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reading, writing, science work, school management, equipment and building of school houses, the selection of supplementary readers, teachers' desks, books, etc., are all excellent.

One of the most interesting documents that have come to this office is the report of the Minister of Public Instruction of Hawaii, sent by the Inspector-General, Henry S. Townsend. Mr. Townsend will be remembered as one of the most prominent guests of the N. E. A. at Los Angeles, Cal. The report contains much valuable information about the schools of Hawaii. It also contains this tribute to Dr. Brown of the University of California, who assisted them in forming a course of study: “ Dr. E. E. Brown rendered the cause of education in Hawaii a service at this time, especially by fostering local leadership in educational thought and work. The following September this course of study went into the schools. Although progress along this line has been steady, and, perhaps considering all the circumstances, satisfactory, it has not been notably rapid.”

The most artistic and best arranged course of study that we have yet seen has been issued by Superintendent Hughes of the Alameda city schools. With its overlapped edges, its unpunctuated title page, its art effect on every page, it might be mistaken for a special sample of the Arts and Crafts of Boston. It certainly shows great care and application on the part of Superintendent Hughes. The contents are just as worthy of praise. Here is the keynote: “The course of study which follows is merely suggestive. It is necessary to outline the grade work in order that the pupils of all schools may advance uniformly. An effort has been made to avoid crowding and hampering the teacher with details. The minimum amount of material is given, thus leaving the teacher free to do strong, original work.”

“Courses of Study for the Public Schools of the City of San Francisco." Here it is : 312 pages, not including a dark slate, wove antique cover. was a wise forethought to use the plural of “course” in the title. Courses of study is more suggestive of size than course of study. There was once upon a time when children in school had to toe the mark; the time is that the teachers of the San Francisco school department must teach according to the courses of study, in detail. It is right. The Courses of Study is the result of Superintendent Webster, L. A. Jordan, and a large number of efficient teachers in the department, of President Mark and other members of the Board of Education, and finally, of Prof. Ellwood P. Cubberley of Stanford University. It was Professor Cubberley's most arduous task to affiliate the ideas of all parties and then add a substantial and healthy dose of modern pedagogy. The result is before us. The special features that commend the work may be summed up as follows: (1) The arrargement of the courses by subjects, not by grades; (2) The correlation of subjects in a practical manner ; (3) The work is planned with a view or working from the general to the intensive; (4) Recitations to be arranged with a definite object, both to pupils and teacher; (5) The arrangement of time so that there is opportunity given the teacher to instruct pupils in how to study; (6) Each subject has been outlined in detail. It is to be regretted that there is not space to give a subject as illustrative of the work, because each subject shows such careful analysis, such live suggestions, such broadness of treatment, such definiteness of detail, that each teacher in each grade and in each subject cannot have any excuse for failure in the interpretation.

The course of study should be followed, because it is a composite of the modern theories of teaching, and the application of the pedagogical ideals of the present to the text of a classroom teacher. The weakness of the Courses of Study may be summed up as follows:

First — The ideas should be placed before the teachers in a more condensed form. The English used is too diffusive. The fifth sentence on page 16 contains seven lines. The same idea could be expressed by using half that number.

Second - There is too much time and space devoted to the study o geography.

Third - The course in reading and literature is confined sively to imaginative literature. There is an absence of information books. There is also the absence of strong, vigorous, virile literature. There is a surplus of unreal stories. In the attempt to avoid the literature of scraps, there is a gorging of wonder books, Indian tales, and semi-imaginary stories of American heroes.

Fourth There should be greater insistence for definite work. The plan of the course of study is to develop power. It is right. The child must, however, be prepared to use the power. The child must have the ability to mobilize its educational forces, or it will not stand the test that citizenship requires.

The Sonoma County course of study, adopted in June, 1900, has many excellent and suggestive features. It is the first course of study to present the study of fiction in a formal manner in grades that we have seen. The nature study is practical and suggestive. The language work is correlated in a most excellent manner with other subjects. Miss Minnie Coulter, secretary; E. M. Cox, president; F. A. Cromwell, C. A. Pool, and Ben Weed compose the Board of Education.

The National Educational Association. The meeting at Charleston this year had a number of attractive features. The social entertainments provided by the citizens have seldom been excelled. The program was excellent. There were several notable speeches. The address of Booker T. Washington, the orator and educator of the colored man, was very effective. The program thruout was interesting and instructive. The total enrollment was not over 3,000. The attendance, however, reached as high as 10,000. The citizens of Charleston were much interested. The president-elect is J. M. Green, president of the New Jersey State Normal School; the second vice-president, Jas. A. Foshay; secretary, Irwin Shepard. The next place of meeting will be either Cincinnati or Detroit. The resolutions asked that the United States Commissioner of Education be given larger powers and endorsed the administration's educational policy for Cuba and the Philippines.

