Let us teach morals with care by precept,

and especially by example. Let us defer the instruction in religion until the child will not form grotesque images which need to be corrected.”

But these partial and inaccurate pictures are characteristic of the manner in which the child mind works. Tiny Mildred amused her mother thruout the fivemile street-car ride from Oakland to Berkeley in the early dusk of a winter afternoon, by trying to blow out the moon as she was accustomed to have the privilege of doing by the match with which the gas was lighted. Little Grace White, the daughter of a college professor, exclaimed when she first saw cat-tails, "o, papa, see the Bologna sausages growing on bushes!" To the child these conceptions of the physical world or of its Creator are natural and proper. As Mr. Fiske says: "To my infant mind this picture was not grotesque, but ineffably solemn."

It was with a profound knowledge of child nature that the founder of the kindergarten said, “The school should first of all teach the religion of Christ; it should first of all, and above all, give instruction in the Christian religion; everywhere, and in all zones, the school should instruct for and in this religion.”


When we consider the immense importance of education, both for this life and for its continuation hereafter, it does not seem strange that the early Christians entrusted the education of children and youth wholly to the Church. In the hands of the clergy and monks its dominant idea was what George Eliot called "otherworldliness,” the preparation for the life to come. Religious exercises were prominent, and all else was valued in its relation to the church service. The purpose was chiefly to make of the boy a priest. The course of study embraced only formal studies — Latin, grammar, logic, and rhetoric, with arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. So mass could be said, the service chanted, religious discussions carried on, the church calendar computed. Such importance was attached to the authority of the scriptures that free thought was strangled. Discipline was very harsh, inflicted by men of ascetic habits, who had separated themselves from household joys and the love of little children.

In all this no attempt was made to prepare for the life that now is. The development of the individual was disregarded. Words, not things, were studied. Women bad no share in education. The manners of even the best educated men were rude and coarse.

From the narrowness and exaggeration, the exclusive and technical character of this education, the awakening spirit of the modern world recoiled. A little experiment made it evident that the Parent could not be trusted to provide suitably for the education of his child. Responsibility for the training of the future citizen was shifted from the Church to the State. And now the principle is widely accepted in Europe and America that it is the daty of the State to provide all the education which is needed by the man and the woman for the ordinary life of a citizen. In this country we go much further, and say that the government shall furnish high schools and universities for the youth who are more favorably situated or are inspired with loftier purposes.

The result is a system of instruction much broader than that of the cloister. The idea of training the individual has become prominent. Child-study has begun, that the teacher may be able to guide the young mind intelligently. Discipline has become mild and love is the motive. Educational opportunities are offered to the child of the cottage as well as the child of the mansion. Girls are taught beside their brothers. Education is even made compulsory, on the ground that this is needful for the welfare of the state. School work is made attractive, interest in study is cultivated.

The curriculum of the school has been broadened and adapted to the life of the present. There has been a revival of classical learning. Greek, which in the Middle Ages was neglected, has been elevated to a prominent place in the course, and Latin which was taught badly and with slight results, has been restored to its proper place as a culture subject. And manners have become more refioed. An interest in the natural world has been aroused, the verdict of the senses has become the test of knowledge; science has taken its place beside the classics as an important branch of education. And life has become practical. The vernacular has been cultivated, and the speech has become more correct. Attention has been devoted to history and travels, to modern languages and the study of human life all about one; and special care has been taken to train the judgment, the purpose being wise and right conduct.

In all secular matters the State has amply proved itself better fitted to control education than the church.

The State needs to have its citizens religiously trained. There can be do doubt that religion furnishes the most powerful incentive to morality. So while individual men do live upright lives without recognizing their responsibility to God, most men will live more moral lives and crime will be less prevalent if ethical principles are reinforced by religious sanctions. The effort to divorce these was made at the French Revolution; and both lost their hold upon the citizens. In the words of Judge Grant, “A rule of conduct stripped of sanctions is not entitled to the name of law.” He adds: “In his farewell to his countrymen, Washington warned them that morality abstracted from sound religious principles ceased to be a prop of the State.”

If we cast a glance over the leading progressive nations of the world, we shall find the attitude of the State toward religious instruction quite varied.

France is Roman Catbolic by an overwhelming majority. It was the last country in which the ecclesiastical schools of the Middle Ages retained control of education, and in these Jesuit schools the evils of the system were exaggerated. There laicization has been closely followed by secularization of schools, and now all religious instruction in state schools is forbidden by law. "In order that opportunity should be given to parents to provide religious instruction for their children,” the law expressly states, “the schools are closed one day each week other than Sunday.” The day thus set apart for religious instruction is Thursday.

In Germany there are two strong churches — the Lutheran, which prevails in the north, and the Roman Catholic, which predominates in the south. Nowhere else in the world is such thoro and systematic religious instruction given. Dr. L. R. Klemm of the United States Bureau of Education records delightfully a visit to a Prussian Normal School near Berlin, at the hour of a model lesson on Bible History. The subject for the day was the story of the visit of the wise men of the East to the infant Savior. Information was given as to the journey and other matters connected with the narrative. The beautiful story was told from beginning to end, and the children's sympathies were enlisted. They shared the curi. osity of the wise men to see the new-born Babe, they admired the gifts they brought, they entered into their feelings of adoration, they became indignant and scornful at the base perfidy of Herod, who, wearing royal robes, lacked the kingly spirit. And by iteration and questioning, the story was impressed upon the little

At the close of the hour a handsome illustration was exhibited and talked over. Then, when the children had withdrawn, the normal students were ques. tioned in regard to the objects of the lesson, the means employed, psychological references, methods, principles of method.

We are told that "The principal function of the German school is officially declared to be the making of God-fearing, patriotic, self-supporting citizens. The Germany would no more think that religion could be omitted from the program of instruction than that mathematics and the languages could be left out.


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