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the heart quicker and stronger, than under ordinary conditions. The greater rapidity of respiration means that more oxygen is taken into the lungs, and therefore more blood is cleansed of the physiological sewage thrown into it by the tissues through which it has passed in its circulation through the body; while by the increased activity of the heart this purified blood is distributed in greater abundance to every part of the economy. The lungs and the heart themselves share in the good effects of exercise, and thus become still more able to do their appointed work ; the chest grows more capacious, the lungs larger and more elastic, the heart firmer in structure and more vigorous in action. The little muscles which encircle the stomach and the intestinal tube are quickened into greater activity, while thcir contractile power is increased, a matter which, trifling as it may seem, is of incalculable importance for the health of the mind as well as of the body. The other internal organs, those secret laboratories where Nature performs feats of chemical transmutation beyond the dreams of alchemy, and the glands of various kinds, any derangement of whose functions may give rise to seas of trouble against which medicine takes arms in vain, are enabled to work to better advantage by being supplied with better raw material in the shape of more generous blood. The body is at once better nourished and kept more free from the burdensome accumulation of superfluous tissue by the more rapid and complete removal of waste matters. too, and the brain, which is, as it were, the sun of the nervous system, are maintained in the highest state of functional efficiency in the same way as the other organs. The general effects of exercise are therefore, briefly, a more abundant supply of better blood to all tissues and organs; hence all the component elements of the body are better nourished, so that each is able to play its allotted part to the best possible advantage. In fact, the effects of exercise may be summed up in half a dozen words: Better fuel, and more of it, for the vital engine.
It must not be supposed that all forms of exercise produce exactly the same effects. Some develop particular groups of muscles, while the others, together with the great physiological centres--the heart, the lungs, and the brain-have, as it were, to
"stand out.” Thus, in lifting weights or executing movements of any kind with one arm, though the limb may become tired out, one does not become hot or “blown"; the exercise is almost purely local. If all the limbs, however, are thrown into rapid and violent movement, as in running, boxing, or swimming, the heart and the lungs join in the dance, and the whole stream of life is for the moment quickened and broadened and deepened. Local exercise, though of course beneficial to the muscles involved, has little or no influence on the health, because its effects are merely local. For hygienic purposes it is not so much the muscles as the internal organs that need to be exercised, but this can only be done by movements which bring them into rapid play. Hence chamber gymnastics and the highly elaborate acrobatic movements which require complicated arrangements of ropes and bars and pulleys (though I am far from wishing to deny their value) can never take the place of old-fashioned games for the young, and riding and walking for those declined into the vale of years.
The manifold evils arising from deficient exercise need not be dwelt upon here. I need only say that if a proper amount of exercise is not taken, not only do the muscles become weak and flabby but the functions of every organ and the soundness of every tissue must suffer. There is imperfect elimination of waste matters, the muscles and the internal organs become encumbered with superfluous fat, the heart becomes weak, the lungs are never thoroughly emptied and gradually lose their elasticity, appetite dwindles to vanishing point, digestion becomes a burden only to be borne with wailing and gnashing of teeth, and the joy and brightness of health give place to incapacity for either work or pleasure, irritability and “leaden-eyed despair.” In the young particularly exercise is necessary for moral as well as for physical health ; in violent movement in the open air their superabundant nervous energy finds free vent; if pent up it is too likely to force a way out in wrong directions.
In the next article I shall apply the principles now laid down, and shall explain the amount and kind of exercise required at different ages.
BOOKS AND PLAYS.
HAVE before me a little pile of books, all of which appeal
very directly to me. Here are a couple of volumes of essays, a couple of volumes of memoirs, a couple of novels, and a volume of wizardry. They are very different works, and the works of very different men. One, indeed, is but the voice of a thin shade, , the voice of one who being dead yet speaketh ; grim evidence from
But the rest are the books of living men.
Little. By pleasure, the Essays in Little of Mr. Andrew Lang. No more delight
Andrew ful volume has come in my way for long enough. Here we have Lang.
(Henry and our author in all his moods and on all his favourite topics. There Co.) is an essay on Dumas which makes the reader turn at once to the shelves where the long array of volumes rest and hesitate between the Trois Mousquetaires and La Dame de Montsoreau. As for the essay on the study of Greek, it ought to be reprinted and scattered broadcast by the champions of Hellenism against the anti-classicists.
The memoirs of which I spoke are painfully disappointing. Les Memoires Everybody who cares about the history of the French Revolution du Prince de
Talleyrand. has been looking forward to these memoirs, longing for their publi- Vols. I. and
II. (Paris : cation, eagerly counting the years; and now that they are at last Calmann laid, in part, before us, they seem hardly to be worth so much Levy. Englisha
Translation, excitement. Their chief defect is that they have so little to do Vol. 1;
Griffith and with the revolutionary period. What importance they have is Farran.) almost entirely Napoleonic. The portrait of the Duke of Orleans is indeed interesting. No bitterer attack has been made upon that besmirched memory.
