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pointment by the County Superintendent. Trustees do not hold over until their successors are elected, or appointed, and qualified. APPOINTMENTS OF MEMBERS OF THE COUNTY BOARD OF

EDUCATION. Subdivision 3 of sec. 1768 of the Political Code stipulates that the County Board of Supervisors at the last regular meeting preceding the first day of July in every year shall appoint two members of the County Board of Education to hold office for a period of two years. If the Supervisors fail to make such appointments at the time required, it is made the duty of the County Superintendent of Schools to make such appointments. And in my opinion such appointments made by the County Superintendent of Schools on account of failure or neglect of the Supervisors would be valid for two years. APPLICATIONS FOR LIFE AND EDUCATIONAL DIPLOMAS

While applicants for life and educational diplomas are required to conform to the statutory provisions and to the rules and regulations adopted by the State Board of Education, yet every application is technically supposed to be considered upon its own merits.

The first provision for the establishment of high school proper or the issuance of high school certificates was passed by the Legislature in 1891. This law provided for the granting of high school certificates in lieu of grammar school course certificates. In pursuance of the authority granted it by the provisions of section 1521 of the Political Code, the State Board of Education adopted a rule that life and educational diplomas of the high school grade would be granted only to the holders of county or city high school certificates who have had successful experience of eight or twentyfour months, respectively, for educational and life diplomas, in teaching in the California State University, a state normal school, or a high school established under the laws of this state. It is, therefore, clear that experience in teaching in a grammar school course school cannot be considered by the State Board as experience in high school for the purpose o fgranting an educational or a life diploma of the high school grade.

THOMAS J. KIRK, Superintendent of Public Instruction.

The State Board of Education met in the office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, State Capitol, Sacramento June 9, 1900, at 9 o'clock A. M., with following named members present: Edward T. Pierce, Samuel T. Black, C. C. Van Liew, Frederic L. Burk, Thomas J. Kirk, James McNaughton.

After the reading of the minutes, the Board proceeded to investigate the charge of unprofessional conduct preferred by I. C. Adams of Fallbrook, Cal., against Miss Ella E. Ale, a teacher of that place. The charge and various affidavits bearing on the case (as well as the answer of Miss Ale) were read, and the case was argued by W. J. Mossholder of San Diego, attorney for coinplainant and Harr Wagner of San Francisco, who appeared as attorney for Miss Ale. The argument being concluded, the following resolution was introduced and unaminously passed:

WHEREAS, The evidence submitted in the matter of Ella E. Ale, charged with unprofessional conduct, does not produce in the minds of this Board the complete conviction that Miss Ale is consciously convinced that the credentials upon which her original certificate in this state was granted were not sufficient to entitle her to a certificate, nor has it been shown that any competent body or authority has ever declared that her certificate was illegal; therefore, be it

Resolved, That the charges are hereby dismissed.
The Board then took recess.

On reconvening at 1:39 o'clock P. M., the Board upamimously passed the following resolution:

Resolved, That in the judgment of this Board, the grammar grade certificate of Miss Ella E. Ale, dated at San Diego, Cal., January 2, 1895, and upon which the said Ella E. Ale received a life diploma from the State Board of Education, bearing date January 11, 1898, was erroneously issued, and therefore the life diploma issued in pursuance thereof by this Board was likewise erroneously granted.

On motion of Mr. Burk, Messrs. Burk and Kirk were appointed a committee to define and report upon what shall constitute unprofessional conduct.

The Committee on Accrediting Colleges was requested to define the extent and scope of accrediting, questions having arisen as to the status of graduates from accredited institutions who received their diplomas before the institutions were accredited.

Ou the request of the faculties of Columbia and Clark universities, said institutions were placed on the accredited list.

Various life and educational diplomas and normal and university documents were granted as shown by the list printed elsewhere in these columns.

The following named persons, having surrendered their life diplomas granted prior to June 2, 1893, were granted in lieu thereof life diplomas of the new issue:Davies, Fannie Faulkner, Richard D.

Hodgkinson, Kate Alvena E. Decato was granted a duplicate normal document, it appearing that the original, granted Sept. 10, 1898, had been destroyed.

On motion, the recommendatory list of library books previously adopted by the Board was abolished. The Board then adjourned at 3:15 o'clock P. M.

DIPLOMAS AND DOCUMENTS GRANTED. The following named persons, being favorably reported by the Committee on Credentia's for diplomas, and having complied with the law, were granted diplomas or documents as given:

LIFE DIPLOMAS OF THE HIGH SCHOOL GRADE. Burk, Frederic Lister Hughes, James

Ray, Samuel Scott Foshay, James A

Johnson. Letitia Eleanor Snow, Dr.MaryL.H.Arnold Hafford, F.S. Loree, Warren

Webb, Louis K

LIFE DIPLONAS OF THE GRAMMAR GRADE. Ammons. Visa

Hutchison, Louisa W. Preble, Mrs. Fannie C. Anderson, Helen O. Jones, Ida M.

Reyno ds. Mrs. Blanche T. Baker, Mary M. Kedon, Mrs. A. E.

