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CLASSICAL LITERATURE.—Káunlos. [April, which they were doubtless indebted to the two former, what he calls' proverbia the Schol. Aristoph. (or to the writer του αδυνάτου. .' • Hoc adagium,' he adds, from whom he borrowed his inforna • usurpat ó Ewrnp, Matt. 19, 24, in hytion,) or assign to káundos itself the perbola. Non enim účúvatov divitem indouble sense of “a camel,” and “ troire in regnum cælorum, sed admodum rope, ” but still following the authority difficile
. Ibidem pro elephante camelus les of the Schol. Aristoph.; or perhaps gitur. Nam kaundos est camelus vel Syro misled by the affinity or identity of intreprete, qui Soo vertit, voce minime am. the Arabic terms, which denote bigua : quæ animans, cum notior sit vulgo camel” and “a rope,
" and not in- in Judæa quam elephas, libet suspicari ideo disposed to adopt the latter, because
in elephantis loco positam esse a Christo.'" it seemed better suited to the subject. It will have been perceived, that to At all events, we may safely conclude understand cable by the word κάμηλος, that, prior to the birth of Christ, the is to rob the proverb of its nationality word κάμηλος or κάμιλος never had any
and its humour. In this light it is corsuch sense as that of " cable” or rectly regarded by Parkhurst, who, in “rope," and that in this sense it is his Greek and English Lexicon, obmerely the Arabic word, which was serves, that, in the common interpreintroduced by the Hellenists subse tation given by our translators, quently to the birth of Christ.
“ The proverb seems quite agreeable to There have at all times been some the eastern taste. Thus Matt. xxiii, 24. authors, who, evidently without due "Straining off the gnat, and swallowing the consideration, have adopted what ap camel,' is another proverbial expression, and peared, to European ideas of metaphor, is applied to those who at the same time the more
analogous” and “natu they were superstitiously anxious in avoiding ral” sense. A correspondent in your
small faults, did without scruple commit the last number (p. 224), has adduced greatest sins. This latter proverb plainly resome examples of this from English both gnats and
camels were unclean animals,
fers to the Mosaic law, according to which authors of various dates ; and I may prohibited for food.” here mention another amusing instance,” noticed in " Adagia Hebrai Yours, &c. E. H. BARKER.
“Vieyra, * quoting the text in one of his A Greek and English Lexicon for the use of Sermons, (T. io. p. 249) uses cable instead Schools and Colleges; containing a variety of camel, following a plausible but erroneous
of Critical, Philological, and Scientific interpretation. It suited his purpose better
maller, not hitherto found in any Greek in this place : What remedy then is there
Dictionary. Also, an English and Greek for the rich man, that he may enter hea
Lexicon, comprising a number of Idiomatic ven? I will tell you. Untwist the cable ;
Phrases, for the use of more advanced sluand then thread by thread it may go through dents. By George Dunbar, A.M. F.R.S.E. the needle. Christ himself has taught how and Professor of Greek in the University of this is to be done, by saying, Sell that thou
Edinlurgh ; and E. H. Barker, Esq. of hast, and give it unto the poor.'
Thetford, Norfolk. 8vo. " There is a print of the camel and the needle in one of the little buoks of Drexelius,
THE Greek is a language elevated if I remember rightly; a man is beating the
to music, without diminishing its gebeast forward towards a needle, which some
neral utility. On the contrary, it ofuoseen hand is holding down, and though it ten compresses the meaning of seveis big enough to have been Gargamelle's ral of our words into one; e. g. eewostocking-needle, the camel appears perfectly ons means one who drives out or expels, sensible of the impossibility of effecting his but we cannot say a driver out or expassage.
