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EXCAVATIONS FOR THE CITY APPROACHES TO LONDON BRIDGE.
March 25. small and homely thing, and the THE very deep excavations which ground thereabout a filthy plot, being are now making for purposes connected used by the butchers of Eastcheap as with forming the northern approaches a laystall. W. de Burgo in 1317 gave of the New London Bridge, between two messuages in Candlewick-street 30 and 40 feet below the surface of to this Church. John Lovekin,
mayor the ground on which the city now of London, rebuilt it, and was bustands, must put the antiquary upon ried with his lady in the choir, the alert. Such an opportunity, per under a fair tomb, bearing their rehaps, has never before presented itself cumbent images in alabaster. The of obtaining a section of the factitious bold Sir William Walworth, who surface of the streets of modern Lon made such short work with the chief don and its substratum, or of demon of the radicals of his day, sometime a strating some facts connected with the servant of the said Lovekin, (for when foundation of the city. But to speak in England has sober worth and hoin the first place of the immediate nesty been incapable of rising to wealth scene of these excavations, which have and honour ?) rebuilt the choir, added now approached so near as almost to side chapels, and founded a college for undermine the south wall of the little a master and nine priests. Sir Wilchurch of St. Michael, Crooked-lane, liam dying in 1385, was buried in the the successor of a very ancient struc- chapel north of the choir.* Stow ture, which Stow says at first was a says his monument was defaced temp.
* I was present at that portion of the last service which took place in this sacred edifice, and as this may be said to have completed its history, I may be allowed to put the particulars on record. During last week the walls of the city exhibited the following placard, - St. Michael's Church, Crooked-labe, being about to be pulled down for the approaches of the new London Bridge, divine service for the last time will take place on Sunday morning next, 20 March, 1831, when a Sermon will be preached by the Rector, the Rev. W. W. Dakins, F.S.A. Chaplain to his Royal Highness the Duke of Gloucester, for the benefit of nne hundred poor children of the Charity-schools of Bridge, Candlewick, and Dowgate Wards, Divine service to begin at 11 o'clock." While the Curate, on the occasion above announced, was reading the second lesson, a piece of plaister fell from over the circular east window, and descended near Dr. Dakins, who was seated within the Communion rails; this occasioned some alarm in the congregation, but they were tranquillized by an address from the pulpit by Dr. Dakins, it being generally thought that some idle person had thrown a fragment of rubbish through the window, ia which there appeared a broken pane. Further to compose the assembly, the ninety-third psalm was given out, during the singing of which a shower of loosened plaister descended over the Communion-table, the Rector hastily retired from his seat, the major part of the congregation rushed out in consternation, the communion plate was tremblingly removed from the apparently dangerous place by one of the attendants, and that portion of the assembly who had the presence of mind to observe no alteration in the perpendicular of the walls, or fissures in the ceiling, retired through the west door, giving their contribution towards the charity, which by this unfortunate occurrence must have fallen very short of expectation. The last words which were chanted on this venerable consecrated site, were not inexpressive of the stability of the Church uni. versal under all worldly mutations.
“ With glory clad! with strength arrayed,
The Lord that o'er all nature reigns,
196 Excavations for the City Approaches to London Bridge. [March, Edw. VI., when this college fell into and Thomas, being in Eastcheap at the hands of the crown, but was re supper, or rather breakfast, for it newed by the fishmongers; who, from was after the watch had broken ignorance of true history, in his epi. up, betwixt two or three of the clock taph, following a fabulous book, made after midnight, a great debate haphim the slayer of Jack. Straw instead of pened between their men and other of Wat Tyler.
