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1831.]
Holy Trinity Church, Chelsea.

299 tecture, ecclesiastical as well as civil, The altar screen is an imitation of he has taken an odd method of effect- stone; it is formed of six arched coming his intention : he commences with partments, surmounted with angular the latest, he continues with an early canopies ; it is not inscribed with the specimen, to which he adds another still Decalogue or any other subject.* earlier, and crowns the whole by revert The pulpit and reading desk are ing back to the period he set out with ; alike; they are situated on each side he begins with the style in its dotage, of the Church at a short distance from and ends with it in its infancy, form- the chancel, and are obtrusive and ing an association as unfortunate as inelegant. many other ill-starred unions in this The font, in a pew near the west world—as an aged bridegroom and a entrance, is an octagon basin, ornayouthful bride ; and in the contrast mented with quatrefoil panels, on a of the richness of the Tudor decora- pillar of the same form. tions with the plainness of the spire, It has been our lot on more than as ridiculous as the affected finery of one occasion to deprecate the anomathe said old beau by the side of the lies which modern architects introunadorned beauty of his consort. duce into buildings which deservedly

The flanks of the Church are not enough bear the appellation of Gothic, visible in a front view; they are built but never in our experience did we of brick, and each has two series of witness a structure containing such a windows, the lower square, with series of essays against propriety as a mullion in the alms-house style; the present displays. Of Mr. Savage the upper pointed and divided by a we augured better things from the pamullion into two lights, with a large rish church; but, as if determined to quatrefoil in the head of the arch, a show how completely he could disapcommon introduction in windows of point his admirers, he has here set up the 14th century.

a structure without any uniformity in The east end has no windows; the its parts, and possessing no resemflanks of the chancel have each a sin- blance to any style of decoration gle light, with cinquefoil head, and which prevailed in this country in the eastern elevation is finished with any one period. It is unnecessary to a gable and cross.

repeat that the Pointed style, accord

ing to the æras of its existence, exhi. THE INTERIOR

bits various and different forms in the Is approached from the lobbies be- construction of its arches, in the arhind the western façade. The inter- rangement of its parts, and in the nanal openings are lintelled, and in the ture of its decorations; it is also untowers are winding stairs communi- necessary to add that the domestic cating with the galleries. The body architecture of the Tudor period, of the Church is not divided into nave though alike in detail, differed in arand aisles ; it is covered with an ho- rangement from ecclesiastical buildrizontal ceiling pannelled by mould- ings. Dr. Milner enumerates three ings into square compartments, the distinct orders of pointed architecture. principal mouldings drop down the To blend them together in one buildside walls, and end in corbels. The ing, is an evidence not only of bad whole is coloured in imitation of taste, but of defective information. stone, though it would be a bold step We may be answered, that if the to construct such a ceiling of that building is an elegant object, it matmaterial. A gallery with oak front ters not of what parts it is composed. occupies the west end and the two To so futile an argument we reply sides of the Church, and a smaller that it would have been equally beaugallery is also constructed above it at tiful, if the eye of the critic and man the west end, with seats for charity of taste had not been insulted by its children, and intended, we presume, discrepancies. Suppose an architect to contain an organ.

was possessed with a fancy to add the

* The omission of the usual inscriptions in the altar screens of this and the parish churches, may be attributed to the remarks made on the subject in our description of St. Luke's Church (vol. xcvi. i. p. 204), and a subsequent correspondence thereon between A Looker on," G. C. and E.I.C. vols, xcvi. ii. page 588, xcvii. i. p. 212, ibid.

P

413.

300
Account of St. Bees, Cumberland.

[April, capital of the Corinthian order to a our country, may in a great measure Tuscan column, and crown the whole be attributed to the essays and the with the Doric entablature; if, with a criticisms which have appeared in our view to novelty, he was moreover to pages, and to the exertions of no one make the Doric triglyphs give way to individual more than the late J. cartouches, and the mutules to a den Carter. til band, his professional brethren This Church will accommodate 752, would unanimously laugh at him; he persons

in
pews,

and 650 in free seats, would be cried down as an ignorant making a total of 1402. The archiblunderer, and it would avail him tect's estimate was 70251. It was nothing to say, that if his building commenced in May, 1828, and conlooked well as a whole, he cared not secrated May 8, 1830.

E.I.C. for the harmony of the parts.