peller, without obvious barbarism ; and “That xáundos is to be rendered camel, fyXELDIĆw, to put into the hands, we is proved by three Hebrew adages, which ought to be able to render by a verb Drusius has collected : 1. Facilius elephas inhand; and if we have to hasten, per foramen acus; 2. Non est elephas, qui otevồw, we have no ovo trevdw, to make intret per foramen acus; 3. Fortè ex PamLodila tu es, uli traducunt elephantem per
haste together. Then, with regard to foramen acus. The latter applied to a liar; euphony, there are comparatively few
monosyllables in Greek, and in almost # A sketch of whose life and character, all words an equal number of vowels by the late Archdeacon Nares, appeared in to counteract the consonants. Not our vol. xcvii. i. 307.-Epit.
that we believe the language to have
323 been formed upon the artificial princi. And again, ples so ingeniously exhibited by Schei. παιδες Αθηναιων εβαλoντo φαεινην dius, but because we think that the κρηπιδ' ελευθεριαςoriental accentuation did not hold in is composed of musical syllables, very indifference cacophony, as did the unlike in sound, and in the English of northern nations. Improvements the which there is no music at all. language (like all others) did receive; We cannot, however, indulge in for the Doric and lonic are different; further (to scholars, superficial) diaand certainly our ancestors talked more tribes concerning this divine language. broadly than ourselves. But in all the We have here to speak of the εγχειριmodern languages, and their proto. dia by which it is taught. Now it types, there are, we repeat, the great would be a very curious feature in est defects compared with the Greek. any Lexicon or Dictionary, that it We have no yepupow, to build a bridge, should omit more words that it inno ypoßoo kew, to support the aged; serts. We cannot call it a lusus natuand circumlocution is always bad, un re or a deceptio visus, but an inn, less it be used for emphasis or illustra- which tempts the traveller to alight, tion. Science has adopted many Greek and yet, as Matthews says, has nothing words with the best success, because in the house but an execution. Put it confers both vigour and precision; any tyro into Æschylus, for instance, and, if it be true that there is a secon. with no other aid but a Schrevelius. dary language, which in se teaches He will not find more than five words things as well as words (and it is true out of ten; and in such as he does of the chemical nomenclature), that find, he will often be misled by the may be said of most Greek compounds. definitions. We do not ascribe this to
With regard to the elevation of the neglect or incompetency, only to the language into music by mere enuncia. circumstance of there being but few tion, we assume the position. Adam Greek authors used in schools at the Smith* says " What are called the in- time of the original compilation, and tervals; that is, the difference in point long afterwards, viz. the Greek Tesof gravity or acuteness between the tament, Æsop, Homer, Xenophon, sounds or tones of a singing voice, are Theocritus, and Sophocles; to which much greater and more distinct than were sometimes added, in the higher those of the speaking voice. Though seminaries and universities, Herodothe former, therefore, can be measured tus, Thucydides, Demosthenes, Euripiand appropriated by the proportion of des, Lucian, Plato, and perhaps Aris. chords or strings, the latter cannot. tophanes and Pindar. These, as well The nicest instruments cannot express as various minor authors, were read the minuteness of these intervals." through the media of annexed Latin However this may be, it is certain translations, and therefore the deside. that accents were known in the time rata of the Dictionaries were not felt. of Alypius and much more ancient Since, however, Greek has been stuwriters, as Aristotle, Plato, &c., and died without these aids, the complaithat if they were used chiefly for pro sant translation banker has stopped sody, they were employed in music payment, and when we go to the occasionally. Now, it is natural for Lexica, there is no drawing bills at prosody to unite musical sound, where- sight or after date. Of course, as the ever feasible; and, as prose passages language is more studied through it. have been quoted from Livy, which self, a larger extent of business enfall undesignedly into hexameters, so sues, and more easy acquisition of the there are words in Greek, and arrange- needful is necessary, and the Dictionments of words, which are in se music ary banking-shops must be accorcal, but which no translation can ren, dingly enlarged to meet the exigence. der so; e. g.
