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days, sometimes to aid window and door ventilation on warm days. At all other times they should be heavily curtained so as to present an opaque wall to the eyes of the teacher. Nothing so soon makes a nervous and irritable teacher as facing a strong light thirty hours per week.
The light area at the side of the room should be about one fifth the floor area, depending somewhat upon the amount of sunshine at that particular locality. The windows should begin at from 3 to 4 feet from the floor, and should extend as near as possible to the ceiling. It is the high light that is thrown across the room, and the upper space is too valuable to be wasted in arched or Gothic wiadows. Thus with a 13-foot ceiling, the window may be nine feet in length. Direct sunshine across the children's books and desks should be avoided, but the building cannot have too much of the sun's direct rays out of school hours. All windows should be provided with
translucent double shades, running from about a third the height of the window to the top and to the bottom. Such shades admit the light, but exclude the glare of sunshine. If the windows are exposed to much sunlight, an additional opaque shade should run from the bottom to the top of the window. This drawn up two or three feet, will shut out the lower light from pupils near the window while the high light is thrown through the translucent shade to puplls across the room. In a warm climate a canvas awning on the outside of the window is better than the opaque shade, as this permits the opening of the window for ventilation. If inside blinds or opaque shades only are used for shutting out the glare of sunshine, they shut out the light as well, making the room too dark, and causing eyestrain.
The worst possible lighting for a schoolroom is from all four sides. From three sides is nearly as bad, and cross lighting from two sides is no better. Light in front of the pupils is extremely injurious. Yet in the best constructed schoolrooms of the present day lighted from one side only, desks are arranged in straight rows running from rear to front of the room. the pupils sitting in the rear, near the windows, get light from the front. figures I and II, each pupil gets the light from the left, or left and rear.
This is an unusual arrangement and at first thought might make the room appear disorderly, but why must rows of seats be parallel to the walls ? As to discipline, the teacher gets a better view of the pupils in the rear of the room, as she looks aslant down the rows.
In figure I, the reference table is near the teacher's desk, where she can supervise all reading done there. The small pupils are directly in front, where she can easily give them help during the day. In figure II, the reference table is in the rear of the room, near the larger pupils, who will use it most. The small pupils are at the left of the teacher, near a long stretch of blackboard, where they will be much occupied in drawing and writing, and upon which their study work will be placed. They are near the outside door, where they will pass out for frequent short recesses. Each arrangement has its advantages. Ordinary school desks are used in these two rooms. If new desks have to be purchased, the adjustable seats are recommended. Each desk and its chair being independent of every other, the seat may be adjusted to the occupant and to the best lighting.
The walls of a schoolroom should never be dead white, but of a gray, light green, or blue tint. If the ceiling is pure white, it helps to diffuse evenly over the room the light, particularly that from the upper part of the window, without throwing any strong light into the eyes of those who are studying. The woodwork and furniture should have a dead finish, never a bright varnished surface. Strong light from such reflecting surface may be as bad as that from open windows.
Black boards between windows are useless, as they cannot be seen for the blinding light. Blackboards for small children should begin within two feet of the floor. Stone slate makes the best blackboard, costs in the beginning little more than imitation, is very durable, needs no repair, and should be polished to a uniform smooth surface.
arm weather ventilation is generally sufficient through doors and windows. In a building of several rooms there should be windows above the blackboards, opening into the hall. With the outer windows of the room and the hall doors open, there will be a draught and it will rarely be necessary to open the windows at the rear of the room. In cold weather heating and ventilation should be combined. Open windows admit only cold air, which drops on the heads and chests of those nearest the windows and chills the floor over the entire room. The stove in the room gives too much heat to those nearest it, and too little heat to those at a distance. Warm, fresh air should be supplied and evenly distributed over the entire room. This may be done by a jacketed stove or warm-air furnace.
building of not over three or four rooms a jacketed stove is probably the cheapest method of heating and ventilating. This stove should be placed in the coldest corner of the room and provided with a fresh air duct beneath the floor. For the first floor this fresh air duct may be in the basement. For the second floor it may be between the floor joists. Cross section of fresh air duct should have an
THE HEATING VENTILATION OF A ROOM:area of four square feet. The
By means of a jocherca Sjove. opening of the fresh air duct through the floor should also have an area of four square feet. Across this opening two pieces of studding, 3 x 4 inches, are nailed. Upon these rest the legs of the stove, firmly secured. This raises the stove far enough above the floor to admit the volume of air from below. Around the stove is an iron jacket or cylinder resting on the floor and securely fastened to it. This jacket should be six feet in height, may be shaped to suit the stove, and should be of size sufficient to give free passage between it and the stove to the volume of air from below. If a stove is to be purchased for this purpose, a tall, nearly cylindrical one is best suited, as it presents a larger surface to the upward current of air. There should be a door in the jacket opposite the door in the stove. The door is for making fires, taking
up asbes, sometimes for warming or drying feet. Fresh air is thus admitted, passes upward, between the stove and the jacket, and is dispersed to all parts of the room. The flue should be of large size, nearly 2 x 3 feet inside. An iron smoke pipe passes upward through the center of this. (See figure II.) The smoke and hot air from the inside of the stove heat the iron smoke pipe. This in turn heats the air of the Aue, causing an upward draught which draws the foul air from the room. The foul air register should be near the floor, and about four square feet in area. In very damp climates where iron rusts rapidly, the smoke pipe inside the shaft may be of terra-cotta. The fresh air duct should have a "shut-off,” which is closed at night. When fire is started in the morning the door in the jacket is left open. The air of the room is thus drawn into the jacket and warmed. At the opening of school the door is closed and the "shut-off” is opened.
Fresh air from outside is then warmed and supplied to the room.
One central flue may serve for several rooms. A "stack heater” may be placed in the base of the flue. A fire in this heater warms the air in the shaft and produces a strong draught which will draw the soul air from the rooms.
A building may be heated by a warm air furnace in the basement. A large volume of warm air should be admitted by a register two feet square
above the blackboard. The air, after dispersing over the room, is removed by a foul air duct near the floor. Such foul air ducts must lead to a ventilating shaft which is heated to produce a draught. Air goes only where it is forced. So called “ventilators ” placed in cold walls serve only to disfigure the walls. Hot water or steam