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John, James the Less begins to be spoken of in terms of distinction.
A. xii. 17. "Go," says Peter after his miraculous deliverance, "show these things unto James and to the brethren."
After this period, GAL. ii. 9. (in time=A. xiv. 28.) on the important occasion of Paul's private visit to Jerusalem, James bears a prominent part.
"And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision."
At a somewhat later date, GAL. ii. 11, 12., "When Peter was come to Antioch, I withstood him to the face, because he was to be blamed. For before that certain came from James,
he did eat with the Gentiles.".
This text plainly attributes to James a kind of eminence or presidency in the church of Jerusalem, or at least a more fixed and stationary residence there. H. P. 99.
After this again, A. xv., in the council held at Jerusalem upon the business of the Gentile converts, he decidedly assumes a higher place, and after Peter had spoken, vv. 7...11. seems to have taken the lead. It was he who closed the debate and proposed the resolution, xv. 19., in which the council ultimately concurred. H. P. 99.
After that great concern was settled, the name of Peter no where occurs again in the Acts: he disappears from Jerusalem entirely. Into what distant scenes he afterwards travelled as the apostle of the circumcision, it is no part of my limited undertaking to collect from other writers or investigate for myself; unless so far as the name of SILAS connected with that of Peter requires to be noticed in the Index.
iv. JAMES therefore after A. xv. remains in Jerusalem the acknowledged bishop of the church; and the last mention of his name occurs on a very important meeting, A. xxi. 18., "The day following Paul went in with us unto James; and all the elders were present."
And here terminates this brief notice of Peter, James, and John, and of James the Less, rendered in some sort neces
sary from its connection with the apostolic history of St. Paul.
SILAS or SILVANUS. H. P. 66.
i. When Silas, A. xv. 22., first left Jerusalem as sent along with the decree from the council held there, it was only, as he thought, on the mission to Antioch, and then to return. Instead of that, as we have seen, A. xv. 40. p. 34., he set out with Paul on an indefinite line of progress, and faithfully accompanied him through the varied scenes, trials, and sufferings of a long and protracted absence.
ii. After Silas along with Timothy arrived at Corinth from Macedonia, A. xviii. 5., and there rejoined the apostle, the name of Timothy does not appear again till a much later day, and that, at Ephesus, A. xix. 22. The name of Silas never again appears in the Acts.
Now we can have little doubt but that Silas as well as Timothy would bear the apostle company to Jerusalem, A. xviii. 22. What then became of Silas ?
iii. Nothing so natural, as that on their arrival there Silas should now remain in the place of his home, of his relations and friends; on a scene, too, be it remembered, A. xv. 22., where he already held a chief place among the brethren.
iv. What partly confirms the idea that he must there have taken his leave of Paul, is the fact of his being afterwards despatched by the apostle Peter with that epistle, in which he is called (1 PET. v. 12.) “ a faithful brother unto you, as I suppose." And why was he called so? because Peter knew that he had been the associate of Paul when preaching the gospel" in Phrygia and Galatia" certainly, A. xvi. 6. Whether Silas after that time travelled through "Pontus, Cappadocia, Bithynia," &c., 1 PET. i. 1., must be left in the uncertainty of conjecture.
i. Is converted, A. xiv. 7., with Lois and Eunice, pp. 19, 20., and received by the apostle as his personal attendant, A. xvi. 1, 2, 3. pp. 34, 5.
ii. Bears Paul company all along, to Berea, A. xvii. 10., follows Paul to Athens, is sent back to Thessalonica, and thence arrives at Corinth, xviii. 5. pp. 46, 7, 8.
iii. Accompanies Paul, via Ephesus, to Syria, goes up with him to Jerusalem; and thence, to Antioch, p. 53.
iv. On Paul's third Progress, through Galatia and Phrygia, to Ephesus; from thence (along with Erastus), A. xix. 22., into Macedonia; from whence he might have gone to Corinth, and thence back to Ephesus, but he is overtaken by Paul before he left Philippi, pp. 154, 5.
v. Attends Paul through the parts N. W. of Greece, and is reckoned at Corinth, A. xx. 4., as one of his seven companions, on return viâ Troas, &c., and goes with him to Jerusalem.
vi. Probably with him at Cesarea for part of the time, but not his companion on the voyage to Rome; where however his name is found in the salutations, CoL. i. 1., PHILE. ver. 1.
vii. Goes with him (and Titus) first to Crete, p. 120., then to Ephesus; where Paul leaves him behind, and after going viâ Troas into Macedonia, from Philippi, writes that epistle to him, 1 TIM. p. 121.
viii. Apparently, after this, while Paul was yet at Nicopolis or in the neighbourhood, Timothy had been summoned from the station at Ephesus to that of Philippi, pp. 123, 4.