It is stated in the preface, that, to fa. “ω τυμβος, ο νυμφαιον,”
cilitate discount, many thousand addi
tional words are added to this work of are composed of sounds, which echo the pathetic sense; not so,
our authors; and, although we believe
a perfect Greek Lexicon to be almost “Oh tomb! oh bridal bed !”
an impossibility, we honestly think
that the authors have done more than * Essays, 184. + Burney, i. 14. they profess to claim. If they have
324 Greek and English Lexicon.-Modern Latin Poetry. [April, used English instead of Latin, we can had been filled with wine, and pledged say, in the words of Johnson, who re his guest by name to drink after him, plied to Boswell's question, whether a and at the same time presented him boy should learn Greek or Latin first. with the cup itself, which the guest Sir, it is no matter; it is only like
took away with him. From Pind. a man, with his breeches in his hand, Olymp, 7, 1, we learn that an opulent studying which leg he shall put in father was accustomed to pledge in first.” If Greek be the harder lan
this manner, in the midst of his relaguage, and requires more time, it is tions and friends, the youth, on whom plain that it should be commenced he had fixed for his son-in-law, tenfirst. Greek, however, is only of cir- dering to him a gold cup to drink afcumscribed application, compared with ter him, and at the same time making the Latin, and he who cannot learn him a present of the cup itself: it was bath, ought to prefer the latter.
a public announcement, and a solemn The present book is written for sanction of the intended nuptials."school use, and certainly a chest with Schol. abundance of tools is better than one
“'YWmW, Proprie dicitur de with few. We know that the work is pugile, qui cæstu suo plagam infert adexecuted by most competent persons, versario sub oculo, adeo ut inde tumor and we think that the following ex oriatur lividus ; Latine suggillo dici tracts will prove it :
potest. Glossæ : ‘YTÓTÁČW, suggillo. " IIpotriva, propino, præbibo, to ‘YTTÁMLA Tolei, suggillat. 'Ytwaiao Beis, drink first or before, at an entertain
suggillatus. Cic. Tusc. 2. cæstibus ment, from a cup of wine, which was contundere dixit. Occurrit h. v. ap. just raised to the lips with the right Diog. L. 6. Kpárns Nikó&pouos é tepehand, and slightly tasted by the host, dioas tòy kiðapodòv, ut wiáo On, in fawho stood up, (Suid.'ATéTTLVOV Pekpor ciem cæsus est. Inde metaphorice της κύλικος, και τότε παρείχοντο, ω άν etiam ad alia transfertur, ut nomen εβούλοντο, και την κύλικα, και εκαλείτο υπώπιον, Aristoph. Ρac. p. 661. πόλεις potrivelv.) Thence, to pass the cup ÚTWTlaquévas, urbes contusas dixit.' with the right hand to another, nam -L. Bos. ing him, to drink to his health, offering the cup, to pledge him in drink
Mr. URBAN, ing, to invite him to drink after you, TO execute the task which Archto hand the cup to a guest, whom it deacon Wrangham declines (see p. 2), was intended in this way to compli- would require an unrelaxed cultivament, that he might drink after his
tion of that high class of literature host. Thence, to show respect, to ho
which does not belong to me. I am nour, (Hesych. Ilpotiwuevo dià Toù oĽvov
convinced that two volumes of the Tiuhowuev.) Thence to give to drink :
best productions of modern Latin poets (** Videtur etiam adhiberi simpliciter would operate beneficially on the prepro dare bibere, vinum præbendum sent corrupt public taste. Some of præbere, Martial. Epigr. 3, 82. 10,
the Lyrics in the Selecta Poemata Ita49.” Forcellin. Lex. totius Latin). torum are exquisite. See “ Res LiteThence to offer or administer medi- rariæ,” vol. I, and III. where much cine : (“ De medicis pharmacum præ
Italian biography is to be found, that bentibus, Plin. 20, 10. 21, 2. 28, 16.”
no one who had not resided in Italy Forcellin.) Thence to offer, hand over, could collect. Vol. I. was printed at deliver. Thence, in a spirit of hospi- Naples during the three months of a tality, generosity, and friendship, to free press, 1820. make a present of. Thence to give
Herrick's famous line, away with convivial levity, wanton
“ Gather ye rosebuds while ye may,” ness, and extravagance. Thence to
is stolen from Spenser. And so is give up, surrender, over the intoxicating bowl, amidst merriment and re
Dryden's celebrated line in Cymon velry. Thence to sacrifice for some
and Iphigenia, momentary pleasure, abandon for some “Where two beginning paps were only sig
nified." paltry consideration, betray from some unprincipled motive. These various Mr. Nicolas has done much towards significations of the verb may be easily the elucidation of the Peerage. I know traced. At splendid entertainments, not of any book more valuable on given by kings, princes, and nobles, peerage law, than his “Report of the the host, desirous to shew his respect Lisle Claim,” which must always conand friendship for some particular tinue a text-book on the subject. guest, took a handsome cup.
