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and shall prohibit all charges for constructive labor. They shall not rescind nor alter such contract, nor release the person or persons taking the same, or his or their sureties, from the performance of any of the conditions of the contract. No member of the Legislature nor officer of the State, shall be interested directly or indirectly in any such contract.
not to au
§ 23. The Legislature shall not authorize, by private or special law, the sale or conveyance of any real estate belonging to any per- thorize sale son; nor vacate nor alter any road laid out by commissioners of highways, or any street in any city or village, or in any recorded vacate any town plat.
or convey. ance of real estate nor
§ 24. The Legislature may authorize the employment of a chap- Chaplain for lain for the State prison; but no money shall be appropriated for the not for legispayment of any religious services in either house of the Legislature. 25. No law shall be revised, altered or amended by reference to its title only; but the act revised, and the section or sections of the act altered or amended, shall be re-enacted and published at length. length. 26. Divorces shall not be granted by the Legislature.
or amended to be re-enacted and published at
§ 27. The Legislature shall not authorize any lottery, nor permit Lotteries. the sale of lottery tickets.
§ 28. No new bill shall be introduced into either house during the No bill to be last three days of the session, without the unanimous consent of the house in which it originates.
three days of session.
§ 29. In case of a contested election, the person only shall re- Contested ceive from the State per diem compensation and mileage, who is declared to be entitled to a seat by the house in which the contest takes place.
§ 30. No collector, holder, nor disburser of public moneys, shall Collectors have a seat in the Legislature, or be eligible to any office of trust or of public profit under this State, until he shall have accounted for and paid igible to of over, as provided by law, all sums for which he may be liable.
§ 31. The Legislature shall not audit nor allow any private claim Private
32. The Legislature, on the day of final adjournment, shall ad- Hour of ad. journ at twelve o'clock at noon.
33. The Legislature shall meet at the seat of governmeet on the first Wednesday in February next, and on the first Wednesday
Meeting of legislature.
tives in 1852
in January of every second year thereafter, and at no other place or time, unless as provided in this constitution.
Election of § 34. The election of Senators and Representatives, pursuant to Representa, the provisions of this constitution, shall be held on the Tuesday succeeding the first Monday of November, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two, and on the Tuesday succeeding the first Monday of November of every second year thereafter.
35. The Legislature shall not establish a State paper. Every newspaper in the State which shall publish all the general laws of tion for pub. any session within forty days of their passage, shall be entitled to lishing laws receive a sum not exceeding fifteen dollars therefor.
$36. The Legislature shall provide for the speedy publication of of statutes all statute laws of a public nature, and of such judicial decisions as it may deem expedient. All laws and judicial decisions shall be free for publication by any person.
§ 37. The Legislature may declare the cases in which any of Vacancies. fice shall be deemed vacant, and also the manner of filling the vacancy, where no provision is made for that purpose in this constitution.
38. The Legislature may confer upon organized townships, incorporated cities and villages, and upon the board of supervisors of the several counties, such powers of a local, legislative and administrative character as they may deem proper.
39. The Legislature shall pass no law to prevent any person Religious from worshiping Almighty God according to the dictates of his own conscience, or to compel any person to attend, erect or support any place of religious worship, or to pay tithes, taxes or other rates for the support of any minister of the gospel or teacher of religion.
$40. No money shall be appropriated or drawn from the treasury drawn from for the benefit of any religious sect or society, theological or relireligious gious seminary, nor shall property belonging to the State be appro
Rights of opinion.
speech and press.
priated for any such purposes.
§ 41. The Legislature shall not diminish or enlarge the civil or political rights, privileges and capacities of any person on account of his opinion or belief concerning matters of religion.
§ 42. No law shall ever be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press; but every person may freely speak,
write and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of such right,
§ 43. The Legislature shall pass no bill of attainder, ex-post facto Attainder. law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts.
§ 44. The privilege of the writ of habaes corpus remains and Habeas corshall not be suspended by the Legislature, except in case of rebellion or invasion the public safety require it.
45. The assent of two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the Legislature shall be requisite to every bill appropriating the public money or property for local or private purposes. § 46. The Legislature may authorize a trial by a jury of a less Trial by number than twelve men.
§ 47. The Legislature shall not pass any act authorizing the Licenses. grant of license for the sale of ardent spirits or other intoxicating liquors.
