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stone buildings and about 200 huts. At the time I visited it, it was a dependency of Mocha. The Governor generally resided at the latter place; his deputy governing for him, with a guard of about 30 Arab soldiers armed with matchlocks and shields. They have four or five very ancient guns. The people are supplied with water from the bed of a watercourse situated about 4 miles to the S.W. of the town, called Tacooshah, where there is a small round tower, and a guard of five or six Arab soldiers to protect the watering-place. They have an old iron gun, made of bars of iron hooped together. There are some few Arab merchants residing in the town, and some few of the Eessah Goodoo-boorie Somaulis. These people are not allowed to enter the town with their arms, depositing them at the gate.

From October to April, which is the rainy season, the coast from Goobul Karab to Core Kurangarub, called by the natives Bhurt Eesal or Eesaulie, is inhabited by wandering parties of the Eessah Somauli, who return to the interior as soon as the pasturage becomes scarce on the approach of the dry season. They are a very powerful tribe; said to be like the sand of the sea-shore for multitude; and are much feared by the Dannakil, who inhabit the opposite side of the Bay of Tajourah, extending along the western shores of the Red Sea to Howakil Bay. These latter people describe Eessah as a race of treacherous thieves and murderers. As far as my experience goes, I found them a timid and inoffensive race.

They are professedly Musselmans, but do not appear to know much of the religion they profess. They lead a wandering life, dwelling not in towns or fenced cities, but roving about from place to place, wherever they can find pasturage for their flocks and herds. It is only a few of them that wear any clothing; most of them, both males and females, wearing a kind of leathern apron. They are armed with spear and shield, and also bow and arrows. They are said to be very expert in the use of their arms, more particularly the latter. The bow is formed of a very tough kind of wood, with but little spring in it; the spring being in the string, which is made of the entrails of sheep or other animals. The arrow is but 14 inches long, made of a reed very nicely feathered and balanced, with an iron barbed head ; below the barb there is a small ball of poison; the head of the arrow is fitted so slightly into the reed, that it immediately becomes detached from the reed on striking any object, thereby rendering it difficult to extract. With these arrows they slay the ostrich, zebra, and indeed all kinds of animals.

They are very partial to red hair, dyeing it of that colour, Eessah Somaulis-Harrouah.


and are very particular in dressing it. Those who are not favoured by nature with good heads of hair make wigs of sheepskin, dyeing them their favourite colour. I bought one of a man, who was trimming it by the road-side, for one dollar. They never wear the turban, or indeed head-dress of any kind. They only who frequently visit the coast know the value of money. They are, in common with other savage people, very fond of ornaments and trinkets The produce of their country -consisting of hides, ostrich feathers, horns, ghee, or clarified butter, gums, &c. &c.—are brought to Zeylah, and there exchanged for trinkets and blue cloth (cotton of a very common kind), made at Surat and other parts of India.

Their chief is called Oogass, and is much respected. The title is, I believe, hereditary.

I know not of any rivers in their country; neither could I obtain any satisfactory data as to the extent of their country, except that it extends to the kingdom of Hurrurh-about which more anon.

While I was at Zeylah, in November, 1840, I saw a small caravan or cafila, as it is called here by the Goodoo-boorrie Somaulis, consisting of about 25 men and several women, with some few children. They had come to Zeylah to exchange the produce of their country, the same as that of the Eessah, for grain, blue cloth, &c. They gave me a description of the ruins of an ancient town, which they called Harrowah, nine days' journey to the S. of Zeylah. This must not be confounded with Hurrurh, which they also knew.

