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not necessarily to follow. If they assert that natural disposition cannot be inferred from organic development, let them take the cast of a thief and murderer, and another of an honest and humane man, to an experienced phrenologist, and if he, when asked to point out which is which, fail to do so correctly, then the anti-phrenologist will have good reason for saying that the doctrine is false. Let them hunt over the world, and find one single instance of a person with large posterior lobes of brain, and small anterior ones, being a noble and intellectual man, and they have buried phrenology—that fact will be its grave-stone. But it is a strong evidence of the truth of phrenology, that though it has had thousands and thousands of zealous opponents, who have spared no pains to overturn the systemwho have not hesitated to spread abroad the most audacious falsehoods, and calumniated both it and its supporters in every way their ingenuity could devise, yet it has, like a well-built fortress, withstood all attacks, and remains, after the confict is nearly over, as safe and sound as ever, gloriously triumphing over every fruitless assail. It is only necessary, then, that the ignorant prejudice, which some still continue to entertain against phrenology, should be dispelled—it is only necessary that it should be properly understood by men in general, for it, like the rays of the sun, to shed its innumerable blessings over the face of the earth. It is altogether impossible to say what happy advantages would result from its principles being operated upon—then would the exertions of the benevolent be crowned with success—the reformation of criminals judiciously attempted, punishments properly regulatedmercy extended, without fear of abuse—and, what is of infinite importance, education will be judiciously bestowed. Great as these advantages would be, still they are not the greatest that will be derived from the universal belief in the truth of phrenology. No sooner shall the happy day arrive when this will be the case than superstition shall take her wing, with all her sister train of vulgar errors, and all the evils attendant upon them. Then will man learn to look with more Christian charity upon the failings of his brother man, and the great study,“ know thyself,” will be prosecuted_with greater likelihood of success. The time, I prophesy, is not far distant, when the gratitude which is due to Gall, Spurzheim, and Combe, will be felt and acknowledged by all, and when their names will, indeed, be pronounced with that veneration and esteem, which is due only to the most illustrious benefactors of mankind.
THE HORRORS OF FEUDALISM AND THE EFFECTS
He who is conversaut with history well knows what tortures have been inflicted upon men for not acting contrary to their consciences—some hung up by the arms, with weights attached to their legs, till nearly dead—some stuck upon the points of spears, and held over the flame of tremendous fires—some stretched upon racks, and had their limbs horribly mangled. He knows that, at a tyrant's nod, many a trembling and
astonished citizen has been dragged from his wife and children, without knowing wherefore, to linger within the black and furrowed walls of some massive prison, within which melancholy gloom for ever reigns; whose sable and rugged structures have, for generations, been the object of terror and dismay-in one of those edifices, in short, whose dungeons and damp bare walls have often witnessed, not only the agonies of fathers of families, but also of amiable wives and tender daughters, exemplary priests and peaceful scholars, while their homes have been bathed in tears and filled with desolation, in
of their absence, and miserable fate. Oh !
many are the virtuous and peaceful beings who have been torn from bewailing kindred, and often ties still dearer, to drag a miserable existence amidst a death-like silence, immured from the sight of everything they hold dear, and many have been condemned to starve to death, in small damp, dark dens. Who, that knows such atrocious—monstrous deeds as these have been perpetrated—who that knows power has been so villanously abused, can wonder—nay can not rejoice, that the people should often rise in rebellion, with the hopes of obtaining a mitigation of those evils. Revolutions have been the thunders and lightnings which were caused by the dark clouds of despotism, and the mighty winds which have driven them away. No sooner has the storm somewhat subsided, and the clouds dispersed, than there is, to gladden the hearts of men, and make all nature look gay, the glorious sun of liberty shining full upon them in all its majestic splendour. Under the influence of its
genial rays, the arts and sciences and literature have flourished; and, as one pursuit creates another, and excellence produces excellence, so the intellectual character of the nations on which it shines, keeps increasing more and more, until it arrives at the height of perfection, to which Greece rose in days of yore, or to which England has now the happiness to have arrived.
THE INDIAN WARRIOR'S DEFENCE. FATHERS :-You call on me to defend the accusations which have been made against me ;you have charged me with murder, rebellion, and desertion; all of which charges, I can prove false. Fathers;—when the great spirit gave me life, so that I might breathe the air of America; he also gave me the soul of an Indian warrior; and I hope that he will see I have not debased the gifts he endowed me with ;-the snow came on the woods near thirty times before our chiefs took up the tomahawk; and in that time I grew from infancy to manhood, and called Montena ‘wife;'three noble boys and one fair girl, were those who called me father ;-till now we'd smoked the pipe of peace; when once, as every thing was locked in sleep, and the fair light of heaven had left our woods, I was returning from the chase, when, oh! spirit of my fathers, witness, witness what I say I found my wigwam sunk in a heap of smoking ruins, and my three brave stretched dead upon the earth, and what was worse, the light of the woods,' my lovely Zadig was stolen from me, to meet a fate, perhaps worse
than that my sons had met. My wife was still remaining to tell the dismal tale, and to raise the fire of vengeance in my heart, by saying 'twas your pale-faced warriors that had worked the ruin of an unoffending savage. The morning came, the sun lit the scene of desolation, which your warriors had made, when I took the rifle of my father, and shouldered his tomahawk, determined to avenge my just wrongs. Was that rebellion ? if it was, I never knew your language. I ask you, Fathers of the White Nation, if I rebelled against what was right ;-I think not? I never deserved your vengeance in my life. When did the white man come to Massanietto's hut, and a-hungered, and the Savage did not feed him ? When did the pale face come to my wigwam, and if half naked, I clothed him not? When did your warriors, if benighted in the woods, come to Massanietto's for a shelter, and were refused ? Never! and our people have acted like their Sachem; they saw me act with peace toward your land, they did the same ;—from that time when you slaughtered those who were dearest to me, I became your deadly foe, and have been ever since.
You took me prisoner, you tried to corrupt my mind by your accursed rum-firewater; but 'twas in vain ; I would not taste it; you then tried to win my friendship by kind treatment; but I recollected my private wrongs and the wrong you had done to my tribe ;-you gave me liberty to range at large, and having heard that a portion of my nation were advancing upon the settlement where I was confined, I contrived to escape and join them ;—this, you called desertion! White men ! did you think because