Official.

STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. H. T. GAGE, President of the Board ..

.... Governor, Sacramento. THOMAS J. KIRK, Secretary of the Board. ..Superintendent Public Instruction, Sacramento. BENJAMIN IDE WHEELER..

... President University of California, Berkeley. ELMER E. BROWN, Prof. of the Theory ang Prac. of Education, Universitv of California, Berkeley. JAMES MACNAUGHTON..

President State Normal School, San Jose. E T. PIERCE...

President State Normal School, Los Angeles. C. C. VAN LIEW

... President State Normal School, Chico. SAMUEL T. BLACK

President State Normal School, San Diego. FREDERIC BURK...

President State Normal Scbool, San Francisco.

The biennial convention of the City and County Superintendents will be he'd at San Jose, August 28th, at 10:30 a. m.

OFFICE OF SUPERINTENDENT OF PUPLIC INSTRUCTION,

}

SACRAMENTO, July 3, 1900.

I have this day apportioned the state school moneys to the several counties, as follows: Total number of census children between five and seventeen years of age as re

ported by the county superintendents June, 1899, entitled to receive school money, 350, 124; amount apportioned, $1,102,890.60; rate per child, $3.15; amount

unapportioned, $1,311.64. Alameda, $96, 160 05; Alpine, $292.95; Amador, $8,848.35; Butte, $13,519.80; Calaveras, $9,172 80; Colusa, $6,211.80; Contra Costa, $12,855, 15; Del Norte, $1,959.30; El Dorado, $6,933. 15; Fresno, $25, 121.25; Glenn, $1,224.15; Humboldt, $21,161.70; Inyo, $3,335.83; Kern, $10 558 80; Kings, $7,711.20; Lake, $5,080.95; Lassen, *3,713 85; Los Angeles $139.277.25; Madera, $4.287.15; Marin, $9,642 15; Mariposa, $3,754.80; Mendocino, $16 077.60; Merced, $6,734.70; Modoc, $5,058.90; Mono, $1,203 30; Monteray, $16.811.15; Napa, $10.839.15; Nevada, $13,031.55; Orange, $17.851.05; Placer, $10 687 95; Plumas. $3.099.60: Riverside, $15, 116.85; Sacramento, $27, 742.05; San Benito, $5,751.90; San Bernardino, $20.840 40; San Diego, $26,236.35; San Francisco, $237,169 80; San Joaquin, $23.114.70; San Luis Obispo, $15, 211.40; San Mateo. $10073 70; Santa Barbara, $15,715,35; Santa Clara, $45, 171.00; Santa Cruz, $17,712.45; Shasta, $13, 138.63; Sierra $2.567. 25; Siskiyou, $11, 157 30; So'ano, $15,532 65; Sonoma, $29.395.80; Stanislaus, $7,188 30; Sutter, $3 975.30; Tehama, $8,212.05; Trinity, $2,397.15; re, $17.299.80; Tuolumne, $7.490.70; Ventura, $11,947.95; Yolo, $10,076.85; Yuba, 6,407.10. Totals, $1,102,890.60.

THOMAS J, KIRK, Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Superintendent of Public Instruction Thos. J. Kirk has been absent in the East during the past six weeks visiting the N. E. A. at Charleston and a number of educational institutions. The September issue will contain an account of his trip, and a full official department.

Comparison of the School Census of 1900 with That of 1899, and an Estimate of the

Population of the Counties of the State Based on the Ratio of the Population of 1890 to the School Census Children.

[blocks in formation]

195

217

Alameda.
30,527 31,940 1,413

4.2

134,148 Alpine

93
96
3

7.5

720 Amador

2,809
2,743

66
3.6

9,875 Butte .............

4,292 4,348

56

42

18.262 Calaveras .......

2,912 2,986

74

3.7

11,038 Colusa

1.972 2,015

43

4.3

18,230 Contra Costa 4,081 4,254 173

2.9

16,590 Del Norte

622
635
13

5.1

3,238 El Dorado 2.201 2,134

4.3

9.176 Fresno.

7.975 8,649
674

3.4

29 406 Glenn

1.341 1,280

61
4.3

5.504 Kumboldt 6,718 6,913

3.8

26,269 Inyo

1,059
1.035

24
5.3

5,485 Kern

3,352 3,388

36

4.9

16,601 Kings

2,448 2,453

5

3.9

9,567 Lake

1,613 1,590

23
3.8

6,042 Lassen

1,179
1,135

44
4.2

4,767 Los Angeles 44.215 47,527 3,312

4.3

204,366 Madera

1.361
1,417
56

34

4,818 Marin....

3,061 3,236
175

49

15.856 Mariposa........

1.192 1,132

60
3.8

4,301 Mendocino.........................