Berberah is the principal place of trade along the coast, on account of its beautiful harbour, which is formed by a curvature in the coast-line, and a low sandy cape, projecting out nearly at right angles with the general line of coast, to the distance of l} mile nearly. The extreme of this sandy cape is in lat. 10° 26' 20" N., and long. 44° 6' 20" E. At the entrance the harbour is of a mile wide, with 13 fathoms mid-channel; direction of the harbour E.N.E. and W.S.W., gradually contracting and shoaling to five fathoms, within about 200 yards of the town. The tribes from the interior commence arriving about the end of October, and continue to do so till March. At the end of that month, in a few days, the place, from containing a population of 10,000 or 15,000, becomes totally deserted. About the time that the tribes commence to assemble, boats also from India make their appearance, as well as from the several ports on the coast of Arabia and from the Gulf of Persia. The imports are white and blue cotton-cloths of Indian manufacture; also piece goods, Indian handkerchiefs, brass and copper wire, zinc and beads, dates and grain from the coast of Arabia, and some few prints for the Hurrurh market. Some English shawls I saw there were valued at 20 to 30 German crowns each. The exports are ghee, hides, deer's horns, ivory, gums, ostrich feathers, coffee, sheep and horned cattle.

I learned from several individuals that the ancient name of the coast, now called “ Bhur Hebrawal,” was “ Bhur Eesakh," who was the father of the Somauli. He dying, left three sons, A boo-ghur-hajiz, Hebrawal, and Aboo-teezaylah. The latter's mother was a slave. From these three are descended the numerous tribes of Somauli, the principal of whom are the Ayal Aboo-ghur-hajiz, Ayal Hamed, Ayal Gudeed, Ayal Shoor Drooan, Ayal Hosha, Ayal Mahomoad, and Ayal Grums. I could not obtain any information as to the strength of each tribe. In former years they inhabited the coast from Meeat, in the vicinity of Mette Island, eastward, to Cape Guardafui, and along the east coast of Africa towards the equator; but as the Galla, who then inhabited this part of the coast, retreated towards the interior, they occupied their places.

Like the Eessah, they lead a wandering life, halting from time to time at such places as they can obtain pasturage for their flocks and herds, in which they are said to be very rich. I do not think that they have any rivers of importance in any part of their country.

They profess the Mohammedan religion, but have but an imperfect knowledge of its tenets. I was too short a time with them to obtain any knowledge of their language, further than that it has not the slightest resemblance either to the Arabic, Amharic, or Hurrurhje (or that spoken by the Hurrurh people). Each tribe is governed by its own chief, somewhat after the patriarchal manner. The men, as well as the women, are tall, and of pleasing manners.

From Berberah the coast extends with a slight curve to the southward, towards Sayaral, on a line of bearing E.N.E. At Sayaral there is a tolerable anchorage in an open roadstead, 10 fathoms, about } a mile from the shore. Good water may be easily obtained from a few small wells situated about 60 yards from the beach. The water at Berberah being very brackish, the inhabitants are supplied from this place; but a more unpromising place for water I have never visited--a barren, sandy soil, not a blade of grass to be seen in any direction, and in some parts the adjacent hills are covered almost to their summits with drift-sand. There is a very extensive burialground, but no inscriptions of any kind, and the ruins of a mosque. Tradition says that in former times there was a con

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siderable town here. Sayaral is in lat. 10° 35' 26" N., and long. 45° 22' 56' E. There are two rude stone buildings and five or six huts.

There is great difficulty in obtaining any information of the interior, either from the natives of the country or its inhabit-' ants: no reliance can be placed on what the natives say, and there is great difficulty in getting to the interior, owing to the jealousy of the people.

