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1.-Journal of a Steam Voyage to the North of Baghdad, in

April, 1846. By Lieut. J. T. JONES, commanding the Hon. East India Company's Steam-ship ‘Nitocris.' Read March 8,

1847. [The orthography of the Author of this paper has not been strictly adhered to, but it has been made nearly to correspond with that of the map in vol. ix, of the Society's

Journal, which will serve to illustrate the following voyage.—ED.] THREE years having elapsed since our former ascent of the Tigris above Baghdad, and anticipating, from the early rise of the water, a more favourable season and better success than we experienced before, arrangements were made for ascending the river early in March; but our departure was unavoidably delayed until the 2nd of April, when the river had become considerably more rapid, from the high rise having already set in. We left Baghdad on the above day, and, passing through the bridge of boats, reached Turumbah and Kádhimeïn, the former at 10:35, the latter at 10:55.

The banks of the river at this time presented a beautiful appearance, the gardens exhibiting a diversity of trees of variouslytinted foliage, and a delightful fragrance pervading the air from the now opening orange-blossoms. At 1.45 arrived at Sheri'at el Beidha, on the right bank ; 2:33 Tel Kúsh, a mound on the right bank, bore W. The country to the N. of Tel Kúsh, between Khán Suweïdiyah and the river, is known by the same name as the Khán; but the Khán is also sometimes termed Tarmiyah, from a lake situated in an old bed of the Tigris called Shat el Aidhá. This is now dry, and is reported to be of the same width as the present river. 5 P.M. Khán Suweidiyah bore W. and Jedídeh E.N.E. Many mounds of considerable size are to be seen S. of Khán Suweïdiyah, probably the Tel Kheir of Lynch's map, but I searched in vain for the S. end of the Shat el Aidha, which is represented as joining the present river near this spot. I am informed, however, that it is lost in the desert near this. Arrived at the Khán Jedídeh at 5h. 3m., but finding the stream very rapid, proceeded on for twenty minutes, and anchored near the old Khán of the same name.

The gardens to the N. of Baghdad terminate abruptly about two miles above Kádhimeïn on the right bank, but on the left,



after leaving Moádhdhem, scattered yillages and date-groves are seen as high as Tel Kúsh, whence to Jedídeh the country, at present, is highly cultivated with wheat and barley. On both banks mud enclosures are met with every two or three hundred yards, in which the cattle used for the purposes of irrigation are kept; while numerous round isolated towers, affording shelter from marauding parties, attest the weakness of the present Government. The old adage of “the sword in one hand and the plough in the other,” is here literally verified.

April 3rd.---Left our anchorage at 5:38 A.M., the river having risen during the night 8 inches, with a cold northerly wind, therm. 43°. Passed the villages of Howeish and Mansuriyah, the former at 6h. 40m., the latter at Sh. 15m., when it bore E. on the right bank and W. of Mansuriyah. The Tarmiyah, or ancient canal, leaves the Tigris, and another large canal, bearing the same name, and said to be of more ancient construction, is seen about l} mile below. This has been long dry, but the northern canal, during the period of high water in the river, still receives a portion of the Tigris, and is lost in the marshes W. of Kadhimeïn. Its direction by compass was observed to be 244o. The river near Mansuriyah is broad, but broken by islands. A khiyát, or wall, is situate a little to the N. of the Upper Tarmiyah, having an old khán in ruins close to it. 9h. 11m. passed Sadêyah village and grove of date-trees, the country every mile becoming more elevated and the valley of the Tigris beginning to assume a distinct form. Reached the village of Sindiyah at 10h. 33m. and received twelve hours' fuel. Remained here until noon to obtain observations, which place the village in lat. 33° 52' 50". The whole of the gardens and date-groves from Jedídeh to this place are irrigated by the Khalis Canal, which, with the Dujeil, are the only canals of importance that the Páshálic can now boast of. A sad picture for contemplation is afforded by the remains of so many noble works of the same kind lying scattered around neglected and abandoned, showing at a glance, without the aid of history, the once flourishing state of this celebrated country.

Left Sindiyah at 12h. 10m. P.M. and at lh. 35m. observed it to bear 137o. At this spot the high cliffs, forming the valley of the Tigris, abut on the left bank of the stream, and the large canal of Nahrawán is seen above them about a mile and a half distant, trending to the S. E. From this point the river runs in a more westerly direction, and at 3:10 passed some cliffs (about 50 feet high), on the summit of which a part of the Nahrawan is observed to have been cut away by the force of the current encroaching on and undermining the soil on which it stands. The cliffs forming the right bank of the river are distant from

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this spot about 5 miles. A long alluvial deposit projects from them to within 100 yards of the left bank. This space only is now occupied by the river. The tomb of Imám Sayyed Mohammed bears from this point 262o. This also is the general direction of the river 'A'dhem. The river of Nahrawán is also known here by the name of El Dojúí. At 3h. 35m. anchored off a small branch of the 'A'dhem to obtain observations.