5,104 4,990

114
3.9

19,461 Merced.. 2,138 2,355

5.3

12,482 Modoc

1,606 1,540

66
33

5.082 Mono.

382
379

3
6.7

2.540 Monterey

5,337
5,335

2
3.9

20 806 Napa.....

3,441 3,467

26

45

15,601 Nevada..

4,137 4,092

45
3,9

15,958 Orange. 5,667 5.888 221

3.4

20.020 Placer

3,393 3,394

1

5.0

16 970 Plumas..

984
951

33
4.9

46,060 Riverside

4 799
4.819
20

3.9

18.794 Sacramento.

8,807 8,816

9

5.1

44.962 San Benito..

1,826 1,770

56
33

5,841 San Bernardino.

6,616 6,815
199

3.9

26.578 San Diego...

8,329 7,851

478
4.1

82.189 San Francisco.. 75,292 78,554 3,262

4.9

384.415 San Joaquin

7,338 7,738
400

4.5

34.821 San Luis Obispo.

5,156 5,400
244

3.4

18 360 San Mateo

3,198 3,152

46
3.7

11,662 Santa Barbara..

4,989 4,968

21
3.5

17.388 Santa Clara ........

14,340 14,518

178

3,9

56,620 Santa Cruz...........

5,623 5.533

90
3.9

21,578 Shasta

4,171 4,287
116

3.5

15,004 Sierra

815
786

29
5.0

3.930 Siskiyou

3,543 3,716
174

4.5

16 272 Solano

4,931 4,959
28

22 315 Sonoma 9,832 9,726 394

3.9

37.931 Stanislaus

2,282 2,860

78

4.2

9.912 Sutter

1.262
1.296
31

4.1

5.313 Tehama

2,607 2,821
214

3.8

10 720 Trinity.

761
756

5
4.6

3,477 Tulare

5,492
5 398

94
3.9

21 052 Tuolumne

2,378
2 454
76

38

9,335 Ventura

3.793
4.071
278

3.7

15 (62 Yolo

3.199
3 202
3

3.7

11 847 Yuba

2.034 2,192

58

4.4

9 205 Total

3 0,124
361,155 12,458 1,427

1,583,322 Increase ....

11,031 * Counties created since 1890 are given the ratio of population to school census of the counties from which they were taken.

THE WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION succeeds to the subscription lists, advertising partonage, and good will of the Golden Era, established in San Francisco in 1852.

Subscription, $1.50 a year. Single copies, 15 cents.

Remit by check, Postoffice order, Wells, Fargo & Co., or by stamps.

ADVERTISEMENTS-Advertisements of an unobjectiona. ble nature will be inserted at the rate of $3.00 a month per inch.

MSS.- Articles on methods, trials of new i heories, actual experiences, and school news, reports of teachers' meetings, etc., urgently solici ed.

Address all communications to THE WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, 723 Market Street, San Francisco.

HARR WAGNER, Editor. WERTVARU THE STAR OF EMPIRE TAKES ITS WAY"

THE WHITAKER & RAY COMPANY, PUBLISHERS. Entered at the San Francisco Post-office as second-class

matter. The Official Organ of the Department of Public Instruction of the State of California.

[graphic]

Deputy Superintendent of Public Instruction Job. Wood Jr. has made a most interesting summary of the school census of California for this issue of the JOURNAL

* * Professor Moses, Superintendent Atkinson, and Assistant David Barrows are just the men to inaugurate a broad and liberal educational policy in the Philippine Islands.

* * Hon. John Swett, in a recent interview, said: “I have always been proud of the fact that I followed the spirit of the law, not the letter. purposely injured any one by insisting on a technicality.”

* * * The election of Superintendent James A. Foshay of Los Angeles as second vice-president of the N. E. A. is a well deserved honor. He was also elected a member of the educational council for a term of six years.

* * The crowding of fifty-five pupils in a class may be economy. It is not good education. Superintendent R. H. Webster has shown excellent judgment in the attitude he has taken in the matter of the classification of the schools of the San Francisco department.

* * "A Teacher by the Grace of God," is the title of a recent article in the “Pedagogical Seminary.” The way some county boards insist on the technical value of diplomas and examinations, and refuse to consider the matter of success, natural ability, etc., would lead one to believe that the grace of a county board is of more importance than the grace of God.

The schoolhouse must follow the flag, is a trite saying these days. The N. E. A. passed virile resolutions upholding the administration's educational policy in Cuba, and insisting that the same broad policy be extended to the Philippines. Superintendent Frye took one thousand Cuban teachers to Harvard for the summer school, and then escorted them to notable places like the City of Washington. It was a great lesson. The personal contact of the teachers with American institutions will mean much for the youths of Cuba.

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