This voice from the dead denounces Equality Orleans with an invective which is only the more merciless for being carefully measured. The account, too, of the interview between Talleyrand and D'Artois before the ignominious Flight of
Princes is a picturesque historical picture. But on the whole students of the great Revolution have gained little by the Talleyrand memoirs. They are scarcely more valuable to us than the box of dominoes which Talleyrand gave to Mr. Labouchere, in the days when Mr. Labouchere was a small boy and dreamt not of
Northampton. The Light that
The two novels on my list differ from each other, not merely failed. By Rudyard
in the difference of their language, but in their conception, in their Kipling. (Macmillan.)
in the literary laws under which each is written. What purpose, Mr. Rudyard Kipling thinks of Zola I do not know, but it is scarcely likely that the devout admirer of “Gyp"could be a very great admirer of the Zola method. What M. Zola would think of Mr. Rudyard Kipling it is easier to imagine. He would regard him as a Romanticist-and M. Zola hates Romanticists; he would decline to accept him as a realist, as a naturalist; he would seek in vain for proof of the influence of Claude Bernard's scientific theories in The Light that Failed, and he would bemoan the absence of documents. "Romance without documents does not exist,” M. Zola observed sententiously to an admiring interviewer the other day. This is a phrase, nothing more. The romance exists, if it is interesting, whether it is as fanciful as an Arabian tale or as packed with
documents as a Blue-book. I only know that, speaking for myself, L’Argent.
I have found L’Argent terribly tough reading—the toughest readZola. (Paris : ing of all the Rougon-Macquart series. I much prefer M. Zola as Charpentier.) an essayist. As for Mr. Kipling's story, it would be a very admir
able story for many writers : it is not a very admirable story for Mr. Kipling. We expect better things now from the man who wrote The Man who would be King and Plain Tales from the Hills. Mr. Kipling is unkind, for he makes us fall in love with Maisie from the moment when her black hair first streams, windblown, across the boy's face, and now in his revised version he makes us hate her, which is human, perhaps, but disagreeable. In his first version of the book we were allowed to part from her in peace and in love, which was more likeable, and just as true to real life as the cynicism of the new form. When is Mr. Kipling going to give us the wonderful romance of Jellalludeen Macintosh, Mother Maturin ?
C. G. Leland.
To anyone who is at all “aficionado " with the great brother- Gipsy Sorcer za hood of gipsydom all over the world Mr. Leland's new book will Telling. By be a large delight. Anyone who has steeped his spirit in the adven- (Fisher tures of Lavengro, who has ever tried to "rakker Romany" with a
Unwin.) Lee or a Cooper on a windy English heath, or striven to make acquaintance with the "crabbed Gitano," the assumed command of which earned Borrow so much respect in a Spanish prison, owes a deep debt of gratitude to Mr. Leland for all his fascinating books upon the gipsies and their ways. To this debt he has now added by his handsome volume on Gipsy Sorcery and Fortune Telling, a volume which will be the joy of every member of the Gipsy Lore Society, and of every would-be Romanichal who has ever tried to string six words of Romany together.
I began with a volume of essays; I will end with a volume of essays, and a very curious volume of essays, the Impressions of Mr. Impressions
and Opinions. George Moore. Mr. Moore says his say at all times in a manner By George peculiarly his own; he is aggressive, dogmatic, interesting. In this (David Nutt.) particular instance he has said his say upon a number of exceedingly fascinating subjects. Balzac, Paul Verlaine, Ibsen, and the Théâtre Libre—here are four subjects which at once arouse the keenest interest. I wish much that space permitted me to say all that I should like to say about Mr. George Moore's volume. But space does not permit me, and I can only record, baldly enough, that I agree with much, and disagree with more, of what he has written on the four subjects which, of all the subjects on which he has touched, appeal most nearly to me. There was a time when I thought I knew my Balzac as well as he could be known, when I lived perpetually in the companionship of people of the Human Comedy, and schemed an exhaustive analysis of the whole fifty volumes. I should like to go over his study of Balzac point by point. As it is, there is only one point which I have to make. Either Mr. Moore's knowledge of French argột is curiously less than his knowledge of ordinary French, or he assumes, for some occult reason, a modest ignorance of slang when he says that he is puzzled by Balzac's description of the Chevalier de Valois, with his “patte d'oie charactéristique et les marches du palais." "Patte d'oie,” says Mr. Moore, " I always understood to be