We shall be told that such a combina Mr. URBAN, tion as we have instanced, is too ab THE village of Saint Bees is situsurd to have a moment's existence.

ated on the coast of Cumberland, iri We believe so, as far as classical archi

that quintuple division of the county tecture is concerned; yet quite as in called Allerdale Ward* above Derwent. consistent is the combination which

Its position is remarkable. From Saint we have shown to exist in the structure

Bees to Whitehaven, a distance of about now under consideration. To account

four miles, there is a narrow vale enfor the erection on the reason assign- tirely separating the high lands on the ed for the sometimes discordant parts coast from the interior. From the of genuine ancient building, viz. that general appearance of the soil, and the whole is not the work of one pe the discovery of an anchor some years riod, it will be necessary to suppose since, about the centre of this vale, it that Mr. Savage first constructed his

is probable that it was formerly an spires in the 13th century, and left arm of the sea. This opinion is corthem suspended in the air for four

roborated by the descent of the ground hundred years,

when he tardily added each way, which is evinced by the an oriel window to support them; but small rivulet Poe, or Poe-beck, rising as this did not reach to the spire, a about the middle of the vale, and flowlantern of a period between both, is ing with an easy current into the sea wedged in to fill up the gap; and to at Whitehaven, while the other part keep the taper finish in its place, a

of it, rising nearly at the same spot, heavy finial, of a date coeval with the

falls into the ocean at Saint Bees. In basement, is added to the top. The fact, the hilly ground supposed to be architect then turns his attention to

thus formerly isolated, is distinguishhis principal window, which, con ed in ancient deeds by the appellation trasted with his spires, hangs like Ma of Preston Isle. Proceeding along the homet's coffin in the air for at least

summit of Preston Isle, or, as it is two centuries, when a porch and a

now called, Preston Quarter, a distant gable are built, both differing from the

view of the Isle of Man, with its earlier work, and equally at variance northern bicephalous mountain, may with the accompanying spires and be obtained with the naked eye. Here oriel windows.

too is the disjointed rock standing at We have treated this building at

some distance from the rest, separated great length, because we wish to ex

by a tremendous chasm called “Lawpose such fallacies, to show them in

son's Leap,” some adventurous Nimtheir proper light, to prove that they rod of that name having formerly are the spurious creations of the pen cleared it in the excitation of the cil of a fantastic designer, and not fair chase. Nature has been here exerting specimens of the truly beautiful Point,

herself in the formation of the rocks ed style, and by so doing to warn into the rude semblance of the ruins architects from following (what they of a church, called Kelsoe Kirk. Asare very prone to do) the flimsy productions of each other, instead of re

* When England was divided iv 878, the curring to original examples and ge

subdivisions in Cumbria were called wards, nuine models ; and we feel the more and not hundreds as in most other couninterested, as we are convinced that

ties, from the watching and warding necesthe present advanced state of know

sary against the incursions of the Scots and ledge of the national architecture of Irish.

1831.]
Account of St. Bees, Cumberland.

301 sisted by the ebon tints of evening, rocks below the mountain called Tomand the roaring of the ocean, the fan- lyne, on the coast of Saint Bees, and, ciful may picture to himself worship- according to the custom of those days, pers bending amid the massy ruins, vowed to build a religious house, though here

the sound of the church should she be fortunate enough to esgoing bell” was never heard. Pass cape. To her vow and escape the ing Keswick Bay (where the lapidary origin of the ancient monastery of may find pebbles of every hue, suscep Saint Bees is attributed. The mists of tible of a beautiful polish, and suita- revolving centuries dwell upon her ble for snuff-boxes, brooches, &c.), memory, and many are the romantic Saint Bees head, the ancient Barugh, stories attached to her name, fit subpresents itself 220 feet above the level jects for the novelist and the poet. of the sea.

On this height the new This religious house was destroyed light-house, with nine reflectors, was by the Danes most probably about the erected in January 1822. The parish year 873, for at that time history of Saint Bees is large, as will be evi mentions a very formidable irruption dent from the number of inhabitants of them. It was restored by William at the following periods, especially de Meschines, brother of Ranulph, when it is considered that in this re first Earl of Cumberland, a family mote part of England, the habitations then lately brought over from the conare generally far apart :

tinent by William I. by whose grant 1688. 1801. 1811. 1821. they became possessed of the earldom 3,345. 13,246. 16,520. 19,169. of Cumbria. Saint Bees now became It was part of the kingdom of Cum the cell of a prior and six Benedictine bria or Strath Cluyd Britons, which monks, to the abbey of St. Mary at was first inhabited, says Mr. Carte, York. Bishop Tanner mentions i by a Celtic race about 2000 years be

that under this cell there was a small fore the Christian æra.

