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ance of real

road.

state prison;

Acts altered or amended

Divorces.

and shall prohibit all charges for constructive labor. They shall not rescind nor alter such contract, nor release the person or persons taking the same, or his or their sureties, from the performance of any of the conditions of the contract. No member of the Legislature nor officer of the State, shall be interested directly or indirectly in any

such contract. $ 23. The Legislature shall not authorize, by private or special

Legislature law, the sale or conveyance of any real estate belonging to any per- thorize sale

or convey. son; nor vacate nor alter any road laid out by commissioners of highways, or any street in any city or village, or in any recorded vacate any town plat.

$ 24. The Legislature may authorize the employment of a chap-Chaplain for lain for the State prison; but no money shall be appropriated for the not for legispayment of any religious services in either house of the Legislature.

§ 25. No law shall be revised, altered or amended by reference to its title only; but the act revised, and the section or sections of the to be re-enact altered or amended, shall be re-enacted and published at length. length.

published at § 26. Divorces shall not be granted by the Legislature.

$ 27. The Legislature shall not authorize any lottery, nor permit Lotteries. the sale of luttery tickets.

§ 28. No new bill shall be introduced into either house during the Nobill to be last three days of the session, without the unanimous consent of the during last house in which it originates.

$ 29. In case of a contested election, the person only shall re- Contested ceive from the State per diem compensation and mileage, who is declared to be entitled to a seat by the house in which the contest takes place.

§ 30. No collector, holder, nor disburser of public moneys, shall have a seat in the Legislature, or be eligible to any office of trust or of public profit under this State, until he shall have accounted for and paid igible to of: over, as provided by law, all sums for which he may be liable.

§ 31. The Legislature shall not audit nor allow any private claim or account. § 32. The Legislature, on the day of final adjournment, shall ad- Hour of ad.

jouiment, journ at twelve o'clock at noon.

$33. The Legislature shall meet at the seat of governmeet on Meeting of the first Wednesday in February next, and on the first Wednesday legislature.

introduced

of session.

elections.

Collectors and holders

fice.

Private clainis.

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Election of
Senators &

and thereafter.

State paper.

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Compensation for pub.

Publication

ions.

in January of every second year thereafter, and at no other place or
time, unless as provided in this constitution.

$ 34. The election of Senators and Representatives, pursuant to Representa; the provisions of this constitution, shall be held on the Tuesday suc

ceeding the first Monday of November, in the year one thousand
eight hundred and fifty-two, and on the Tuesday succeeding the first
Monday of November of every second year thereafter.

.
§ 35. The Legislature shall not establish a State paper. Every
newspaper in the State which shall publish all the general laws of
any

session within forty days of their passage, shall be entitled to lishing law's

receive a sum not exceeding fifteen dollars therefor.

36. The Legislature shall provide for the speedy publication of of statutes all statute laws of a public nature, and of such judicial decisions as

it may deem expedient. All laws and judicial decisions shall be
free for publication by any person.

$ 37. The Legislature may declare the cases in which any ofVacancies. fice shall be deemed vacant, and also the manner of filling the va

cancy, where no provision is made for that purpose in this constitu

tion. Local legis

§ 38. The Legislature may confer upon organized townships, incorporated cities and villages, and upon the board of supervisors of the several counties, such powers of a local, legislative and administrative character as they may deem

proper.
$ 39. The Legislature shall pass no law to prevent any person
Religious from worshiping Almighty God according to the dictates of his own

conscience, or to compel any person to attend, erect or support any
place of religious worship, or to pay tithes, taxes or other rates for
the support of any minister of the gospel or teacher of religion.

$ 40. No money shall be appropriated or drawn from the treasury drawn from for the benefit of any religious sect or society, theological or reli

gious seminary, nor shall property belonging to the State be appro-
priated for any such purposes.

$ 41. The Legislature shall not diminish or enlarge the civil or opinion. political rights, privileges and capacities of any person on account

of his opinion or belief concerning matters of religion. Liberty of 8 42. No law shall ever be passed to restrain or abridge the liber

ty of speech or of the press; but every person may freely speak,

lation.

No money

treasury for religious purposes.

Rights of

speech and press.

pus.

Bills appro

write and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of such right,

§ 43. The Legislature shall pass no bill of attainder, ex-post facto Attainder. law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts.

44. The privilege of the writ of habaes corpus remains and Habeas corshall not be suspended by the Legislature, except in case of rebellion or invasion the public safety require it.

$ 45. The assent of two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the Legislature shall be requisite to every bill appropriating the public money or property for local or private purposes.

$ 46. The Legislature may authorize a trial by a jury of a less Trial by number than twelve men.

§ 47. The Legislature shall not pass any act authorizing the Licenses. grant of license for the sale of ardent spirits or other intoxicating liquors.