The western branch is larger and 2 miles distant from this; it now appears a considerable stream, though when I passed it in March, 1843, it deserved little notice, but the heavy rains of the last winter have increased its importance. After passing the ’A'dhem the river becomes more tortuous: a long reach extending to the S.W. leads to an opening of considerable extent, which is said to be the mouth of the Shat el Aidhá, and supposed to be the old bed of the Tigris. We passed it at 6h. 15m., and stood towards Khán Tholiyah, in a northerly direction. Anchored for the night at 6h. 32m. P.M. near two islands which here bisect the stream.

The alluvial soil here gives place to banks of pebbles and shingle, occasionally mixed with conglomerate masses, but the high cliffs still exhibit alluvium mixed with many strata of sand and, in some places, red clay. A salt stratum is observed near the present margin of the stream, in which sprigs of the tamarisk flourish, but the rest is bare and much eroded, not only by the Tigris, but by the numerous torrents which find their way from the high lands contiguous to the Hamrin range. The ḥávís, or alluvial deposits formed in the valley of the Tigris, are now in a high state of cultivation. Obtained observations both for longitude and latitude; the latter, deduced from the merid. altitude of Antares, was found to be 34° 0' 19" N.

April 4th.At sunrise took several bearings. From this station the mouth of the old bed of the Tigris or Shat el Aidhá bears S. by E. 11 mile distant, which would make the bottom of the reach S. of Khán Tholiyah in lat. 32° 59' nearly; consequently, if my latitude be correct (which I have no reason to doubt), the delineation of this part of the river in Lynch's map is scarcely carried far enough to the S. It is difficult, however, to speak with certainty, as the map in my possession is on a very small scale, reduced by Arrowsmith from Lynch's original of 12 inches to a degree. Captain Lynch's fixed stations are, however, very accurately determined. During the night the river rose 8 inches, occasioning the banks to fall in with loud reports ; thermometer 42° at daybreak.

Left our anchorage at 6h. 9m. A.M. and crossed over to the háwí on the left bank and procured some fuel, and pursued a northerly course towards Khán Tholiyah. I may here mention a trait of Arab rapacity indicative of their general character. Some of the Jebbur Arabs had been assisting us in carrying our fuel, and I presented them with some ball cartridge in return. Scarcely, however, had they reached the party to whom they were to have been presented when one and all made a general scramble. The person to whom I entrusted the cartridges, finding it now impossible to distinguish those who had earned them, threw them down, and such a scene ensued as could only be told by any unfortunate traveller who might fall into such hands, as assuredly his garments or any other property he might possess would be thus contended for. Swords were drawn and sticks of no ordinary dimensions whistled through the air, and, when we left them, the excitement appeared as if it would last throughout the day.

The stream as we approached the neighbourhood of Khán Tholiyah became more rapid ; our progress, therefore, was proportionately slow. At 9h. 50m. the Khán bore N.E. 1} mile. From this the river pursues a westerly direction to Khán Mizrakjí, and from thence to El Kaim, a little more northerly; at noon Belid, on the Dijeïl, bore 1820, Khán Tholiyah 89o. At lh. a tonıb in the bed of the Nahrawán, called Imám Sayyed Hosein, bore N. 1} mile distant. A small branch of the Nahrawán is also here called Sidd-el-Aziz; at the above time, Belid bore 169' and Tholiyah 99°; Khán Mizrakjí, a place of accommodation for pilgrims on the road to Samarrah, N., and at 4 P.M. N.E. This is the nearest point to the Kháli, or Sidd Nimrúd, or Median Wall. I visited it in 1843, but it is so well fixed and described both by Captain Lynch and Dr. Ross in the Journals of the Royal Geographical Society, that I need not further allude to it. 5h. 45m. came to an anchor for the night. Nothing but the greatest perseverance and attention to the steerage of a steamvessel through such intricate passages as we have had to-day could ensure her making any progress. From Khán Tholiyah the bottom has changed to a hard shingle, over which the current runs at the rate of 64 geographical miles per hour. The bed of the river is full of islands and shingle shoals, and as there is, at this season of the year, but one channel of sufficient depth, which receives the whole stream, it occasions where thus confined considerable falls or rapids, some of which, notwithstanding a heavy S.E. wind set in, enabling us to make sail, we could scarcely surmount. The engines, indeed, appear to be paralysed when on the top of a rapid, as the revolutions decrease from 29 to 23. This I can only account for by the weight of the vessel in her ascent acting against the momentum of the paddles ; in fact, the small diameter of the wheels is not calculated to lift as well as to propel the vessel up an inclined plane.

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