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is extra-hazardous and is fast being superseded by the artificial means of wall and glass.

The gentlemen who were here yesterday explained that the most profitable cultivation was that wherein all the factors of success were in the hands of the cultivator. I have used this argument many times for the promotion of the policy of irrigation. I have said that when the moisture can be controlled, both with reference to moisture and drainage, civilized culture will have been achieved ; that at that point only it becomes an art ; but where natural conditions are depended upon and are not under the control of man, the cultivation has not risen to the dignity of an art. Its main factors are at the hazard of chance.

When I explained, however, the conditions under which fruit was grown in California, it became apparent both to myself and my auditors, that the natural conditions in California are as nearly perfect for the production of fruit as it is possible to be, and that at all events there are economies with us which will give us the fruit markets of the world. You may accept this conclusion as demonstrated by our exhibit and observation here. California is hereafter to be the orchard of the world, for reasons which will be more easily made apparent in a personal interview.

The reason for the foregoing narration I will now present: We had exhausted the interest of the exhibit in showing the fruits, the pineapples, the dates, the prunes, the peaches, the pears, the apples, the vegetables in all their varieties, etc.

The day was extremely hot and the interview had become monotonous. I called the company into an attitude in which they could get a good view of the panorama of the great tree grove. I have never heard more genuine expressions of surprise and admiration. The president of the association, a man of fine mentality and dignity of character, said, thru the interpreter to me, that the picture was the most beautiful presentation of a forest he had ever seen and the forest was the most beautiful of any ever shown abroad. The forest as expressed in that picture is infinitely superior to any forestry expression possible here. The largest pine tree I saw in Germany was less than twenty-four inches in diameter, and not to exceed seventy-five or eighty feet high. After what we had told them of the favoring conditions of climate and soil, we introduced them into the heart of one of our greatest forests by the best representation which can be placed upon paper. You can have no adequate conception of how it broadened and dignified and ennobled our state. We had shown them panorama pictures, pictures of prune orchards in bloom, pictures of orchards, one of which is a most marvelous presentation, the panorama itself being six feet by fourteen inches high, and representing five hundred acres of prune orchard. We had shown them twenty-one square miles in one panorama of a fruit orchard in Vaca Valley. We had shown them large fruits and large vegetables, and all these things had appealed to them as exceptional. The panorama of the great forests of California, including the greatest trees that grow in the state, conferred upon the entire exhibit probability and confirmation.

Editorial Comment on the Charleston Meeting.

BY NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER.

(In the Educational Review.) The thirty-ninth annual meeting of the National Educational Association, held at Charleston, S. C., July 7–13, was the smallest in many years. The registered attendance will probably be found not to exceed 2900. [The actual number is 2815 ] The reasons for this are primarily the lack of interest among the rank and file of the teachers of the Southern States and the unwillingness of those in the North and West to expose themselves to the anticipated summer heat of that latitude. As a matter of fact the heat was not so oppressive as at Chicago in 1887 or at Milwaukee in 1897, and those who were so fortunate as to be lodged in private houses were at no time uncomfortable. The Charleston Hotel, however, was anything but satisfactory, and those who had taken rooms there in order to be near head. quarters were to be pitied. Educationally and socially, however, the Charleston meeting was eminently successful. The program contained many features far above the average, and there was general agreement that the response by Dr. Lyte to the address of welcome, the address on "The Small College" by President Harper, that by Booker T. Washington, the papers by Miss Edmund, Miss Buchanan, and Mrs. Cooley, and the paper by President Beardshear fully sustained the best traditions of the Association. The council carried on two interes:ing discussions, one on Superintendent Gove's paper on Education in Our New Possessions,” and one on the personal report submitted by President Harper of the committee on the national university project. Professor Hinsdale's summary of the educational progress of the year was scholarly and illuminating. More than one old member of the Association spoke with enthusiasm of President Thwing's capital paper, overflowing with healthy optimism and good-will, presented before the Department of Higher Education.