Roberts, Emeline L. Baumann, Mrs. M. A. Larkey, Geo. E.

Robinson, Margaret A. Beaty, Rose Eleanor Ledford, Mrs. Carrie Roden, Lilian Beckwith, Caroline Lee, Robert A.

Rogers, Merle J. Benson, Saidee

Leszynsky, Josephine Sampson, May H. Bernstein, Margaret E. Livingston, Nanno

Saunders, Frances Rhodes Cameron, Clara E. Long, Margaret

Sheets, Kate Canfield, Mrs. Berde S. Manning, Lura

Skinner, Jennie
Cave, Elmer Lafayette Morell, Mary B.

Shafer, Esther
Connor, Joseph D.
Morris, Frances

Smith, Agnes M.
Cook, Leroy D.
Morse, Nellie A.

Stearns, Alberta E.
Cox, Millie M.
Morrow, Mattie

Stenger, Iva J.
Crew, Maude E.
Mosher, Libbie

Sullivan, Mary G.
Croughwell, Anna T. Myers, Julia May

Taylor, Mildred S.
Dater, Alice E.

McCracken. Emma I. Tebbe, W. E.
Durfee, Louis A.
McDaniel, Bertha

Tracy, Mary F.
Dewing, Sarah J.

McFarland, Mrs. Slater Vivian, Clara Edwards, Frances M. McGivern, Katherine A. Ward, Julia V. FitzGerald, Mary Frances McKellar, M. Josie Watson, Martha A. Gabler, Mary Adillia Newton, Esther M.

Wayne, Geraldine Mitchell Gleason, E. Minerva Nish, Fred W.

Westerman, Ellen D.
Haas, Clara J.

O'Brien, Mrs. Nellie E. Wenck, Minnie
Hamaker, Mary E.
Pease, Florence M.

Wigton, Marie T.
Hobart, Pearl
Perrin, H. E.

Wood, Charlotte Elmire Hodge, Emma

Pettigrew, Mrs. Mabel D. Wurst, Sophia R.
Hood, Caroline G.
Pettijohn, Ada R.

Young, Clara
Hopkins, May E.

Pool, Chas. A.
EDUCATIONAL DIPLOMAS OF THE HIGH SCHOOL GRADE.
Allison, B. F.
Briggs, S. D.

Dole, Mary M.
EDUCATIONAL DIPLOMAS OF THE GRAMMAR GRADE.
Atkins, Mrs. Lula
Fish, Delia Doretta

Parlin, Mrs. Anna E.
Babbit, Adelaide
Freese, Elizabeth

Pease, Fannie M.
Bacon, Emma T.
Gilbreath, Kate C.

Peirson, Edith M.
Barnes, Serepta A.
Glasscock, Lela

Perry, Irvin D.
Bayles, Blanche
Grenfell, Bessie L.

Potter, Mrs Nellie I.
Bishop, Anita M.

Hawkins, Emma Frances Prentiss, Luella R. Brearty, Mary F.

Hickerson, Ruby May Polhemus, Sempronia E. Brigham, Bertha A.. Horine, Mrs. Ella W. Raker, Caroline E. Brown, Marguerite Hunt, Isabel L.

Shaw, Mary Edith
Bumbaugh, Alice C. Klockenbaum, Ida

Stedman, Lulu M.
Cantrell, Jeannette
Langley, M. Alice

Stewart, Mary A.
Case, Edith L.

Lingscheid, Hattie E. Tolley, Florence
Chaney, Samuel Marshal McMahon, J. Morgan Ward, Jessie Pearne
Crandall, Rose
Niles, Mattie

Warmoth, Isabel
Davies, Mabel
Nolan, Walter C.

Witthouse, C. Pauline
Dennis, R. Eva
O'Leary, James H.

Young, George A.
Duren, Cornelia

Palmer, Cora E.
DOCUMENTS TO ACCOMPANY NORMAL SCHOOL DIPLOMAS.
Abbott, Mary V.

Ferguson, M. Edyth Scollard, Dora E.
Anderson, Grace
Gilbert, Laura S.

Sproul, Frank P
Barnes, Lela
Hicks, Clara A.

Sturtevant,

Nellie M.
Bateman, Victoria

Kelly, Maude Lorena Tritt, W. W.
Brown, Aline
King, Emma May

Venning, Gertrude F.
Cardoza, Ella I.
Lobenstein, Emma

Whittington, Ida E.
Carrick, Ida Eleanor Meader, Margaret

Willis, É berta M. Collins, Bessie Griffin Mosher, J. W.

Willson, Clara E. Crowell, Alice G

McGuire, Nancy Blair Wittich, Mary K. Dockery, Mrs. Nellie G. Porter, Burney

Worth, Mrs. W. L. DOCUMENTS TO ACCOMPANY UNIVERSITY DIPLOMAS. Ackerman, Grace W. Bruere, Corrie

Mohr, Paul J. Belfrage. William F. Dinwiddie, J. L.

Murdock, Glenn E. Brier, Martha Annette Grave, Walter Huddleston Oliver, Bertha

Accredited Universities.