48. The style of the laws shall be “The people of the State of style of Michigan enact.”

priating mo

ney

jury.

laws.

ARTICLE V.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.

a

Governor and Li.gov. ernor.

a

§ 1. The Executive power is vested in a Governor, who shall hold his office for two years. A Lieutenant Governor shall be chosen for the same term.

§ 2. No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor or Lieu- Eligibility. tenant Governur, who has not been five years a citizen of the United States, and a resident of this State two years next preceding his election; nor shall any person be eligible to either office who has not attained the age of thirty years.

§ 3. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall be elected at How elce ed the times and places of choosing the members of the Legislature. The person having the highest number of votes for Governor or Lieutenant Governor, shall be elected. In case two or more persons shall have an equal and the highest number of votes for Governor or Lieutenant Governor, the Legislature sball, by joint vote, choose one of such persons.

$ 4. The Governor shall be Commander-in-Chief of the military and naval forces, and may call out such forces to execute the laws, to suppress insurrections and to repel invasions.

Power of
Governor.

Executive business.

Execution of laws. : Convening the legislature.

vene the le

than capitol.

Writs of election.

and par

dons.

§ 5. He shall transact all necessary business with officers of gove ernment, and may require information, in writing, from the officers of the Executive department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.

$ 6. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.
§ 7. He may convene the Legislature on extraordinary occasions.

$ 8. He shall give to the Legislature, and at the close of his offiMessages.

cial term to the next Legislature, information by message of the condition of the State, and recommend such measures to them as he

shall deem expedient. May con.

§ 9. He may convene the Legislature at some other place when other einlet preced the seat of government becomes dangerous from disease or a com

mon enemy.

§ 10. He shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies as occur in the Senate or House of Representatives.

§ 11. He may grant reprieves, commutations and pardons after Reprieves

convictions, for all offences except treason and cases of impeachment, upon such conditions, and with such restrictions and limitations, as he may think proper, subject to regulations provided by law, relative to the manner of applying for pardons. Upon conviction for treason, he may suspend the execution of the sentence until the case shall be reported to the Legislature at its next session, when the Legislature shall either pardon, or commute the sentence, direct the execution of the sentence, or grant a further reprieve. He shall communicate to the Legislature at each session information of each case of reprieve, commutation or pardon granted, and the reasons therefor.

§ 12. In case of the impeachment of the Governor, his removal Vacancy, from office, death, inability, resignation or absence from the State,

the
powers
and duties of the office shall devolve

upon

the Lieutenant Governor for the residue of the term, or until the disability ceases. When the Governor shall be out of the State in time of war, at the head of a military force thereof, he shall continue Commander-inChief of all the military force of the State.

§ 13. During a vacancy in the office of Governor, if the LieutenVacancy;

ant Governor die, resign, be impeached, displaced, be incapable of performing the duties of his office, or absent from the State, the Pre

&c.

how filled.

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sident pro tempore of the Senate shall act as Governor, until the va-
cancy be filled, or the disability cease.
§ 14. The Lieutenant Governor shall, by virtue of his office, be

Lt. govern'r President of the Senate. In committee of the whole he may debate to be presiall questions; and when there is an equal division, he shall give the ate. casting vote. § 15. No member of Congress, nor any person holding office un- . : oficer

inelligible der the United States, or this State, shall execute the office of Gov- to office er

dent of Sen

governor

ernor.

&c. not to

lature.

§ 16. No person elected Governor or Lieutenant Governor, shall Governor be eligible to any office or appointment from the Legislature, or either receive ap

pointment house thereof, during the time for which he was elected. All votes from legisfor either of them, for any such office, shall be void. § 17. The Lieutenant [Governor) and President of the Senate pro lion.

Compensatempore, when performing the duties of Governor, shall receive the same compensation as the Governor.

§ 18. All official acts of the Governor, his approval of the laws excepted, shall be authenticated by the Great Seal of the State, which shall be kept by the Secretary of State.

§ 19. All commissions issued to persons holding office under the provisions of this constitution, shall be in the name and by the au- sionis; how thority of the people of the State of Michigan, sealed with the Great Seal of the State, signed by the Governor, and countersigned by the Secretary of State.

Great seal.

Commig

.

ARTICLE VI.

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.

Judicial

.

§ 1. The judicial power is vested in one supreme court, in circuit courts, in probate courts, and in justices of the peace. Municipal power. courts of civil and criminal jurisdiction may be established by the Legislature in cities.

§ 2. For the term of six years, and thereafter, until the Legisla- Supreme ture otherwise provide, the judges of the several circuit courts shall be judges of the supreme court, four of whom shall constitute a quorum. A concurrence of three shall be necessary to a final decision. After six years the Legislature may provide by law for the organization of a supreme court, with the jurisdiction and powers

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