That the ge

nunnery situate at Rottington, about nuine ancient Britons posted them a mile from Saint Bees. This is conselves here, we have the authority of firmed by the ancient names of places Marianus himself,* not to mention still retained there, but few other vesthat there are many names purely tiges are now to be found. British. Although every part of it, Ranulph de Meschines, the son of where liable to aggression, was forti. William, by his charter, $ confirmed fied by the Romans, as appears from his father's grants to the prior and the ancient ruins, it was frequently monks, and still further increased the scene of bloody contention. Speed, them. William de Fortibus, Earl of speaking of Cumberland, says that it Albemarle, who married a descendant was strengthened with twenty-five of William de Meschines, by his charcastles, and preserved by the prayers ter || confirmed and still further inof six religious houses, in which latter creased his ancestor's grants. Amongst enumeration that of Saint Bees is men other distinguished names, that of the tioned. The village was formerly prior of Saint Bees appears as a witknown by the names BEGOCK, BE ness to “the rules and orders for the Goth, or Beghes, and the Church is burghers of Egremont,” by Richard styled in ancient evidences Kirkby de Lacy, about the reign of King John. Begog. The derivation of Begoth in the reign of Henry IV. a Richard seems to be, from two ancient British Hunte was appointed to Saint Bees, as words BEG OG ; by our interpretation, a free chapelry in the gift of the Crown, little, young, like the Gaelic oig, little. but the abbot of Saint Mary's remonThe name is supposed to have origi- strated with the King, and the grant nated from the Holy Bega, a pious was revoked. After the dissolution woman from Ireland, who is said to of monasteries, 7 Edward VI. Sir Thohave founded a small monastery here mas Chaloner became possessed of the about the year 650.+ Respecting this monastic property, paying to the holy woman, tradition is not entirely Crown yearly the fee farm rent of silent. It is said, that on her voyage 1431. 168. 25d. This yearly rent was from Ireland she was in imminent afterwards granted (4 and 5 William danger of being wrecked upon the

Notitia, No. 72. * See Camden, p. 1002.

§ 1 Dagd. Mon. 395. + Tanner's Noticia, No. 73.

ll i Dugd. Mon. 397.

sessor.

302

College of St.
Bees, Cumberland.

[April, and Mary) to Cuthbert Bishop of way for modern improvements some Chester and his successors, paying time since. The other monuments thereout to the Crown yearly 431.88.4d. now existing are comparatively moFrom Sir Thomas Chaloner these rich dern, and not worthy of any particupossessions passed into the highly re lar notice. spectable family of the Wyburghs, The eastern part of the abbey was long resident at Saint Bees, but after- built in the thirteenth century, and wards removed to Clifton in West had been for many years in ruins, till moreland, in consequence of marriage 1817, when it was fitted up as a colwith an heiress. Being great suf- lege, containing one large hall for the ferers in the reign of Charles I. from students, and a lecture room, the end the civil wars, these estates were of the ancient cross aisle being conmortgaged to the Lowther family, verted into another. Near the steps and on a suit in Chancery, instituted leading up to the college, are two muby Sir John Lowther of Whitehaven tilated stone figures, to which common in 1663, the estates passed into the report has given the names of Lord family of the Earl of Lonsdale, their and Lady Lucy. This institution or present noble and munificent pos- college was commenced under the

auspices of the Right Rev. George The parish of Saint Bees being ex Henry Law, D.D. Lord Bishop of tensive, the church is the Mother Chester, and intended for the educaChurch for a distance of many miles, tion of those candidates for ordination including the populous town of White in the northern dioceses, who are haven, and five other chapelries, termed “ LITERATES." With the asnamely, Ennerdale, Eskdale, Nether sistance of the Earl of Lonsdale, the Wasdale, Wasdale Head, and Lows- college was fitted up, and the house water, together with numerous other built for the principal. One of the townships. Some of these have been lecture rooms is likewise used as a considered to have distinct parish library, and contains a very useful churches, but they are in fact nothing collection of divinity works. In this more than chapels of ease. There is room is a full-length likeness of the an order extant of the time of Bishop principal, executed by Lonsdale, and Bridgman (A.D. 1622), by which the presented by the students, as a testiinhabitants of these five chapelries are mony of their high respect. The stuenjoined to contribute to the repair of dents, previous to admission, are exthe Mother Church,* and at the pre- pected to be well versed in the Classent time yearly payments are made sics, so that the course of study does by them respectively.

not exceed two years. In this period The old abbey is built of free-stone. the standard divinity works are diliThe western part or nave, erected in gently studied, and such principles the reign of Henry I. is fitted up as inculcated as are likely to form faiththe parish church, the great door of ful ministers of the Gospel, who, as which is ornamented with grotesque far as their spheres for exertion will heads and chevron mouldings. In permit, may be able to preserve the 1705 the church was certified at 121. Church in its original purity, free per annum by James Lowther of from those errors which indistinct Whitehaven, esq. the impropriator. notions are apt to engender. The It is at present a perpetual curacy of present principal is the Rev. William small value, holden by the Rev. Dr. Ainger, D. D.; lecturer, the Rev. Ainger.