The following named universities and colleges have been recognized by the State Board of Education, under the provisions of section 1775 of the Political Code, as being of equal rank with the State University of California:

1. Leland Stanford Junior University, California, June 2, 1893.
2. University of Michigan, Michigan, September 1, 1893.
3. Cornell University, New York, December 28, 1893.
4. Brown University, Rhode Island, April 11, 1894.
5. State University of Iowa, Iowa, April 11, 1894.
6. Yale University, Connecticut, August 3, 1894.
7. Johns Hopkins University, Maryland, June 10, 1895.
8. University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, August 16, 1895.
9. Harvard University, Massachusetts, January 7, 1896.
10. University of Minnesota, Minnesota, May 24, 1897.
II. University of Indiana, Indiana, January 3, 1898.
12. University of Nebraska, June 13, 1896.
13. University of Chicago, October 21, 1899.
14. University of Illinois, March 17, 1900.
15. Columbia University, June 9, 1900.
16. Clark University, June 9, 1900.

Graduates of the pedagogical department of the universities above named may be granted high school certificates by County Boards of Education on presenting the diploma and recommendation of the faculty as required by section 1775 of the Political Code.

Reviews. THE TRUE CITIZEN: How to BECOME ONE, by W. F. Warwick, D.D., and W. A. Smith, A. B has been prepared for use as a supplementary reader for pupils in the higher grammar grades, and calls attention to the close and real relation between the best citizenship and a noble personal character. The book is in four general divisions, treating respectively of The Child, The Youth, The Man, and The Citizen. It consists of thirty-nine chapters-one for each week of the school year-to each of which have been prefixed five memory gems; one for each school day. The use of anecdote and incident quickens the interest and holds the attention to the end. Cloth, 12mo, 259 pages; price sixty cents. American Book Co., New York, Cincinnati, and Chicago.

DER MEISTER VON PALMYRA, introduction and notes by. Theodore Henckels Norton, professor of modern languages in Middelbury College, is undoubtedly one of the few real masterpieces of modern German literature. Teachers will find it a most welcome addition to the texts now read in schools and colleges. Cloth, izmo, 212 pages; price eighty cents. American Book Co., New York, Cincinnati, and Chicago.

POPULAR ASTRONOMY, by Joel Norman Steele, Ph.D., revised and brought down to date by Mabel Loomis Podd, is excellently adapted for schools which do not require a very technical knowledge of the subject. Cloth, 12mo, 349 pages, illustrated; price one dollar. American Book Co., New York, Cincinnati, and Chicago.

A little girl not long out of the kindergarten dropped her books and bundles on the pavement and was heard to mutter :

“Deviled ham, deviled ham. If I knew anything worse to say, I'd say it.”

THE WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION Succeeds to the subscription lists, advertising patronage, and good will of the Golden Era, established in San Francisco in 1852.

Subscription, $1.50 a year. Single copies, 15 cents.

Remit by check, postoffice order, Wells, Fargo & Co., or by stamps.

ADVERTISEMENTS-Advertisements of an unobjectionable nature will be inserted at the rate of $3.00 a month per inch.

MSS.-Articles on methods, trials of new theories, actual experiences, and school news, reports of teachers' meetings, etc., urgently solicited.

Address all communications to THE WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, 723 Market Street, San Francisco.

HARR WAGNER, Editor. TAE WHITAKER & RAY COMPANY, PUBLISHERS.

Entered at the San Francisco Post-office as second-class matter. The Official Organ of the Department of Public Instruction of the State of California.

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TR 1 ST SR EF EMPIRE TAKES ITS WAY

The knowledge most worth that our common schools can give the pupils is based on the implantation of high aspirations.

*

* The value of modern university training is found largely in the attitude that graduate students take in reference to life being a continuous growth. There is respect for knowledge that comes from the experience of the past, but the attitude of continuous research bringing about continuous changes is delightful, wholesome, and progressive. Forty years ago the student world would have been shocked if a college president changed his views on certain questions. To-day the student world would be shocked if the college president does not change his views to meet and welcome some new discovery of truth.

* * * In colleges and universities the appointment of teachers for the ensuing school year is usually made in April or May. In the large cities an informal election is made before the close of the school year. In school districts the custom has been to notify the teachers a short time before the school opened. A healthy change has taken place during the past few years, and at the present time over seventy five per cent of the teachers have been elected in the district schools. The law does not permit a board of school trustees to make contracts for the ensuing year before July 1st, but there is no illegality in an informal election. It is hoped, however, that the law will be changed so that teachers may be formally elected before their vacation occurs.

* * * The selection of Principal Atkinson of the Springfield, Mass., High School as Superintendent of Public Instruction for the Philippine schools illustrates the tendency in this country to lift the selection of educational positions out of, and perhaps above, the range of politics. He did not apply for the place. He refused a three years' contract, on the basis that he wanted to be free to resign whenever the conditions proved unsatisfactory to him. He also refused to outline a policy or make any promises. The commission became exceedingly anxious to secure so coy a man, as they were overwhelmed wi: h applications from men who presented their claims in many different ways. We once called this attitude a big game of bluff but it really is a confid ce born of fitness, adaptability and experience.

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