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115 called Baidees. Those called Shiheeds thul; the fourth, Naba ; the fifth, are so denominated from having exhi. Munny Majra. bited particular acts of bravery and There are also many chiefs, styled devotion in establishing Gooroo Go- Surdars; who have from two lakhs to vin's doctrine, relative to the use of twenty thousand rupees of annual rethe sword. The Nehungs are so called,
These are the Chiefs of Ladmerely from going naked.
wer, Rooper, Thanessur, Maloud, UmThe Sikhs admit converts from all ballah, Booreah, Ridhor, and others. religions. They are directed by the Many are in a state of subserviency to code, written by Nanuk, called the the superior Chiefs, in the following deGrunth, to respect the Shaster, and to grees. Missildaris a landholder,who obconsider it the Divine law; to reve tained possession of some villages, but rence and pay adoration to the Ganges, wanting the aid of a powerful neighand to other places regarded holy by bour, attached himself to some chief ; the Hindoos; also to revere the Cow: and it became their mutual interest to but to renounce idolatry. They are remain combined. But no tribute or directed not to shave their beards or stipulation was entered into, nor had heads, to dress after a particular the superior anything to do with the fashion,* and to burn the dead. internal arrangements of his ally.
The attempts of the Singhs to gain Putteedars originated where several dominion were constantly frustrated, relations or friends united to make until about A.D. 1760, when the Su- conquests, with from two hundred to badar of Sirhind, named Zien Khan, two thousand horsemen, who engaged who was a kind of Viceroy of the Mo- in the service, under the stipulation of gul Sovereigns in the tract between all sharing the spoil, according to their the Jumna and Beeah rivers, having ranks. Thus, when they gained poscaused two of the sons of Gooroo Go- session of a tract, they first divided it vin to be destroyed, the Sikhs were into portions, according to the number immediately roused to vengeance; and of head-officers, or Surdars, whom they having assembled in great numbers, intended to establish. Under each of succeeded in killing Zien Khan, and these were placed the horsemen, acrouting his forces. After this, the cording to the revenue; some making declining power of the Mussulman conquests that yielded to each horseGovernment was unable to cope with man about two hundred and fifty ruthem, and they established themselves pees annually; and others, not more so firmly, that they have continued to than a hundred and thirty. The chief the present day increasing their re of the whole had a Surdarree share ;
and the others were subservient to him. According to the abilities and en Jageerdars are those to whom the terprise of individuals, chiefships, and chief gave lands out of his own share independent as well as dependent or possession ; consequently resumastates and communities, were esta ble at pleasure. blished ; and between the Jumna and The Sikh customs (for they have no Sutlug rivers there are at present four law but the Shaster as to inheritance) Rajahs; and a fifth chief, the Kythul, are either Bradur-bund, or Choonda. not inferior to them. But one of his bund (that is, Brother-bound, or Feancestors having been honoured by male-bound) in the division of postheir holy Gooroo with the appellation sessions among sons. If the former of Bhye (or Brother) the family have has been the rule in the family, an adopted that, as a distinction, rather equal division of territory and property than the name of Rajah. The first in between the sons takes place; and rank and wealth is the Patialah Rajah; their mother or mothers are provided the second, Jeendh; the third, Ky- for out of their respective portions,
* Blue cloth, about forty yards, with holes to admit the legs, is fastened round the loins.
t Being on the spot, “Sirkind,” where the overthrow took place, I constantly heard Zien Khan mentioned, as I have related; and the Sikhs so abhor the Mussulmans for the destruction of their Gooroo's (or Priest's) sons, that it was a long time actively in practice, and is in a great degree to this day, that, to efface the site of the city and palace (which were very splendid, belonging to the Mogul Viceroy) thoy ordered every Sikh traveller to take a brick away, at least two miles, as he passed.
[Feb. which devolve to them again on the the attainment of some prize or spoil; decease of the mother.
beyond which their comprehension When Choonda-bund is adopted, seems unable to extend itself. equal divisions are first made accord With respect to the military spirit ing to the number of wives, and then and bravery of the Sikhs, we must not each division is portioned out to the judge from their conduct during the number of sons which each may have. Coorkah campaign. It required all the So that one son may obtain as much moral courage of British soldiers to as half a dozen born of another wife.
overcome the chilling influence of the All the sons establish distinct chief- dreary mountain chain, and to sustain ships, and are entirely independent of vigorous warfare in a scene so diseach other; for the Sikhs consider it heartening. Among themselves they
wrong, and out of the question,” are certainly not deficient in courage, that one brother should have authority and often throw away their lives in over another. Therefore most of the
wanton contentions, though they know chiefships would ere this have dwin- that the matter might immediately be dled into mere Zimeendaries, had not settled by reference. The principal their incessant wars, added to their occasions of disputes among themdebaucheries, generally reduced the selves are, respecting the boundaries heirs to one or two. And, if more of villages, acts of violence, thefts existed, contentions destroyed some of committed by the subjects of one on them, or intrigues prevented the en those of another, claims of inheri. joyment of their rights.