Socially th: gathering was one of great charm. The citizens of Charleston extended a hospitality as generous and as gracious as it was unusual. The local press were sympathetic and the treatment of the convention by the News and Courier so complete and so well-balanced that it was continually referred to with hearty praise.

The business of the Association was transacted speedily and harmoniously. The trustees reported that the permanent fund had reached $88,000, $14,000 having been added to it during the year. Treasurer Pearse, whose administration of his office was praised formerly and informally many times, showed receipts for the year of $38,746.63, and expenditures of $20,949.96, an excess of receipts of $17,796 67. Of this amount $14,000 was transferred to the trustees for investment, as indicated above.

The newly chosen president, Principal James M. Green of New Jersey, was elected by acclamation. His long connection with the Association and his distinguished services to education in his own state, made his choice a peculiarly fitting one. The new treasurer, Superintendent L C. Creenlee of Denver (W. S.), Colo , is one of the best known and most popular members of his profession. Superintendent Dougherty of Peoria was elected a trustee for the four-year term.

In order to have some effective means of considering and reporting upon plans for carrying on investigations involving an appropriation of the Association's funds, the council constituted the following standing committee of seven to deal with such matters: Messrs. Hinsdale of Michigan (chairman), Alderman of Louisiana, Builer of New York, Dougherty of Illinois, Downing of New York, Fitzpatrick of Massachusetts, and Harvey of Wisconsin. Among the newly elected members of the council are Messrs Thwing of Ohio, Ramsey of Virginia, Melver of North Carolina, and Pearse of Nebraska

The Poor Man's Chance. A Selection to be Read to Grammar Grade and High School Pupils.

JOHN J. INGALLS.

One summer evening in pensive thought I wandered, fifty odd years ago, with a schoolmate under the “buttonwoods,” in Haverhill, on the shore of the moonlit Merrimac.

We talked long, as thoughtful schoolboys will, of the mysteries of the universe and the enigmas of destiny. To our defective forecast the future appeared dark, troubled and uncertain. Time's golden age was behind. The battle for fame and fortune was more desperate.

We did not know, we could not know, no one knew, that we were standing at the portal or the threshold of the most marvelous age of the world's history; an age of such incredible achievements in science, war, wealth, luxury, and national power, growth and glory that by comparison the most exaggerated fables of fiction, the lamp of Aladdin, the purse of Fortunatus, the philosopher's stone, seem like the trivial commonplaces of the nursery, and the wildest hyperbole becomes tame and prosaic.

Looking backward across the years since that moonlight stroll on the banks of the enchanted river, I do not see that I have been denied any right, privilege or opportunity enjoyed by those who have drawn the great prizes in the lottery of life we all had the same chance. If laws were unjust, all alike were their victims. If statutes were beneficent, none were debarred their advantage. Those who climbed the highest began lowest. None were favored by legislation or influence.

Lincoln and Grant, neither suspected of greatness, were waiting in homely indigence the summons that ten years later, was to call them to immortal fame. Edison, the mightiest magician of the forces of nature, was a tramping telegrapher. Carnegie was a messenger boy in Pittsburg Huitington was selling picks, nails and horseshoes in Sacramento. Jay Gould was a book agent in Delaware County, The Rockfellers and the mob of plutocrats that excite the envy and arouse the indignation of those who have failed, all began in the lowest and humblest ways of life

I had the same chance, and every boy of that time had the same chance. The world was all before me where to choose, and Providence my guide. I had the right to build railroads or to go into Wall Street and wreck them; to invent the telephone ; to write Uncle Tom's Cabin ; to mine for gold and silver; to concoct patent medicines; to corner petroleum ; to bull pork and wheat, like my contemporaries. The only thing I lacked was brains. I didn't know how ; so I went West and helped lay the foundations and build the superstructure of the great empire of the Northwest, and thus missed the whole show.

And then, too luck has much to do with success in life. He who leaves out the element of luck omits one of the most importan: factors in the game. The dish of some is always bottom up when it rains.

The luckiest man of this generation is Admiral Dewey. He threw double sixes twice in succession at Manila.

What chauce has the poor man in 1900 ? About the same, I should say, he had fifty years ago.

