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earth; the leading scope of the epistle agrees well with his apprehension of that different issue of things, for which it is calculated to provide. Thus, in his anxiety for Timothy's early coming “ before winter," and in the desire that Mark should be brought with him, iv. 11., we may see the foresight of the apostle exercised: that they should receive his last instructions and assist him in the ministry during the few months that he might yet have to live.

The very particularity also with which he states the circumstances of several persons as connected with him in the care of all the churches, taken along with the matters of solemn charge and personal instruction to Timothy himself, altogether leave a presentiment upon the mind, that the apostle, if not addressing his last farewell to one so dearly beloved, was at all events providing against the occurrence of his own martyrdom ; if it should take place before Timothy, situated as he was, could arrive in Rome, and find him there yet alive.

If ever of one holy man upon earth on the eve of his departure from it, we may believe that a clear assurance of heaven was vouchsafed to him, we may without scruple so believe of St. Paul; who had already in beatific vision enjoyed a foretaste of what was to come. And after so many trying scenes of faith, charity, and patient endurance divinely exercised in the service of his Great Master for the salvation of souls, what is it that we read when the close of such a life draws nigh? Solemn declarations like these of his own sure and certain hope of future blessedness ; as his last bequest of consolation and joy to all those who after his bright example of patience and faith, however otherwise inferior, yet do seek to inherit the promises.

2 Tim. iv. 6. I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at hand.

7. I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith :

8. Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but to all them also that love his appearing.

16. At my first answer (i.e. defence) no man stood with me, but all men forsook me :

that is, all who by their countenance or testimony could have served him at such a time; perhaps, some like those at an earlier day (Phil. iv. 22.) that were

“ of Cæsar's household." I pray God that it may not be laid to their charge.

17. Notwithstanding, the Lord stood with me, and strengthened me; that by me the preaching might be fully known, and that all the Gentiles might hear : and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion.

18. And the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom : to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

In that day of atrocious tyranny under Nero, we cannot wonder at the apostle's being forsaken by false or timid friends on the first hearing of his cause : nor can we doubt that on his second defence that spirit of malignity which sought his life, at length gained its object.

K 2

What briefly remains, shall be told in the authentic language of Clemens Romanus (Epistle to the Corinthians, s. 5.), who relates, that he suffered as a martyr at Rome under the governors (Nero and his minister Helius). From Eusebius (Eccl. History, B. ii. ch. xxv.) we farther learn, that whereas the apostle Peter was crucified, the apostle of the Gentiles (as being a Roman citizen) was beheaded.

In the same season of persecution, apparently, both those blessed saints were crowned with martyrdom, and both entered into the joy of their Lord.




Acts viii. 2. p. 2. “good and pious men”_ on this being the preferable rendering, and why it is so, vide Note below, A. xi. 20.

A. ix. 20. p. 4. The true reading here is not Xpotòv, which our Version expresses thus...“ preached Christ that he is the Son of God”...but ’Ingoûy, the Lectio indubie genuina of Griesbach. The doctrine, which Paul preached, was this : Jesus of Nazareth is the Son of God, the promised Messiah. See xviii. 5.

A. xi. 20. p. 9. On "Eranues, GREEKS, and 'Eaaguiota!, GRECIANS.

The false reading here, 'Eaanuotas, Grecians, or foreign Jews who did not speak Hebrew, (though it might be curious to trace by what erroneous notion that change could ever find its way into the text,) must be discarded at once, and the Lectio indubie genuina of Griesbach, "Enanvas, Greeks, be admitted in its stead, with the signification of Gentile proselytes.

At this point in the progress of the Gospel, apparently, direct converts from heathenism had not yet been made: and by the words 'Ioudało. therefore and 'Eaaves, when as elsewhere in immediate antithesis or even as here, vv. 19, 20. in the same context, are clearly meant Jews, such by birth as well as by faith, and Gentile proselytes who had become worshippers of the one true God.

In the following passages, xiv. 1. and xviii. 4. the word "Eaarves, immediately coupled with, 'lovdaños, and translated Greeks, is found to retain the same relative meaning

But in xix. 10. 17., at a more advanced stage of the Christian history, that word seems to have acquired, naturally enough, the more extensive acceptation of Gentile converts, whether they had been, or not, proselytes before.

With a view to this general distinction, highly important as it is, let me remark, that unfortunately the English word, devout, in our Version, instead of being used only to indicate those persons, ευσεβείς or σεβόμενοι, devout Gentiles, i. e. proselytes to the Jewish faith, has been assigned, as in viii. 2. to eúrabess, good and pious men, Jews converted to Christianity; or as in ii. 5. where the same Greek word eúra6cīs, religious men, evidently designates Jews of the dispersion, and nothing else.

When however it is said, that in the whole of that enumeration, ch. ii. from v.9. Parthians” to Cretes and Arabians” in v. 11. Jews of the dispersion and no other persons were meant ; let one exception be carefully marked, that from Rome, but apparently from no other place, proselytes also were included in that catalogue.

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