tance, also respecting provisions for The same divisions take place in the the females of the deceased. There is shares of horsemen; so that one share not yet so much moral and civil knowis often divided into five or six por- ledge among them, as mutually to retions. If there are no sons or grand spect rights and property. They have sons, the widow or widows succeed. all risen and supported themselves by The chiefs have generally from three the sword; and, before they came unto even five or six wives. But, if the der the protection of the British Gohusband regularly adopted an heir, vernment, power constituted right, who is held in all respects equal to a The introduction of order, and of at. son, in this case the widows obtain tention to property and equity, reprovisions only. As widows are not quired all the ability of the agent seallowed to adopt, and succession is lected for that duty, Sir David Ochternot admitted in the female line, the lony; whose accurate and prompt chiefship would, in former times, have judgment, combined with conciliatory been a matter of contention among the conduct, brought them to a better neighbouring powers, or would have sense and estimation of observances fallen to the principal chief, if it had necessary to the maintenance of interbeen one of the subordinate states. In nal tranquillity. like manner the component shares of The Sikh women, in consequence of the inferior estates fall to the head, in their husbands' dissipation and inatfailure of acknowledged heirs. Indeed tention to business, obtain consideraa great part of the country between ble sway, and assume great authority the Jumna and the Sutlug may ere in the management of affairs. They long pass into other hands, from fail are said to be often faithless to their ure of heirs; such is the debauchery husbands, and certainly require reof the present chiefs, several of whom straint when widows. This occasions have only one son, and others none. every chief to demand, as a point of The number of widows now in posses honour, authority over his female resion shews the fatal effects of the li latives, and even over his mother, as a centious lives of the men, who drink check
their conduct. Hence to excess. Some take an ardent spirit arises great animosity; and the moprepared by themselves with rose-wa ther and the son are generally at enter, spices, and other ingredients, ac mity after the decease of the father, cording to their tastes. Others take either on account of the transfer of bung, and opium : and their soldiers her power to the son's wife, or beare said to be plentifully supplied with cause he does not allow her sufficient these stimulants, when on any service. provision, or because he restrains her By these they are wound up to a pitch in her pleasures. The women very of wild blind fury, looking solely to rarely drink any kind of spirits, but
117 are generally addicted to opium; the swivel-guns, or mounted to convey effect of which, combined with a milk dispatches. He has a great force of diet, they consider salutary after the artillery of all descriptions : this army age of forty. So much do they sup consists principally of those whom he pose that milk counteracts the baneful has subdued; whose chief, if able and effects of opium, that a woman has worthy to lead them, he generally embeen reported as intending to destroy ploys, or else requires him to furnish herself, who took the latter only. And an effective officer. On such condithat the use of both together is not tions he allows most of those whom injurious, seems to be proved by the he has conquered to continue on their many instances of longevity among possessions, calling them to his stanthe women.
dard as occasion may require. The women's upper deputtah (or dress) is of muslin, or of coarser materials, according to their condition.
MR. URBAN, Mere, Jan. 30. Their petticoat is of chintz or satin ; THE last number of the Gentleand both of all colours. The upper man's Magazine contains a letter, wrapper of the men is much like the dated at Paris, from your correspondScotch plaids. They seldom wear ent “W. S. B.” on the subject of any clothing under it; they tie it Celtic Civilization. I find much inround their waists and across their formation about the Celts and Celtibodies, rolled in all ways, to be out of berians of Spain, in the “ Histoire the way, as occasion may require, for Générale de l'Espagne,” by Depping, action or for warmth.
