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1831.-Mr. RICHARD LANDER, for the discovery of the course of the

River Niger or Quorra, and its outlet in the Gulf of Benin, in

Central Africa. 1832.—Mr. John Biscoe, for the discovery of the land now named

“ Enderby's Land” and “Graham's Land,” in the Antarctic Ocean.

1833.-Captain Sir John Ross, R.N., for discovery in the Arctic Re

gions of America. 1834.–Major Sir A. BURNES, C.B., F.R.S., for the navigation of the

River Indus, and a journey by Balkh and Bokhara across

Central Asia. 1835.—Captain Sir GEORGE BACK, R.N., for the discovery of the Great

Fish River, and navigating it to the sea on the Arctic Coast

of America. 1836.-Captain Robert FitzRoy, R.N., for the survey of the shores

of Patagonia, Chile, and Peru, in South America. 1837.-Colonel CHESNEY, R.A., F.R.S., for the general conduct of the

“ Euphrates Expedition” in 1835-6, and for the accessions to comparative and physical geography relating to the countries

of Northern Syria, Mesopotamia, and the Delta of Susiana. 1838.—Mr. Thomas SIMPSON, [Founder's Medal,] for the discovery and

tracing, in 1837 and 1838, of about 300 miles of the Arctic

shores of America. - Dr. EDWARD RÜPPELL, [Patron's Medal,] for his travels and

researches in Nubia, Kordofán, Arabia, and Abyssinia. 1839.-Mr. R. H. SCHOMBURGK, (Patron's Medal,] for his travels and

researches during the years 1835-9 in the colony of British

Guayana, and in the adjacent parts of South America. - Major H. C. RAWLINSON, E.I.C., [Founder's Medal,] for his

travels and researches in Susiana and Persian Kurdistán, and for the light thrown by him on the comparative geography of Western Asia.

1840.—Lieut. Raper, R.N., [Founder's Medal,] for the publication of

his work on “ Navigation and Nautical Astronomy." - Lieut. John Wood, I.N., (Patron's Medal,] for his survey of

the Indus, and re-discovery of the source of the River Oxus. 1841.-Captain James Clark Ross, R.N., [Founder's Medal,] for his

discoveries in the Antarctic Ocean.
Rev. Dr. E. ROBINSON, of New York, [Patron's Medal,] for

his work entitled “ Biblical Researches in Palestine." 1842.-Mr. Evward John Eyre, [Founder's Medal,] for his explora

tions in Australia.
Lieut. J. F. A. SYMONDS, (Patron's Medal,] for his survey in

Palestine and levels across the country to the Dead Sea. 1843.—Mr. W. J. Hamilton, M.P., [Founder's Medal,] for his re

searches in Asia Minor. Prof. Adolph Erman, (Patron's Medal,] for his extensive

geographical labours. 1844.—M. Charles Ritter, [Gold Medal,] for his important geogra

phical works. Dr. Beke, (Founder's Medal,] for his extensive explorations in

Abyssinia. 1845.-Count P. E. DE STRZELECKI, [Founder's Medal,] for his exten

sive explorations and discoveries in the South-Eastern portion of Australia, and in Van Diemen's Land ; and for his valuable work, in which he has consigned the results of his

observations. Professor A. TH. MIDDENDORFF, (Patron's Medal,] for his

extensive explorations and discoveries in Northern and Eastern

Siberia. 1846.—Captain CHARLES Sturt, [Founder's Medal,] for his various

and extensive explorations in Australia. Dr. LUDWIG LEICHHARDT, (Patron's Medal,] for a journey per

formed from Morton Bay to Port Essington. 1847.- Captain CHARLES Wilkes, U.S.N., [Founder's Medal,] for his

Voyage of Discovery in the S. Hemisphere and in the Antarctic
Regions, in the years 1838–42, and for the volumes which he
has published, detailing the narrative of that expedition.
Sir James BROOKE, Rajah of Sarāwak and Governor of Labuan,
[Patron's Medal,] for his Expedition to Borneo.

Sir J. BROOKE-Patron's Medal.


given us, for the first time, the history of the great independent kingdoms of this fine island, whose princes are said to be desirous of forming commercial relations with the English nation

“ After his return to Sarāwak in August, 1840, struck with the miserable condition of a fine country and a fine people, Mr. Brooke entered into arrangements with the Rajah, Muda Hassim, which terminated in the discomfiture of the rebels, and finally in the cession of Sarāwak to Mr. Brooke, and of the island of Labuan to the British Government. For the details of the gallant enterprises by which these measures were brought about, I must refer you to the interesting volumes of Captain Keppel, and to those still more recently published, in which the full success of Mr. Brooke's plans has been developed, by my gallant friend Captain Mundy.

“In these will be seen the advantages gained to geographical science by the introduction of civilization and commerce amongst the Malays and Dyaks of Borneo. Many of the rivers of that island, admitting our steamers and men-of-war far into the heart of the country, were surveyed and examined, first by Mr. Brooke, and subsequently by the commanders of the different vessels who were induced to visit the coasts of Borneo, either from Mr. Brooke's representations, or in the exercise of duty for the purpose of putting down the lawless system of piracy and murder which had long prevailed on those in hospitable shores. By them the coasts have been still more accurately surveyed and laid down, but to Mr., now Sir J., Brooke will ever remain the credit and the praise of having, from his own energies and resources, evolved a plan of conduct, founded on the most enterprising and philanthropic views, which has led to such a vast increase of our geographical knowledge, and to the introduction of lawful commerce and enlightened civilization in regions hitherto known only by the kris of the Malay and the atrocious narratives of rapine, piracy, and murder.

" Captain MUNDY,--It is with the liveliest satisfaction that I request you to be the means of forwarding this medal to our mutual friend. It recalls to my memory those days when, myself a traveller on the classic shores of Ionia, I first became acquainted with yourself, and subsequently with Mr. Brooke in the Gulf of Smyrna. You will not fail to remind Sir J. Brooke of the warm interest entertained by the Royal Geographical Society for his success, and of the pleasure they have felt in conferring on him this mark of their admiration and esteem.”

Captain Rodney Mundy rising, replied

“ Mr. PRESIDENT, I can assure you that I receive with great satisfaction the Patron's Gold Medal which has been awarded by the Council of the Royal Geographical Society to Sir James Brooke, and, according to your request, I will take the earliest opportunity of forwarding it to him, either at the seat of his own native government in the province of Sarāwak, or at the seat of the government which he holds under the authority of our Gracious Majesty at the Island of Labuan. And now I should wish at once to convey to you my thanks for the kind and complimentary manner in which you have been

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