Richard Parkinson, M. A. There was formerly in the body of A short distance from the church the church, on the south side, an and college is a respectable farmeffigy in wood of Anthony the last house standing on part of the ancient Lord Lucy of Egremont, which, if a monastic premises, and retaining to true portraiture, showed him to be a this day the name of “The Abbey.” large bodied man, upwards of six feet In this immediate neighbourhood, sehigh, and proportionably corpulent. parated only by the high road to This monument was removed, to make Whitehaven, is the grammar school,

which has been long eminent in the * See Burn's Westmoreland and Cum

north, and has produced many very berland, vol. II. p. 47.

learned characters, amongst whom + Well engraved by Coney in Dugdale's was Bishop Hall, Master of Trinity Monast. iii. 574.

College, Dublin. It was founded in

1831.]
Grammar School of St. Bees.

303 the year 1587, by Edmund Grindall, of Queen's, or in default by the masArchbishop of Canterbury. Over the ter of Pembroke-hall. There have door of the school is the date 1583, as been between 150 and 200 scholars at there is likewise on the battlement of one time. The present Governors are the bridge leading to the school, with the Earl of Lonsdale, John Fox, D.D. the arms, so that it is probable that Provost of Queen's College, Oxford, the school house was built in that ex officio, the Rev. Mr. Scott, Rector year, though the school was not fully of Egremont, ex officio, and four established till afterwards. The be others. nevolent founder obtained letters pa The School has been long in a detent from Queen Elizabeth, dated 24 clining state, and probably at the preApril, 1583; and on the 3d of July, sent time has a smaller number of he solemnly delivered and published scholars than ever it had. Time will the Statutes for the regulation of the best show the cause of this, when school, in the presence of eight wit under other care it may again attain nesses. During the life of the foun its pristine celebrity. Its present conder, certain lands called Palmer's dition, however, must be lamented by Fields, at Croydon in the County of every friend of literature, but espeSurrey, of the value of 501. per an cially by those who knew it as the num, were purchased in the names of scene of their youthful days,—by those the Governors. This estate was af now occupying situations of rank and terwards improperly leased for 1000 affluence, for which they were fitted years, without fine or premium to the within its walls. I school! King James considerably in

GEORGE C. TOMLINSON. creased the revenues of the school, and several patents were granted and LETTER OF SAMUEL HARTLIB ON THE Acts of Parliament passed in its favour,

DEATH OF Des Cartes, &c. so that the present annual value of its lands is supposed to be at least 80001.

WE publish the following Letter

by favour of William Hamper, esq. while the income arising from them to

F.S.A. in whose collection the origithe school is stated to be less than 1001.f The royalty of Saint Bees still

nal is preserved. It gives an amusing, belongs to the school, and a court is

not to say ridiculous, picture of the yearly held at the

school house. T. opinions of the famous philosopher the school is attached a good library, life, and his somewhat Jewish con

Des Cartes, on the duration of human which has been greatly improved at various periods by Sir Joseph Wil

duct, in consequence, to provide for liamson, Secretary of State to Charles

his future support by means of a life II., Dr. Lamplugh, Archbishop of annuity. York, Bishop Barlow, Bishop Smith,

This singular feature of Des Cartes' the Earl of Lonsdale, &c.—By the philosophy is thus noticed in the BioStatutes only the inhabitants of Cum- graphical Dictionary: berland and Westmoreland are eligi

« Des Cartes, it is said, imagined it posble for instruction here, but custom

sible to prolong life very considerably behas rendered it the same as if free to

yond the common period, and thought he

had discovered the method of doing it. In every county in England; every scho

conversation with Sir Kenelm Digby, Des lar making a yearly offering to the Cartes assured him that, having already conmaster, according to his ability, which

sidered that matter, he would not venture to is termed “ Cock-Penny.” The mas promise to render a man immortal; but that ter is to be a native of Cumberland, he was very sure it was possible to lengthen Westmoreland, Yorkshire, or Lanca out his life to the period of the patriarchs. shire, and is nominated by the provost It seems evident to me, says he, in a letter

written to M. de Zylichem from Egmond, * It may not be improper to mention in 1638, when he had attained the age of that Archbishop Grindall is the Algrind of forty-two years, that if we only guarded Spenser, by transposition of the letters of against certain errors, which we are accushis name. He was born at Hensingham

tomed to commit in the course of our diet, near Saint Bees in 1519, died in 1583, and we might, without any other invention, atwas buried in the chancel of Croydun Church in the county of Surrey, where Since the above was written, a new there is a monument to his memory.-See Master has been appointed to the School, Bing. Brit.

in the person of Rev. John Fox, M.A. of † See Carlisle's Endowed Grammar Queen's

College, Oxford, the pephew of the Schools, vol. I.

worthy Provost.

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