the Court, &c. &c.” Lidgate's song, The only existing traces of Wal- called • London Lickpenny,' tells us, worth's college will be soon swept he continues, that in Eastcheap the away; these are two pointed arches cooks cried hot ribs of beef roasted, in the wall bounding the church-yard pies well baked; there was clattering of St. Michael ; wherein, by the bye, of pewter pots, harp,$ pipe, and sawthe disinterment of the dead (a pain- trie.' The customers of the cooks in ful desecration!) is now in progress. Eastcheap had no doubt their wine Stow notices an ancient house in brought them in these pewter“ canniCrooked-lane called the leaden porch,t kins,” from the vintner's cellars on belonging temp. Edw. IV. to Sir John the river side hard by; and this arMerston, knight, in his time converted rangement had existed from a very into a tavern called the Swan, pos- early date; for, says Fitz Stephen, “Est sessed of strangers selling Rhenish in Londonia supra ripam fluminis inter wine. Above Crooked-lane, at the vina, in navibus et cellis, vinaria vecorner of Eastcheap, he says was a nalia, publica coquina."|| Honest Wilgreat house builded of stone, belonging liam Stephanides goes on then to deto Edward the Black Prince, who was scribe the dainties which may be in his life-time lodged there ; this was promptly had for money to refresh afterwards turned into a common hos- the weary traveller ; and tells us, that telrie, having the Black Bell (qu. while the meats are cooking, the table Bull ?) for its sign. This, therefore, set out, and the vessels for ablution was the city residence of the Princes produced, one runs down to the river's of Wales, and thus the extravagancies bank, where all more that is wanted of Prince Henry and his companions (desiderabilia) are to be found; the at the Boar’s Head in Eastcheap, on bread and meat having been before which Shakspeare has so delightfully named, these desiderabilia must have amplified, will be found to have taken been the wines. place within a stone's throw of the Let the Antiquary now therefore Prince's own dwelling; and it is watch the progress of the mattock and moreover probable, extraordinary as the spade ; for the northern approaches the assertion may sound to modern of that majestic structure the new ears, that the riot in which the king's London Bridge are destined to pass sons were embroiled, occurred at a over ground rendered sacred by no orcook's shop, having that ancient dainty dinary historical recollections. The the Boar's Head for its sign; “ for,' bones of the champion of civil order, says my venerable authority, “ of old Sir William Walworth, may not have time, when friends were disposed to yet found their last resting place, and be merry, they went not to dine and the foundation-stones of the dwelling sup in taverns, but to the cook’s. In of the heroes of Poitiers and Azincour, the year 1410, the 11th of Henry the may in a few days see the light to be Fourth, upon the even of St. John obliterated for ever. the Baptist, the king's sons, John My next notice will contain some
“ How surely 'stablish'd is thy throne
Which shall no change or period see ;" -and here the Psalm was broken off. I have since understood that there was no real ground for alarm, but that some persons having been on the flat roof of the Church to examine its state previously to removal, had, from the concussion occasioned by the tread of their feet, loosened a portion of the plaister of the ceiling beneath.
+ A covering of lead being in these days a costly distinction for a building, sometimes gave a name to the whole edifice; we have a striking example of this in that emporium for civic gastronomists Leadenhall.
Survey of London, Candlewicke-street Ward, edit. 1613, p. 404. § Those who quaff their wine at the Shades hard by, are at this day regaled with the clear enlivening notes of the harp.
Il Descriptio Nobilissimæ Civit. London. De dispositione urbis.
1831.) St. Saviour's Church.- Archbishop Tregury. 197 observations on the wall, which Fitz- ton to the family of Botreaux, from Stephen roundly asserts bounded old whom it passed successively, by inheLondon towards the Thames, “ Simi- ritance or sale, through the families of literque ab austro Londonia murata Hungerford, Hastings, Edgcumbe, Paret turrita fuit ;” and I shall be able to kins, and Vivian, to Mr. William Hals, show, on the information of a zealous who wrote the Parochial History of and intelligent young antiquary, who Cornwall, and resided here in the lathas had the best opportunity possible ter part of his life. The estate, now of ascertaining this fact, what that called Tregotha, is the property of wall probably was. I am afraid worthy Thomas Rawlings, Esq. Stephanides must give up the towers. This brief notice of the Archbishop I shall also make some remarks on the scarcely made any impression on my evidence which the works of the New mind beyond a mere recollection of the Bridge may have afforded, of the sacking circumstances, when a Cornish gentleof London by Boadicea.
man informed me that he had observed I shall at the same time offer one or a monument to this Prelate in the two suggestions relative to the comple- Cathedrali at Dublin. I then took tion of the repairs and restoration of the liberty of applying, through Mr. St. Saviour's CHURCH, which as a Dawson, Member for the County of feature connected with the New Bridge, Londonderry, to his brother the Dean if too onerous a matter for the parish of St. Patrick's, who not only gave me (as I fear it may be), ought to be made every information and reference that is one of public undertaking and expense. known to exist, but also a drawing of There is surely in these disjointed the monument, of which I have sent a and divided times, enough of public wood engraving.–Since this was entaste, public spirit, and respect for graved, I have seen a tracing from an fanes long hallowed by the worship of old drawing in the possession of Sir the Almighty, to effect an object of William Betham, Ulster King at Arms, such obvious expediency. A.J. K. which shows that the sides of the ori.
ginal altar tomb were adorned with Mr. URBAN,
Tredrea, Cornwall, trefoil-headed arches rising from short
pillars. YOU will much gratify me, and I It appears that few records are extant may venture to add, many other cor of the Prelates and Dignitaries of Dubrespondents, by inserting in your most lin, prior to the Reformation, in places excellent Repository, which has now where they might most reasonably survived one century with a spirit and have been expected to be found; and vigour that give promise for its conti- the monument itself would have penuing through another, some particu- rished but for the care and attention lars of an individual sprung from this of the celebrated Doctor Jonathan country, who must have been a man Swift, who, with the Chapter, exactly of talent and of learning sufficient for a hundred years ago, rescued it from adding lustre to any origin; but who a dilapidated chapel, and carried the is now almost entirely forgotten, his monument to its present situation in family having long since become ex the Cathedral. tinct, and the records of the University, Michael Tregury attained his repuof the Church, of the Diocese, and of tation for learning at the University the Province over which he presided, of Oxford. He was Junior Proctor in having in great measure perished in the year 1434, under which Anthony the devastations of civil war, and espe Wood gives the following notice of cially of those aggravated by religious him in his “ Fasti.” He dissensions.