Hurrurh may be said to be situated about 192 miles to the eastward of Ankobar, and about 150 S.S.W. from Zeylah. It is situated in a verdant valley, almost encircled by hills. It has a wall round it, of stones and mud, which is kept in good repair: the height thereof is 12 feet, and thickness 3 feet, and in circụmference about 2 hours' quiet walking. There are five gates-Ema-e-deen Burri (which means gate), facing towards Shoah; Siektal Burri, towards the Arroosie Galla; BudderooBurri, towards the Alla Galla; Assoom Burri, towards Zeylah; Argoboh Burri, towards Berberah. The Galla approach near to the town on all sides, and N. towards the W. the Nooli Galla; W. towards the S. the Alla Galla (these are two powerful tribes, mostly pagans); to the N.E. dwell the Beero Galla, who are Mahommedans; and to the E., and thence towards Berberah, the tribes of Jarsoo, Babili, Bursoob, Burtera, and Gooti Galla, many of whom are said to be Mahommedans. The ruler of Hurrurh governs with the title of Emir. The present Emir's name is Aboo Beker : he has reigned seven years. The succession is hereditary, as is the case in Shoah. The male relatives of the reigning prince are all confined. It is said they are shut up in vaults, from which they are but seldom allowed to remove. Should the prince, however, at any time need their services, they are released, and frequently on such occasions preferred to situations of great trust. On the slightest suspicion, however, that they are plotting against the government, or should they become too popular, they are speedily sent back to their vaults again. The soil in the vicinity is very rich, producing coffee, wheat, barley, jowarie, &c. in great profusion. They have also a great variety of fruits and vegetables. Coffee is the most important ex port. :

They have a small copper coin called mahalah, twenty-two of which are equal to a nominal coin called ashreeffi; forty ashreeffi are equal to one German crown. The mahalah resembles the small copper coin used about Jeddah : on the one side is written in Arabic characters “there is no God but God," and on the reverse the name of the reigning prince. Cafilas are coming from and departing to various quarters at all seasons. The principal are those that trade to Berberah, Zeylah, Chercher,

and Arroosie. There are smaller cafilas that trade to Arreea,
Ogahdeen, and other parts of the Somauli country. Hence
cafilas trade yearly to Berberah between the months of October
and March, occupying from 30 to 40 days on the road. Camels
are used for the journey, laden with coffee, ivory, ghee (clarified
butter), ostrich feathers, gums, &c., and slaves, both male and
female, are also exported to Zeylah as well as to Berberah.
In return they receive blue and white coarse coiton and Indian
manufactures, Indian piece goods, English prints, silks, shawls,
red cotton-yarn, beads, zinc, copper, copper wire, &c.; and,
from the Somauli country, frankincense and book-koor So.
mauli. The Hurrurh people are called “ Hurrurhji," and also
“Hurrj.” They are rigid Mohammedans, paying strict atten-
tion to the fasts and ceremonies enjoined by the false prophet.
Their language bears some affinity to the Amharic. They use
the Arabic character. The climate resembles that of Alio
Amba, which is 3000 feet below Ankobar. Hurrurh possesses
advantages that certainly no other town on this side of Africa
has of penetrating to the interior.

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XII.- On Eastern Africa. By Lieut. CRUTTENDEN, I.N. (Communicated to Mr. M Queen by Sir Wm. Harris, Political Resident, Aden.)

[Read 8th May, 1848.] The Bur e Somal, or Somali country, properly speaking, extends from Ras el Khyle, on the eastern coast, to the Esa tribe, who reside in the neighbourhood of Zeylah. The people of Mukdeeshah are not Somalis, but of the Haweea tribe. The river usually known as the Webbe forms their southern boundary, or, as they express it, is “the separation of the Moslemin from the Kaffirs” (under which common term they the include English as well as Galla). The country, as you proceed to the westward from Cape Jered Hafoon, changes in its productions. Coffee in great abundance is found in the mountains of the Gidr Beersi, but no gums; whilst to the eastward the coffee vanishes, and the hills produce so great an abundance of gums that the “ regio thurifera” ought, properly speaking, to be looked for there, rather than on the plains of Morebat and Háseh.

The Somalis, especially those who live on the coast, are fond of dating their origin from the Arabs. By their tradition, Sheikh Isaakh, an Arab chief of great sanctity, settled on the Somali coast near Mette, and, marrying a female of that place, became the father of the Habr Awal, Habr Gerhajis, and

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