In some ways rather better if he can adapt himself to the changed conditions of society. Many avenues open then are now shut. Many opportunities once free, no longer exist. Competition is more selfish and strenuous, but the world was never so ready as now to pay for what it wants. There has been no time when the man or woman who can do anything better than anybody else was so sure of instant recognition and remuneration.

Paderewski and Irving have just sailed away with fortunes earned by a few months of professional exhibition. Mme. Nordica received a thousand dollars for singing two songs that occupied ten minutes, while an equally meritorious seamstress earns twenty-five cents for ten hours' repulsive toil in a sweatshop. Kipling gets more for a stanza than Milton for the copyright of “Paradise Lost.” Millet and Meissonier derived from the brush and the paleite the revenues of the treasuries of kingdoms.

The poor man's chance, then, depends very much on what the poor man has to sell. If his stock in trade consists of untrained muscle, a duil brain, and sullen discontent, he will work for wages, dine from a tin bucket when the noon whistle blows and die dependent or a mendicant. If he have courage, industry, enterprise, fosesight, luck and the willing mind he will gain competence or fortune. He will establish his family in comfort, educate his children and accustom them to the environment of refined habits, which afrer all is the best of life.

The real difference in men is not in want of opportunity, but in want of capacity to discern opportunity and power to take advantage of opportunity.

Tois, at least, is certain that in 1950 the celebrated scholars and teachers, the learned divines, the eloquent orators and statesmen, the fore. most legislators and judges, the President, who will have been inaugurated the year before, the great authors and poets and philosophers, the inventors and merchants and lords of finance will be men who are now young, poor and obscure, striving against obstacles that seem insuperable to enter in at the straight gate that leads to fame and fortune. Society is reinforced from

the bottom and not from the top. Families die out, fortunes are dispersed, the recruits come from the farm, the forge and the workshop and not from the club and the palace. Those who will control the destinies of the twentieth century are now boys wearing homespun and hand-me-downs, and not the gilded youth glad in purple and fine linen and faring sumptuously every day at Sherry's and Delmonico's. This is the poor man's chance. It is open to all comers. It is not a matter of law or statute or politics.

A Visit to the University of Glasgow.

By C. J. C. BENNETT. This afternoon has caused a strong impression that the wise in the knowledge of the world and its needs are very much disagreed among themselves as to means and materials for bringing the best things to pass. A few days ago I was in the halls and classroom of that typical American university of New York, Columbia, and to-day, was in a representative Briton institution, the University of Glasgow, which started on its long career forty years before Columbus discovered America.

As to situation, both institutions are excellently placed. The side from which I approached Columbia presented a view not unlike that of the acropolis at Athens. High it stands on a plain supported by a cliff of rugged rock, along which has been worked out a series of steps. The University of Glasgow, a splendid pile of stone over five hundred feet long, with a graceful tower and spire in the center three hundred feet high, is on the brow of a low hill rising gently from Kelvin River. By the way, the fa nous scientist, Lord Kelvin, gets his name from that river. The architecture of each university reflects its country. Columbia's halls remind one of the big commercial buildings down in the city,– high, square facade, with slight ornamentation to relieve their marked plainness. The one splendid exception to this is the library, with its beautiful rotunda supported by a series of massive dark green pillars. It is a modern library for use. Glasgow has an impressive looking library. Its 180,000 volumes are housed in a long hall, with two galleries of same length. Narrow windows rise the full height, ending in the Gothic arch. Its rows of musty old towers, very many in vellum and enclosed by wire grating, its long old-church form, its gloom produced by the highly stained windows and heavy skies common in western Scotland, with the gentle moving in and out of the few librarians, - for no students enter the library, - produces the proper effect on the on-looker of wonder at the stores of knowledge. I should add that students get the books readily enough from a librarian's table, in another room.

Columbia has the most perfectly equipped gymnasium, with baths, etc, it has been my chance to see. In appearance, the best comparison that comes to me is that of a big cistern or tub sunk on a hill side till the top of the tub is even with the top of the hill. I saw no place in the cloisters of about its quadrangle, for such an institution at the University of Glas

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