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METHODS OF HANDLING LUMBER IMPORTS IN
AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, AND

PACIFIC ISLANDS

WITH A REPORT ON THE LUMBER INDUSTRY OF NEW ZEALAND

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INTRODUCTION.

This bulletin is the fourth in a series on methods of handling iber imports in foreign countries. Previous bulletins covered ith America, North America (outside the United States), and ica, respectively. Subsequent bulletins will relate to Europe | Asia. The information herein is based on replies made by American Govment representatives to a questionnaire.

a questionnaire. In each country established methods of handling imported lumber are set forth I the operations of agents, importers, and dealers are described. e purchasing policies of large consumers and the Governments I the established terms of sale are indicated. The lumber diviI recommends that established methods of importing lumber be owed, as it has been found that the best way to build up a permait trade is to handle the business by the methods that have grown in each country. Shipping lumber on consignment is to be couraged. n connection with this series of bulletins the lumber division has ained information on the methods of trade arbitration in each ntry with lists of available arbitrators. Current lists of lumber nts and importers in each important foreign lumber market are o being prepared. These lists can be obtained from the bureau its district and cooperative offices by lumber exporters registered the Exporters' Index.

JULIUS KLEIN, Director. (111)

55476-23

UNITED STATES EXPORTS OF LUMBER TO AUSTRALIA AND OTHER OCEANIA, 1922

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British French New Other
Oceania. Oceania. Zealand. Ocagni

27,393 M.. 1,600 .square feet.. 371, 290 -pounds.. 219,912 do....

16,671

175 18, 249 295, 055

2,756

1,936
1,494

NOTE.-Exports in addition to those stated in the table were:

To Australia: Hardwood logs, except oak, 10,000 board feet; softwood logs, 504 board feet; southern cell pine timber, hewn or sawn, 521,000 board feet; other softwood timber, hewn or sawn, 828,000 board other softwood boards, planks, and scantlings, 3,646,000 board feet; poplar boards, planks, and scantin 1,000 board feet; other hardwood boards, planks, and scantlings, 15,000 board feet.

To British Oceania: Oak timber, hewn or sawn, 156 board feet.
To French Oceania: Southern yellow

pine logs, 3,000 board feet; telegraph, trolley, and electrici poles, 110; other softwood boards, planks, and scantlings, 3,000 board feet; cross arms for telegraph, te phone, and trolley poles, 600.

To New Zealand: Telegraph, trolley, and electric-light poles, 15 poles; boards, planks, and scantine gum, 13,000 board feet; other hardwood boards, planks, and scantlings, 4,000 board feet.

THODS OF HANDLING LUMBER IMPORTS IN AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, AND PACIFIC ISLANDS.

AUSTRALIA.

MELBOURNE.

American Trade Commissioner J. W. Sanger, Melbourne, February 26, 1923. lustralian native timber consists almost wholly of hardwoods, onging chiefly to the eucalyptus or gum and acacia or locust nilies. These hardwoods include some excellent varieties, such as

kauri and jarrah of Western Australia, which are being used tensively in railway and other construction work and are also ported for this purpose in large quantities. Although Australian ibers are undoubtedly excellent where great strength, hardness, rability, and toughness are desired, it follows that the dearth of twoods must be made up by importation, as the Australian species softwoods are very few and limited in range and quantity. The tire softwoods consist of Tasmanian huon pine, hoop pine, bunya nya pine, and kauri pine; but with the exception of the huon pine, se pines are so thinly scattered over so great an area and at so at a distance from the railroad as to make the cost of lumbering erations prohibitive. Therefore the cost of producing timber is ch that in normal times both Douglas fir and north European softbods sell for less than the native woods. It is not likely that the nited range and cutting cost of Australian softwoods will ever able them to offer serious competition to imported softwoods, pugh the native hardwoods will continue to be exported for railway dother special uses and will be used locally in increasing quantities interior finish, flooring, furniture, and manufacturing. The principal classes of lumber imported into Australia are Douglas redwood, Sitka spruce, western hemlock, north European spruce d pine, sugar pine, California white pine, and New Zealand kauri d white pine, the leading item being Douglas fir, which will always in demand because of its light weight and splendid working quality, d also because it is always obtainable in any dimension required. here heavy and long material is needed Douglas fir is used clusively. It is especially useful for mining and is the only wood ported into Australia for that purpose, trials with native hardhods having demonstrated that they are inclined to snap without arning under excessive loads, whereas the Douglas fir under the me circumstances crushes slowly. Dressed north European spruce and pine for flooring, lining, and eatherboards is also largely used. Pacific coast lumber exporters we sometimes asked whether Douglas fir could not replace north Uropean spruce and pine in the Australian market. Conservative

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