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1831.] Review.--Cunningham's British Architects. 329 The Lives of the most eminent British Archi- among the arts." Jones was the Vic

tects. By Allan Cunningham. (Murray's truvius of England; the establisher of Family Library, No. Xix:)

a classic taste; and if his opportunities THIS forms the fourth volume of had been equal to his designs, his “the Lives of British Painters, Sculp- country would have possessed prouder tors, and Architects," which have been memorials of his talents than those to already noticed with just commenda- which she now points the admiring tion. The first in this useful collec- finger. Of his early life little is retion is the life of William of Wyke- corded, and that little not to be deham; one of a class of men, who, pended on. His taste was formed by " trained to other studies, and living the intense study of Greek and Roman in the daily discharge of devout duties, architecture. He designed a palace for planned and reared edifices with a ma- James the First, of the most magnifithematical skill, a knowledge of effect, cent kind; the whole of which, says and a sense of elegance and usefulness Mr. Cunningham slyly, is still in the which regular practitioners have never portfolio, except that beautiful detached surpassed.” In reviewing the labours fragment, from whose middle window of this celebrated man, Mr. Cunning- his unfortunate son Charles the First ham is naturally led by his subject stepped out upon a scaffold. Nor was into an investigation of the style of ar

the talent of Jones confined to archi. chitecture denominated the Gothic. tecture; he was the deviser of court He claims for it a character original pageants and masques, and in conjuncand peculiar; and, unable to reconcile tion with Ben Jonson produced sevethe conflicting theories of Evelyn, ral, of which the latter claimed the Gray, Warburton, and others, he finds poetry, and assigned the machinery to in it a distinct order, not inappro- his partner. The result, as might have. priately denominated the Order of the been expected, was perpetual strife Catholic Church, fitted and adapted to and merciless satire, in which the irri. the religion of the country, correspond table poet lampooned his colleague ing with the scenery, and suited to the with is

a porcupine quill dipped in peculiarities of the climate; and with. gall.” The works of Jones were nu-, out denying the resemblance that may merous, but few remain; enough, exist between the Grecian and the bowever, is left to show of what his Gothic, he considers the general theory genius was capable, had he fallen on to be merely an ingenious fallacy, better times. In his restoration of St. which supposes it to be a happy cor- Paul's, he was thwarted by the Parliaruption of the Greek.

ment; and the following is the melanThe character of Wykeham is vigor, choly close of his labours and his life: ously drawn:

“The chief of the works on which he had Wykeham was the Cardinal Wolsey of depended for fame was stopt by Parliament Edward the Third, with more than Wolsey's far short of completion, and the whole strucmunificence, and nothing of his worldly am

ture treated with such contumely that its bition. He was a wise and sagacious minis

destruction was dreaded. Tradition says, ter to the state, and a watchful and faith- that the sorrowing old man was sometimes ful one to the Church, bringing to either to be seen wandering in the vicinity of service strong good sense a wonderful apti- Whitehall and St. Paul's Cathedral, looking tude for business—eloquence full of persua

at those splendid but incomplete works. sion-a temper whose serenity nothing From one of the windows of the former, the could disturb—a courage which no trials royal master, for whom he had made so many dismayed-and, last and best of all, a cha- masques and planned so many mansions, was racter of unsullied honesty. Though a rigid conducted to an undeserved fate; and he Romanist, he was merciful to the Wickliff- could see with his own eyes the degradation ites, when his brethren set an example of se

of St. Paul's. During the Usurpation,' verity; he adorned and enriched the churches says Dugdale, 'the stately portico with the which others of the clergy desired to plun- beautiful Corinthian pillars being converted der; and he laid out his wealth in colleges into shops for seamstresses and other trades, and schools, that knowledge might increase

with lofts and stairs ascending thereto--the in the land.”

statues had been despitefully thrown down

and broken iu pieces.' Of this he was witThe next architect noticed by Mr.

ness; but he did not live to see the unfiCunningham is Inigo Jones; "a

nished cathedral with its magnificent portico name,” says Walpole, " which would

wrapt in those flames which consumed so alone save England from the reproach much of London. “Inigo,' says Walpole, of not having her representatives “ tasted early of the misfortunes of his masGent. Mag. April, 1831.