[ 325 ]
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Illustrations of the Literary History of the which would probably have been pub
Eighteenth Century; consisting of Au lished before, had they not in the orithentic Memoirs and Original Letters of ginal appeared too extensive to become eminent persons ; and intended as a sequel only portions of a volume.". These are to the Literary Anecdotes. By John the correspondence with Mr. Gough, Nichols, F.S.A. Volume VI. pp. 900.
of three eminent antiquaries: Mr. EsTHERE perhaps was never a period sex, the Cambridge architect; Mr. in which ignorance of literary history Brooke, Somerset Herald; and the
more observable, nor in which Rev. Samuel Denne. Of these we authors (perhaps we should say book- shall speak afterwards. makers, the tools of our miodern Curls) The other contents of this volume, seem either to want, or to despise all which may be deemed more recent, that have preceded them. Day after perhaps more original, are the Letters day we are presented with new his- of the late Lord Camelford ; the autotories, new systems, or new lives, com- biography of Mr. Chafin ; twelve biopiled by men who never have supposed graphical articles contributed by the ihat any information preceded theirs, Rev. James Ford, late of Ipswich, and and who therefore endeavour to amuse now vicar of Navestock in Essex, their readers with the most grossly er namely, the lives of George Richard roneous narratives, delivered with in- Savage Nassau, Esq.; the Reverend tolerable arrogance and conceit. Many William Clubbe, LL.D. and_John of these candidates for temporary or Clubbe, M. D. ; Rev. Samuel Darby, periodical fame, appear, when disco A.M.; Rev. John Price, keeper of the vered, to be youths just emerged from Bodleian ; Richard Beatniffe ; Rev. school, pretending to the diffusion of a Johu Brand ; Rev. Richard Canning, knowledge which themselves hare M. A.; Edmund Gillingwater; Rev. never acquired, and know not where Thomas Bishop, D.D. ; the Dawson to look for.
family; Rev. George Burton, A. M.; Publications like that now before us, and Mr. John Mole. We have also are well calculated to check, by ex some MSS. of the late Rev. B. N. posing, the perpetual intrusion of such Turner; Memoirs of the late Edmund crude efforts, and we hail with pleasure Turnor, Esq. F.R.S. communicated by the continuance of a work which may his brother; and of the late Mr. Kerdetect the general ignorance to which rich, librarian of Cambridge, by his we allude, and supply those defects in Memoirs of the Rev. Theophilus literary history, which have produced Buckeridge, Mr. Green, Rev. Thomas a disgraceful revolution in our periodi- Leman, &c. &c. &c. cal literature. This we trust may be The first article in the volume, to counteracted by the vast mass of infor which we have not yet adverted as mation contained in the present vo- forming any part of it, is a long biogralume and its predecessors, and we are phical account of the late William happy to reinark that such authentic Gifford, Esq. the translator of Juvenal, materials for history, biography, and and for many years editor of the Quarantiquity, are likely to be continued terly Review. In this are many very with the zeal and spirit which animated interesting particulars of Gifford's early its original author, Mr. Nichols se life, taken from his own account prenior, who might well have said, Non fixed to bis Juvenal, which is very proomnis moriar.