§ 48. The style of the laws shall be "The people of the State of style of Michigan enact."
§ 1. The Executive power is vested in a Governor, who shall hold his office for two years. A Lieutenant Governor shall be chosen for. the same term.
Governor and Lt. gov
§ 2. No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor or Lieu- Eligibility. tenant Governor, who has not been five years a citizen of the United States, and a resident of this State two years next preceding his election; nor shall any person be eligible to either office who has not attained the age of thirty years.
§ 3. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall be elected at How rice ed the times and places of choosing the members of the Legislature. The person having the highest number of votes for Governor or Lieutenant Governor, shall be elected. In case two or more persons shall have an equal and the highest number of votes for Governor or Lieutenant Governor, the Legislature shall, by joint vote, choose one of such persons.
§ 4. The Governor shall be Commander-in-Chief of the military and naval forces, and may call out such forces to execute the laws, Governor. to suppress insurrections and to repel invasions.
of laws.. Convening the legisla
vene the legislature at other place than capi
Writs of election.
Reprieves and par
§ 5. He shall transact all necessary business with officers of government, and may require information, in writing, from the officers of the Executive department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.
§ 6. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.
§ 7. He may convene the Legislature on extraordinary occasions. § 8. He shall give to the Legislature, and at the close of his official term to the next Legislature, information by message of the condition of the State, and recommend such measures to them as he shall deem expedient.
§ 9. He may convene the Legislature at some other place when the seat of government becomes dangerous from disease or a common enemy.
§ 10. He shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies as occur in the Senate or House of Representatives.
§ 11. He may grant reprieves, commutations and pardons after convictions, for all offences except treason and cases of impeachment, upon such conditions, and with such restrictions and limitations, as he may think proper, subject to regulations provided by law, relative to the manner of applying for pardons. Upon conviction for treason, he may suspend the execution of the sentence until the case shall be reported to the Legislature at its next session, when the Legislature shall either pardon, or commute the sentence, direct the execution of the sentence, or grant a further reprieve. He shall communicate to the Legislature at each session information of each case of reprieve, commutation or pardon granted, and the reasons therefor.
§ 12. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, his removal Vacancy, from office, death, inability, resignation or absence from the State, the powers and duties of the office shall devolve upon the Lieutenant Governor for the residue of the term, or until the disability ceases. When the Governor shall be out of the State in time of war, at the head of a military force thereof, he shall continue Commander-inChief of all the military force of the State.
§ 13. During a vacancy in the office of Governor, if the Lieutenhow filled. ant Governor die, resign, be impeached, displaced, be incapable of performing the duties of his office, or absent from the State, the Pre
sident pro tempore of the Senate shall act as Governor, until the vacancy be filled, or the disability cease.
§ 14. The Lieutenant Governor shall, by virtue of his office, be President of the Senate. In committee of the whole he may debate to be presiall questions; and when there is an equal division, he shall give the ate. casting vote.
dent of Sen
§ 15. No member of Congress, nor any person holding office un- U. s. officer der the United States, or this State, shall execute the office of Gov- to office ef
&c. not to
§ 16. No person elected Governor or Lieutenant Governor, shall Governor be eligible to any office or appointment from the Legislature, or either receive aphouse thereof, during the time for which he was elected. All votes from legisfor either of them, for any such office, shall be void.
§ 17. The Lieutenant [Governor] and President of the Senate tempore, when performing the duties of Governor, shall receive the same compensation as the Governor.
§ 18. All official acts of the Governor, his approval of the laws excepted, shall be authenticated by the Great Seal of the State, which shall be kept by the Secretary of State.
§ 19. All commissions issued to persons holding office under the provisions of this constitution, shall be in the name and by the au- sions; how thority of the people of the State of Michigan, sealed with the Great Seal of the State, signed by the Governor, and countersigned by the Secretary of State.
§ 1. The judicial power is vested in one supreme court, in circuit courts, in probate courts, and in justices of the peace. Municipal power. courts of civil and criminal jurisdiction may be established by the Legislature in cities.
§ 2. For the term of six years, and thereafter, until the Legisla- Supreme ture otherwise provide, the judges of the several circuit courts shall be judges of the supreme court, four of whom shall constitute a quorum. A concurrence of three shall be necessary to a final decision. After six years the Legislature may provide by law for the organization of a supreme court, with the jurisdiction and powers