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INTRODUCTION

Sketches of the lives and writings of emancipators of the

European mind :-

Bacon, ROGER (1214—1292)—His discoveries—Persecuted by the

ignorant clergy and imprisoned by Pope Urban IV.- Re-
leased by Pope Clement IV., who ordered the publication of

his works-Opus Major.

Dante,pr erly Durante Alighieri (1265—1321)—First and greatest

of modern poets of Italy–His troubles — Published his “De

Monarchie,” 1309 ?–His “Divina Commedia,” ? date.

PETRARCH (or Petrarca) FRANCESCO (1304-1374) – Restorer of

ancient Literature-His opinion of the legal profession of his

time-His poetry–His description of himself-His notion of

true wisdom-His description of the place of his abode

Boccaccio GIOVANNI (1313—1375)—Brief sketch of his life-His

love of poetry and the society of learned men-His writings-

The Decameron, life of Dante, translation of Homer into Latin

-The first to introduce copies of the Iliad and Odyssey from

Greece into modern Italy–His efforts to secure the learning
of Greek, and to substitute the ancient for the scholastic
philosophy-First of the professors appointed by the Floren-

tines to do honour to the memory of Dante

WICKLIFFE, Wiclif, or De Wycliffe, John (1324—1384)—Brief

sketch of his life-His first attack upon the authority of the

Pope, supported by John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster ; cited

to appear at St. Paul's, then at Lambeth Palace, protected by

nobles and the populace-Condemned by the synod for his

four propositions-Translated the Old and New Testament

CHAUCER, GEOFFREY (1328—1400)—Brief Sketch of his life-His

Court of Love,' 'Testament of Love,' Canterbury Tales.'
Huss, John (1373–1415)—Brief sketch of his life-Studies the

writings of Wickliffe, and becomes a bold advocate of reform-
Nobility and people resent the arbitrary decrees of the papacy

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– He publicly censured the lax morality of the priests, de-

nounced the sale of papal indulgences, &c.—The church up in

arms—Forbidden to preach, but preached nevertheless—Ex-

communicated—Wrote “ The Six Errors,” and “The Church”

-Summoned by the Council of Constance-Defended his

doctrines — Required to recant, but refused to do so—Was

burnt alive-Bloody vengeance taken by the people on the

church—The compact of Prague, 20th November, 1433.

Printing-

GUTENBERG (1400 1–1464).

CAXTON (1410—1491)—Short history of the art of printing and of

the lives of Gutenberg and Caxton

COLUMBUS, CHRISTOPHER—His birth, parentage, and relations-

Went to sea at 14–Studied geography, &c.—Was wrecked-

Went to Lisbon-Married; one son, Diego-Became dissatisfied

with existing maps and globes—Disputes as to whether the

earth was a plane or a globe-Maintained that there was a

shorter route to India than by rounding Africa—In 1471 kindly

received by the prior, Juan Pères de Marchinna-Narrated

the history of his life—The prior, convinced of the truth of

his doctrines, wrote to Fernando, the Queen's Confessor-

Introduced to Ferdinand and Isabella–Council of the learned

at Salamanca (p. 30)—The bible quoted against Columbus-

Council re-assembled in 1492 at Seville—Columbus disappointed,

returned to the monastery of Rabida-Pinzon promised to

supply ships if the government would give its sanction—The

prior wrote to the Queen—The prior ordered to the court-

Columbus ordered to the court—His conditions discussed with

the ministers and ridiculed by them—Columbus set out for

Cordova—Recalled by Isabella—The treaty between Ferdinand,

Isabella and Columbus, signed 17th April, 1492 (p. 32)—Fresh

difficulties—Columbus hoisted his flag, the 4th August, 1492–

The voyage (pp. 32-36)—His description of the place and

people.

MACHIAVELLI, NICHOLAS (1469—1527)— His life and writings-His

book “The Prince”—Some of the subjects discussed in it-
The necessary qualifications of an hereditary prince and of a
conqueror (p. 40)—New laws—Cæsar Borgia (p. 41)—Ecclesi.
astical princes—The principal foundations of all states—Auxili-
ary troops-A duty to study the art of war (p. 43)-The

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