Paris, 1814. It should be stated that, as the Sikhs It will be recollected that there were possess the country as conquerors, anciently two distinct races of men in they all live as soldiers; and none of Spain—the Celts and Iberians; and the nation act as artizans or labourers that the Celtiberians were a mixture in any way: they make those whom of these two. But whether the Celts they subdue work for them. Add to of Gaul were descended from those of this brief account of the protected Sikh Spain, or the reverse, is a problem States between the Jumna and the which has never been decidedly solved. Sutlug rivers, over which the British The Celtic Academy of Paris argue Government assumed authority in strongly for the former hypothesis, 1809-10, that all beyond or to the and Masden, a Spaniard, with others, north-west of the Sutlug is indepen as forcibly for the latter. dent,
and now governed by Maha Ra That the Basque, or Vascuence, was jah Rungeet Sing, a Sikh chieftain, the language of the ancient Celts of whose enterprising and warlike spirit Spain, and that it was widely spread gained him the ascendancy to the In in the Peninsula, cannot be doubted, dus. He has also taken Cashmere and since we do not find the traces of any other States on the mountain frontier, other distinct language there; and it greatly extending his dominions also is that which has given names to many to the south. Indeed he is now the cities, rivers, &c. all over the land; greatest potentate in Hindostan; and as may be seen in the
Alfabeto de has shown himself wise enough not to la lengua primitiva," by Erro y Asoppose the British Government, or to piroz, and in Depping's Histoire de interfere where he had not a good l'Espagne,” &c. chance of success, or where it might With regard to the civilization of otherwise have been impolitic. His the Spanish Celts, I think it would be army consists of from sixty to eighty found, by a cool and unbiassed investhousand men ; more than two-thirds tigation, that it was much above that of which are horsemen. He has five of the “ Indians of America” which regiments of infantry, armed, dressed, “W. S. B.” alludes to, and considerand trained in the European Sep ably below that of the Romans. style. A considerable body of his Strabo says (lib. 3.) that the Turcavalry is also dressed in British cloth, detains of Andalusia passed for the about three thousand, who act as most learned among the Spaniards; his body-guard ; and their horses are that they knew grammar, had annals caparisoned with the same, as also all of six thousand years, and poems and his elephants and camels carrying laws in verse. Now, putting aside
On the Civilization of the Spanish Celts. [Feh. the annals of six thousand years with Their food was simple, consisting those of Egypt and China, if knowing partly of nuts and other fruit; and grammar, and having poems and laws the wine which they drank was bought in verse, put the Turdetains above the of trading outcomers : facts which other Spaniards, it put them above the seem to favour the opinion of their Celts of Navarre ; who, we may con rather low civilization. clude, either had not the knowledge of Their houses were simple but durable. grammar and poetry at all, or had it They had a manner of building them only in a lower degree.
which in some parts of Spain is still Phylarcus (Athen. 2.) calls the Ibe common. They built the walls with rians “ Tovolwratovs T v avpú- a mixture of earth and brick, or little Twr"—the richest of men—alluding stones, and then covered them with to their mines of the precious metals; planks of hard wood. These houses from which it seems that they (and they called hormazos (from the basque we may conclude their neighbours, the horma, a wall), that is, walled houses; Celts) knew how to work those mines perhaps to distinguish them from some and metals, a knowledge that implies dwellings of a meaner kind. Pliny a rather high degree of civilization. calls them formacei, and thought, er
But the ancient authors put the roneously, that the word was derived knowledge of metallurgy among the from the Latin forma. These bricks, Spaniards beyond a doubt. In Plin. and planks of wood, however, involve Hist. Nat. lib. xxx., lib. xxxiii., and a knowledge of brick burning, and lib. xxxiv. Diodorus v., and Strabo iii., timber-cutting tools. their manner of working their mines They had a code of laws. For caand metals is partly described. They pital crimes the culprit was stoned, or had a method of giving different thrown from a rock. (Strabo, lib. iii.) colours to silver. Their steel was
Their amusements were chiefly warmost excellent, and consequently their like exercises ; one of the chief of
were exceedingly good. (See which (as appears by their medals and Martial, lib. x. Epigr. 103). The Ro- the like) was the bullfight; so that mans borrowed the Spanish sword the supposition of its originating from from them, (Tit. Liv. lib. viii. and the Roman sports of the amphitheatre Polyb. lib. vi.), and it would be no bad weapon to be taken as a pattern Their religion must have been much by a people of such a warlike genius like that of the Gauls and Britons ; as the Romans. They struck medals rocking stones, cromlechs, and the like, and money, of which as much as two being found in Spain as well as in thousand pieces has been found at
France and England. But they might or might not Depping draws some conclusions have learnt the art of working metals about the civilization of the Celts of from the Phænicians.
Spain, from the Basque language; The men occupied themselves in the which, he observes, is regular, forcible, exercises of war, and left tillage to
and harmonious, founded on logic and the women ; which seems to prove
sound reason; is not a jargon, but a that they were in a rather low state of language of which the principles will civilization, and that they did not undergo the most rigorous analysis ; work their mines very extensively till and that we may conclude that the after the incoming of the Phænicians: Spanish nation attained, at an early for, if warlike exercises kept them from time, to a certain degree of civilization. following agriculture, it' most likely This inference, however, may be false; kept them from other arts. However, for the construction of a language does the custom of leaving field labour tó not depend on civilization; the Spaniards the women is found in some parts of were civilized very early indeed, if Spain even now. Larruga, a Spanish they were so before they had formed a writer, blames it very strongly; ob- language. serving that, while the women are in The basque word for 1000 is milla, the field, many of the men are spend. from the Latin mille, which seems to ing their time in idleness, “ en las indicate that before the incoming of plazas y otras diversiones.” Many of the Romans they had not frequent the medals represent their agricultural need to express that number, and that, tools.
consequently, they had not much cul, They wore woollen and linen clothes. tivated the mathematical sciences.