1653,

330
REVIEW.-John Jones's Poems.

[April, ter. He was not only a favourite but a Ro- and landscape-gardening." His name,” man Catholic. Grief, misfortunes, and age says Mr. C. “was so famous in many terminated his life. He died at Somerset

ways in his own tine, that it could House, and was buried in the Church of St.

not be omitted in these sketches; but Bennet's, Paul's Wharf, where a monument

I doubt whether any man would take erected to his memory was destroyed in the fire of London. Walpole adds some erro

it as a compliment now to be told that peous dates. We know that Jopes was

he painted a picture, planned a monueighty years old when he died in June, ment, designed a house, or laid out a

garden, like William Kent.” To Jones succeeds Sir Christopher

Of Lord Burlington we are told that Wren. His life is written with great he was an elegant copyist, admired in perspicuity, and forms a very interest- his own day, but has been ever since ing portion of the volume. Among his on the wane. The colonnade of Burchurches, St. Paul's, St. Mary-le-Bow, lington House and Chiswick House St. Stephen's Walbrook, and St. Bride's are of his designing, but his fame is Fleet-street, are well-known triumphs best secured by the Hattery of Pope. of his genius. His steeples, says Mr.

The volume concludes with the life Cuoningham, are universally admired, of Sir William Chambers, who has and deserve to be studied by mathema- written upon art with more talent ticians as well as by architects; they than he exemplified it. No one who surpass all others in geometrical beauty. desires the talent of an architect can As the poverty of James confined the acquire it without the treatise of Chammagnificent conceptions of Inigo Jones bers. This is Mr.Cunningham's praise, to paper, so the profligacy of Charles and it is deserved. His dissertation on the Second was as fatal to one of the oriental gardening, however, was an noblest designs of Wren. The Com- error in taste, which was severely hanmons voted seventy thousand pounds dled by the celebrated Heroic Épistle for a mausoleum to receive the body of

to Sir William Chambers; a satire, Charles the First. The body was not according to Warton, cut out by found, for there was no disposition to Walpole, and buckram'd by Mason.” discover it; the money was spent by

There is. no one who writes upon the profligate son of the Royal Martyr,

art more to our taste than Allan Cun. and the mausoleum of Wren still lives ningham; he speaks out honestly and -on paper. Insult and indignity were fearlessly; he throws off the trainmels the rewards of Sir Christopher Wren; of prepossession and prejudices, and he was ignominously dismissed from like the giant tears off' “ like withes” his employments in the 86th year of the fetters that would enthral the freehis age, through the intrigues of a fac

Join of his mind; he sustains his opition, and the dullness of the first nions with the manly independence of sovereign of the House of Brunswick. unbiassed intellect, and sees with his

Castle Howard and Blenheim are own eyes; hence his remarks, whether the trophies of Vanbrugh, whose life of blame or praise, are valuable, as well is next upon the record. Mr. C. has from the conviction we feel of their spoken a volume against the writings sincerity, as from the talent with which of this licentious dramatist, when he they are enforced. expresses a hope that they are for ever closed to our countrywomen. His Attempts in Verse, by John Jones, an old, character and merits are well summed

Servant, with some account of the writer, up in the closing passage of his bio- written by himself ; and an Introductory graphy

Essay on the Lives and Works of our unIt may be sufficient to say of Gibbs educated Poets. By Robert Southey, Esq. that he was the architect of St. Mar- Poet Laureate. Murray. tin's Church, the chief beauty of MR. SOUTHEY has furnished which, amongst many beauties, is the about one half of this volume, aud we portico. “His lines,” if we may be al- need hardly say by far the most intelowed the expression, fell“ on plea- resting portion. The “attempts " of santer places” than those of Jones and the servant are introduced by an Essay Wren; he was largely employed, and from a master, in which the lives of was a liberal and charitable man. some half dozen of the great“ unedu

Of Kent it is said, that he enjoyed catedare traced, and their works crithe rare felicity of maintaining his fame ticised, in a tone of feeling honourable in painting, sculpture, architecture, to him who leads the van of the eru.

fore us.

1831.)
Review.-John Jones's Poems.

331 dite. His own “healthy understand- over, I considered that, as the Age of Reaing,” his own generous spirit,” and son bad commenced, and we were advancing the goodness of his own heart, are with quick step in the March of Intellect, conspicuous in every page of the vó

Mr. Jones would in all likelihood be the lume; they have buoyed up the fragile

last versifyer of his class; something might bark of poor Jones, and they will bear

properly be said of his predecessors, the it down the stream of time, unscathed

poets in low life, who with more or less by the rocks, or, to be poetical, un.

good fortune had obtained notice in their harmed by the Scylla of criticism, or

day; and here would be matter for an inthe Charybdis of neglect.

troductory essay, not uninteresting in itself, The introduction of Jones to Mr.