perly given here entire. As a reFrom the dedication to this volume, viewer, it is here said that " at times we learn that the editors are the son his pen was at least sufficiently severe, and grandson of Mr. Nichols. It con but unless the articles he wrote were sists principally of “ selections from specified, it would be impossible to the yei far from exhausted stores of lite- know how far this character is just, as rary correspondence" in the possession depending only on his criticisms. We of the late editor. Of these stores are not, however, left to conjecture on “ three series of letters are included, this point. His avowed publications,
326 Review.-Nichols's Literary Illustrations, vol. VI. [April, and his prefaces to the dramatic au Thomas Pitt, first Lord Camelford, thors whose works he edited, suffi. was born March 3, 1733, and educated ciently betray the selfish irritability of at the university of Cambridge. It his temper. To this we may add, his was during his residence at Clare-hall, “ Examination ” of the article of his that he was favoured by his uncle the Juvenal, which appeared in the Criti. first and great Lord Chatham, with a cal Review, and “The Supplement 10 series of sensible, affectionate, and that Examination," written in great estimable letters, which, in 1804 were bitteruess of spirit, and much and low published by his son-in-law Lord Grenpersonal abuse ; but they were not ville, accompanied by an excellent
preanswers, nor did he know that the ar. face from the pen of that illustrious ticles in the Review were written by statesman. Omitting other particulars an Oxford scholar (still living) of clase of the parliamentary progress of Mr. sical abilities far superior to those of Thomas Pitt, until he was called to Gifford.
the House of Peers by the title of Lord This memoir is followed by short Camelford, all which are accurately but accurate lives of two eminent ma. detailed in the memoir prefixed to his thematicians, the Rev. John Hellins, “ Letters," it may be sufficient to menF.R.S. and the Rev. Malachi Hitchins. tion that the present letters begin in 1780,
The Letters of the Rev. Peter Cun- and end a short time before his death, inghain, addressed to the Rev. Thomas which took place at Florence, Jan. 19, Seward, father of the Poetess, afford 1793. This period, short as it may some instances, if any were wanted 10 seem, includes many important evenis complete her character, of her love for on which he imparted his opinions to the adulatory and the bombast in his correspondent Mr. Hardinge, with writing, as well as an excellent speci- great freedom and strong sense. The men of what Miss Seward considered principal of these events were the gene
an easy and elegant epistolary ral election in 1780, which brought style." We can well remember the Mr. Fox into parliament for Westfame of this lady, and of her fatterer minster—the change of administration Mr. Hayley: In this last article they -the coalition ministry—the trial of long carried on a successful partner. Mr. Hastings—the affecting illness of ship, and ran their course together. his Majesty George III. and the Fifty years ago no poetry was men French Revolution, with all its mistioned but that of. Miss Seward and chiefs. What renders these letters the Mr. Hayley, or rather “ the Muse of more interesting is, that they embrace Lichfield" and the poet of Eartham.” many of those political dogmas which This exchange of titles inet the eye in are distracting the minds of men at the every Review and Magazine, but the very period (1831) at which we are fame that accrued was somehow short now arrived. lived. Their works are no longer On Mr. Fox's first election for Westsought after, and their biographers minster, his Lordship sayshave contributed largely to bury what remained.
6. Mr. Fox will run us hard at WestminOur readers are aware how much
ster at last, but it is our own fault, in suffer
ing him to pull not only all the legal votes Mr. Nichols's preceding volumes were
his Duchesses could seduce by every mode indebted to the valuable communica
of application, but troops from Spital-fields, tions of Mr. Justice Hardinge. The and
any where else, which the indolence of correspondence of Lord Camelford in the High Bailiff, and the treachery of his the present volume is, as the editors deputy, have admitted.” observe," the composition of a highly cultivated mind, of a literary turn, and
On this event, it was well remarked, polished by an intercourse with the that it would not be difficult to prove best society of Europe ; and, although that Mr. Fox was upon the whole no their theme is in a great degree poli- great gainer by representing a city in tics,” they were the politics of a very
which the arts of popularity, even interesting period both of English and
when most honestly practised, are no continental history, and the noble security for its continuance; and inwriter's sentiments cannot fail to be deed the time was not far distant when read even now with considerable inte he had to experience the fatal effects of
preferring a seat which the purest vir.