1831.) Celts in Spain.- Patriotic Verses by Rev. W. Birch. 119
There are, it seems, in the Basque, is not a jargon, and Russian is not a compositions on poetical prose,-pro- jargon ; because these languages are bably bard-songs, like Ossian's poems, self-enriched and consistent, and their
-and others in metre and rhyme; derivative words can be analysed into which seems to confirm the opinion of simple etymons of their own. the existence of Celtic literature.
W. BARNES. The state of Roman refinement, as compared with the habits of the Celti Mr. URBAN, berians, is given by Martial, lib. X. I KNOW you will not be displeased Epigr. 65. An eagle and a dove, a lion to insert the following verses, written and a deer, he says, are not so unlike in a truly national spirit, at the time of as were the hardy Spaniard and the the universally tyrannising domination soft Roman.
under Bonaparte, Great Britain alone Among the curious monuments of excepted from it. They were comSpain, was once a rocking-stone in posed by the late Rev. Walter Birch, the port of Mongia; it was of enormous Rector of Stanway, Essex; and spoken size, cut in the form of a ship, with at The Enconia at Oxford, by Mr. masts and sails; and placed on a rock Smith, Demy of Magdalen College, on that rose out of the water. A great Friday, July 6, 1810.
H. B. number of oxen (says Molina, a Spanish
Genius, or Muse! or, if thy sacred claim writer that has described it) could not
Be some yet loftier, some diviner name; derange this heavy mass; and yet a Felt in the solemn, soul-ennobling hour, push of the hand would make it rock When Plato reason'd in th' Athenian bower ; as easily as a bit of wood swimming Felt in the Pythian and Olympian fade, on the water. If this could be proved The vaulted roof re-echoing Pindar's strain; to be of Celtic origin, it would show Thou, in all climes, where Freedom stands that they had considerable knowledge epshrin'd, of navigation; but in examining sub Avd wakes to mightiest energies the mind, jects connected with the civilization of
In the calm classic shade art wont to dwell; the ancient Spaniards, it is difficult to
And hallowest oft the Student's nightly ceil decide what is originally Spanish, and
With hovering gleam of orient splendour,
shed what was borrowed from the Phæni
Full on the Poet's, on the Sage's head; cians, Greeks, and Romans. It may be questioned whether the Thy pure empyreal radiance dawn'd of yore,
As in these twilight groves,and cloisters hoar, ancient inhabitants of Celtic Spain, Oo Hooker's brows in lambent glory shone, Gaul, Britain, and Ireland, were fa Or beam'd angelic grace on Adrlison. milies of the same nation. The High Sure, now, as in her best and brightest landers and Irish are we know; and hours, so were the Gauls and Britons. But Thou sit'st exulting on Oxonia's towers ; the Basque language is very unlike Sure, o'er the much-lov'd scene thy guarthe Welch, and that very different from the Gaëlic. The patronymics of those
Glows, as of old, with sacred ectasy; languages are examples of it'; the pa
And hails the rising years, whilst all around tronymic of the Gaelic is mac; as
Peals of applause to Grenville's name re
sound, Adam, mac Adam ; of the Welch ap as Howel, ap Howel : and of the Basque, With happiest presage greet this festal day.
And many a voice, and many a votive lay, ez (adopted in Spanish), as Sancho,
Fly hence, Despondence! iy, ye Fears, Sanchez.
away, I cannot conclude, without observ That darkly whisper, “ Clos'd is England's ing, that I think M. de Fortia (quoted Still to these fanes, devote to virtuous truth, by your correspondent), a little too Lo! crond, in mingling tribes, the British loud a praiser of old times, when he youth;
[lore; lays down his hypothesis of universal Driok the deep draught of ancient Freedom's falling off from civilization, and states
Her living form, Britannia's boast, adore ; that the ancient languages were su
Muse on high thoughts, and give the flame
to roll perior to one another according to
That fir'd a Falkland's or a Windham's soul; their early or late origin ; and that
Pale Papic, and his boding cry, disdain ; they are all superior to our modern
Sweep the loud strings, aud pour a nobler jargons. If by jargons he means strain. French, English, and a few other cor What, tho' yon wide-o'erwhelming cloud rupted dialects, the observation may have some truth in it; but High Dutch With Stygian gloom comes rolling from afar;