and contributing something towards our

literary history. And if I could thus render Southey was accidental; a visit of the some little service to a man of more than latter to Harrowgate, which had been ordinary worth (for such upon the best tesnoticed in a Leeds paper, induced the timony Mr. Jones appeared to be), it would poet, who was resident in a family, to be something not to be repented of, even address a letter to Mr. S., with a speci. though I should fail in the hope (which men of his poetry; a circumstance by failure, however, I did not apprehend) of no means uncommon, for as offers. of affording some gratification to “gentle tortoise-shell tom-cats had been the

readers : " for readers there still are, who, plague of Sir Joseph Banks's life, the

having escaped the epidemic disease of critiMSS. of poets had been the annoyance

cism, are willing to be pleased, and grateful of Mr. Southey's. The odds were

to those from whose writings they derive

amusement or instruction.” against poor Jones; but the letter was perused, and the incipient displeasure

We have then very interesting dispelled. Whether the fortuitous cir- sketches of the lives of Taylor the Wacumstances of Harrowgate leisure and ter Poet, Stephen Duck, James WoodHarrowgate waters, had any share'in house, John Bennet, Anne Yearsley, the business, we are not told; but the and Bryant. We are happy to find result was certainly the volume be

that it is Mr. Southey's intention to do...

honour to the memory of Bloomfield by “Upon perusing the poems," says Mr. S.,

a separate work. “ It is litile to the cre“I wished they had been either better or dit of the age,” says Mr. S., “ that the worse. Had I consulted my own convenience, latter days of a man whose name was at or been fearful of exposing myself to misre- one time so deservedly popular should presentation and censure, I should have told have been passed in poverty, and perhaps my humble applicant that although his shortened by distress, that distress havverses contained abundant proof of a talent ing been brought on by no misconduct for poetry, which, if it had been cultivated,

or imprudence of his own." This is might have produced good fruit, they would

true; and we happen to know that not be deemed worthy of publication in these this distress would have been aggratimes. But on the other hand, there were

vated but for the frequent and compasin them such indications of a kind and happy disposition, so much observation of natural

sionate kindness of the Literary Fund. objects, such a relish of the innocent plea

But we must speak of Mr. Jones. sures offered by nature to the eye, and ear,

In a simple narrative written by him. and heart, which are not closed against them, self, he tells in a natural manner of his and so pleasing an example of the moral be- early difficulties, his limited means of Defit derived from those pleasures, when acquiring the most ordinary education, they are received by a thankful and thought- and the first stirrings of the poetical spirit ful mind, that I persuaded myself there were within him; his propensity to poetry many persons who would partake, in perus- does not appear to have excited his vaing them, the same kind of gratification which I had felt. There were many, I still in service, respected by all who

nity or impaired his usefulness; he is thought, who would be pleased at seeing

know him. His letter thus conhow much intellectual enjoyment had been

cludes: attained in humble life, and in very unfavourable circumstances; and that this exer- “ I therefore hope, Sir, that if some of cise of the mind, instead of rendering the in

the fruits of my humble muse be destined to dividual discontented with his station, had see the light, and should not be thought conduced greatly to his happiness, and if it worthy of commendation, no person of a behad not made him a good man, had contri- neficent disposition will regret any little eabuted to keep him so. This pleasure should couragement given to an old servant under in itself, methought, be suficient to con- such circunstances ; but above all, Sir, I tent those subscribers who might kindly pa

hope there will be found do person so illtronize a little volume of his verses. More- natured as to upbraid you for the part you

332

Review.-Guide to Wimborne Minster. [April, have taken in their introduction, when it is occupy as much time as can be devoted done from motives the most kind and disin- to it. He has also entered into a soterested. I will endeavour, Sir, to let you ciety for the suppression, or rather dise have the verses by the time you wish,

and

couragement of autograph collectors, will do my best to improve them; but as yet and this resolution he also desires us to I have said but little to any person respecto make public. Long, we say, may he ing them, and I believe, Sir, I must not ad

continue to advance the true interests dress my friends on the subject, until I again of literature by writings instiuct with trespass on your kindness for instructions

the living spirit of truth and wisdom; how to proceed, for which, Sir, there can be no hurry."

and may the leisure which advancing In this feeling we heartily concur;

life will require, be soothed by the reand we trust that the benevolence of membrance, that of all the writers of Mr. Southey, as it will assuredly bring has advocated the cause of genuine

the present day, there is not one who its reward to his own bosom, will be the means of laying up comforts for piety and sound morals with more ela the poet whom he has so generously ween the perversions of intellect and

quence; not one who has stood beprotected.

the public good, with more courage The following is a favourable speci.

than himself. men of Jones's poetry. « Deep IN THE Dell.