Paul on his return to Rome, taking Corinth in the way, and wishing once more to visit the church of Ephesus, so much the object always of his anxiety, under those circumstances had no opportunity to see his beloved disciple in Macedonia.
At Rome, not long, it is thought, after his second arrival in that city, he is again persecuted and thrown into prison. And from thence, Timothy is addressed at Philippi in an epistle (2 TIM.) p. 125.; which while it requests him to come
to the apostle before winter, implies also his being engaged (via Troas) to visit Ephesus on the journey.
Nothing more after this appears to be known; nothing can be with any probability conjectured.
Probably a native of Antioch, and there converted by St. Paul, TIT. i. 4.
i. GAL. ii. 1. he is taken up by the apostle, in that the private journey to Jerusalem, inserted here, p. 23. after A. xiv., from which it appears he was a Gentile;
And on his return, he appears to have staid at Antioch, till he joined St. Paul in his third Progress, p. 56.
ii. Is sent by him, 2 Cor. xii. 18., from Ephesus to Corinth, on the matters in Appendix D. p. 155.
Ibid. ii. 13. afterwards expected at Troas, p. 156.: but vii. 5, 6. is met in Macedonia.
iii. Ibid. viii. 16, 17., is sent down to Corinth, on account of that charitable contribution, p. 157.
iv. And most probably remains as superintendent of the church there, when Paul with his seven companions departed, A. xx. 4., and is there occupied for some years:
v. Nor does he elsewhere appear again, till probably along with St. Paul at Rome, pp. 119, 120., and, then after his deliverance, fixed by him, TIT. i. 5., in the episcopal care of Crete.
vi. In TIT. iii. 12. he is summoned by St. Paul to Nicopolis. vii. Probably returns in his company to Rome; and during his second imprisonment, 2 TIM. iv. 10., is despatched by the apostle into Dalmatia, (vide pp.67. 123. and Index, Illyricum,) into the scene of their former labours.
Of places in the apostolic progresses more important than from the brief mention of them in the Acts or even in the Epistles might be thought, Troas forms a very striking example.
i. Paul's first visit to that place, accompanied by Silas and Timothy, is narrated A. xvi. 8... p. 36., with its momentous consequences to the European world. And as Luke was sojourning there at the time, Troas may seem in the first instance to have been visited on its own account; but providentially also, for the divine purpose, to carry the gospel over into Macedonia, and into Greece.
ii. Paul again visited Troas, purposely, from Ephesus, with expectation to meet Titus there, 2 COR. ii. 12., in time = A. xx. i., when, though a door to preach Christ's gospel was opened unto him of the Lord, he was constrained to take his leave of them and to hasten into Macedonia, p. 66.
iii. Paul visited Troas a third time, A. xx. 4, 5., having previously sent Timothy and his six other companions, not merely to wait for him till he (and Luke) arrived from Philippi, but doubtless (H. P. 67.) to gather some of that harvest, which on his last hasty visit he had prematurely quitted, and which on this occasion he now stopped seven days to aid them in more fully reaping. Vide, on Acтs xx. 13., p. 74.
iv. Finally, he passed through Troas himself on his way from Ephesus to Philippi, p. 121., in that series of apostolic visits after his deliverance from the first imprisonment at Rome alluded to in 2 TIM. iv. 13., and traced out by Dr. Paley, H. P.189., in what he calls "an hypothetic journey :" a journey however left incomplete by him, unless he had inserted "via Troas" betwixt Ephesus and Macedonia.
That particular in Paul's route is required by the passage in 2 TIM. iv. 3., otherwise, how could the apostle have left the cloke and the parchments with Carpus? which Timothy at a future day was to call for, in the way from Philippi, viâ Troas to Ephesus on his own way ultimately to Rome.