Fellow of Exeter college, and about Mr. Lysons, in his History of Corn these times Principal of several Halls wall, states that in the parish of St. that successively stood near to the said Wenn is situated Tregury, Tregurra, college. But the King having a speor Tregurtha, the seat of a family so cial respect for him (being now accalled, of whom was Michael de Tre counted the almost ornament of the gury, Archbishop of Dublin, who died University) made him Prefect or Goin 1471. The last heir male of the vernor of [the College at] Caen in elder branch of this family, died in the Normandy, lately erected by King reign of Henry the Fifth, leaving three Henry the Fifth of England; which daughters coheirs, who sold this bar- office he performing with singular ap
1831.] Michael de Tregury, Archbishop of Dublin.
199 plause, became at length, through di- the temporalities by King Henry the vers preferments (of which the Deanery Sixth, whose Chaplain he was : [But of St. Michael of Pencryche* was one) was obliged to submit himself to the Archbishop of Dublin in Ireland.” King's favour, and renounce every
The foundation of the College or clause in his Bull, prejudicial to the University of Caen, is again mentioned Crown.§ He was called into the Privy by Wood in his Annals, under 1417. Council immediately, and had twenty In consequence, he says, of discontents pounds per annum || granted him by regarding preferment and tithes, the the King, pro sano consilio, for giving corruptness of provisions, and espe- good counsell, as his predecessors, cially the wars between England and Archbishops of Dublin, who were of France, many dispersed themselves to the Council, had ; and in 1453 King other places. And because Normandy, Henry the Sixth, for securing an arrear Angiers, Poyctou, Aquitaine, Bretagne, of two years and a half, and the growGascoigne, and other places that were ing salary, granted him a custodium subject to the Crown of England, could on the manor of Tassagard, and the not for that reason exercise their Scho town of Ballachise, parcel thereof, to lastical Acts at Paris publicly and continue during the time he should be without murmurings, they receded to Archbishop of Dublin. I Caen in Normandy, t and studied there. “In certain Annals ascribed to DudWhich place Henry the Fifth, of Eng- ley Firbisse, there is a mention made land, made an University, causing one under the year 1453, that an ArchMichael Tregorie, an Oxford Doctor, bishop of Dublin was taken prisoner sometime Fellow of Exeter College, to at Sea. I must leave the passage to be Governor and Reader there, to the the credit of the Annalist, not having end that the doctrine of the University met any hint of it elsewhere. There of Oxford might dilate itself and take is extant in the Black Book of the root in those parts.”
Archbishop of Dublin (p. 82), a copy The following memoir is extracted of a Bull of Pope Pius the Second, from Ware's History of Ireland, vol. i. dated the 23d of November, 1462, and
directed to the Bishop and Archdea“ Before the close of the same year conry of Ossory, commanding them to (1449), Michael Tregury, a native of pronounce excommunicated, Geofrey Cornwall, and Doctor of Divinity of Harold, Thomas and Edmund his sons, the University of Oxford, was conse Patrick Birne, Thady Sheriff, Thomas crated Archbishop of this See. He Becagh, Robert Burnell, and other laywas a man of such great eminence for men of the City and Diocese of Dublearning and wisdom, that in the year lin, for laying violent hands on this 1418 Kinz Henry the Fifth invited Prelate, and committing him to prison; him over to Caen in Normandy, to and that they should keep them under take upon him the government of a excommunication until they went to College, which that Monarch had then Rome for absolution, with the testifounded in the said city; to whom he monials of the Bishop and Archdeacon. joined, out of the Mendicant Friars, The reason of this insult is no where learned professors in all sciences. I mentioned, that I can find. He reThere he is said for a long time to paired the Manor House of Tawlaght, have discharged the trust committed and died there in a very advanced age, to him with great applause, both by on the 21st of December, 1471; having his public prelections and writings. governed this See about twenty-two A Catalogue of his works may be seen years. His remains were conveyed to in Bale and Pits. At last, upon the Dublin, attended by the Clergy and death of Talbot in 1449, he was pro- Citizens, and buried in St. Patrick's moted to this See by a papal provision, Church, near St. Stephen's Altar (as and was the same year, on the 10th of
§ See the act of restitution of his tempoFebruary (English style), restored to
ralties, iu Rymer's Fædera, tom. xi. p. 260. The Deanery of Penkridge in Hereford | By Sir George Shuckburgh's Tables, shire was not, however, an early preferment printed in the Philosophical Transactions of Tregury, it having been annexed to the for 1798, this sum would be equal to almost see of Dublin as early as the reign of King six and a half times as much as the same Johu.
nominal sum at the commencement of the + “ Jo. Rous, in lib. de Regibus, MS.” present century; that is, 1301. a year. Pits, de Script. 663."
9 Rymer's Foedera, tom. xi. p. 325.