Ductor Vindogladiensis : an Historical and Deep in the dell, when pensive straying,

Descriptive Guide to the Town of WimFar from every noisy sound,

borne-Minster, Dorsetshire; with a partiI saw a spring in beauty playing

cular account of the Collegiate Church of From a rock with foliage crowned :

St. Cuthberge, the Chapel of St. Margaret, And as its airy bound 'twas taking,

and other Charitable Endowments in the And its form a radiance shed,

same Parish. 8vo, pp. 47. A crag beneath, the torrent breaking, Around in parting streams it spread.

WIMBORN is presumed by some

writers to have been the Vindogladia And each a channel lonely winding,

of Antoninus, but doubted by others, Dull and slowly seem'd to run,

and has been called one of two winter And turn'd, methought, in hope of finding That with which its course begun;

stations of the Romans in Dorsetshire, From either side to each inclining,

the summer station being Badbury, a One by one, the current fed ;

hill triple trenched. With the latter Fast it flowed, when all combining,

we have no concern, but it was eviPraises murmuring as it sped.

dently British : and the truth is, that 'Twas like, methought, two souls existing,

Badbury was originally the fort or Young in years, and light in care,

acropolis of the Britons, who occupied When in social bands enlisting,

Vindogladia and the vicinity; and ihat Life is sweet, and hope is fair.

the station seems to have been placed Joys, which mutual love provides them, sometimes at Winburn, and some

Cheer their course, and on they go times at Badbury. Our author's view Till some turn of fate divides them, has been however chiefly directed to

Strange and dreary ways to know. the Church, that has the unusual disIn lonely hours, anticipation

tinction of a transept tower in the cenPaints the scene of joys to come ;

tre, and another of more recent date And when 'tis view'd, how inclination at the west end. The latter tower was

Woos the path which leads to home. erected, we presume, for the reception And when those souls, in memory chaptered, of the bells, under a fear that the conThe seat of love's attraction swell,

cussion of them when in the central Congenial spirits flow enraptured,

tower, would occasion the fall of the Like the waters down the dell.”

spire above, an event that actually did There is much humourous poetry ensue in the year 1600, our author interspersed, but we prefer the poet's says (in p. 6), from the concussion of more serious vein.

the bells. The second tower was comMr. Southey issues a proclamation pleted in 1464, and the author states, against all future attempts on the part that the bells there were taken from of poets to submit their manuscripts to the chapel of Kingston. But there his perusal ; being, as he says, some- were bells in more than one tower of what advanced in years, and having our ancient abbey-churches, or the business enough of his own fully to new tower might have been originally

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1831.] Review.-Guide to Wimborne Minster.

333 intended for the

purpose
before men-

were mere“ perhaps” and “probably" tioned, though such intention was not antiquaries) immediately proceeded to executed. Why this was not the case, Gundulfize and Normannize all our is a matter with which we are not ac- remains which bore the characteristics quainted ; all we do know is, that the of a style of architecture that had obbeams upon

which bells are suspended, tained for four hundred years before may, as they have done, act with the the invasion of the Conqueror. As it effect of battering-rams, through oscil- was undistinguishable from the style latory motion, in the disjunction of of the Norman æra, they could not be stones and mortar.

contradicted in affirming that all such Our author says, that Tanner chris- remains are subsequent to the Contened the place Twinbourne ; from the quest. The rule which obtained bebrook and the bourne. Leland, who fore this superficial pretence, was to delighted in petty pedantry, had so de- examine the dates of the building, as nominated it long before Tanner,* be- recorded by history, and compare

them cause the town was an interamnium. with the Saxon and Gothic styles, and But it was known only as Winburn in then to decide, according to the testithe Anglo-Saxon æra, and we lean to mony of the rule alluded to. Instead of Bishop Gibson's etymon, from Win, this, which was a sort of testimony not the first syllable of Vindogladia, and easily to be got rid of, they have by the Anglo-Saxon burn, rivus, with positiveness somewhat established a which derivation Lye coincides, v. theory which goes the extravagant Vinburn.

length of saying that there cannot be The circumstance which gave cele- any bones left of a man who died bebrity to the place, was the foundation fore the Conquest, though his place of of a nunnery by Cutburga, sister of burial is known.

In the same manIna, King of the West Saxons, who ner, at the time when the Asiatic died anno 727, which having been de- Society, Maurice, and other oriental stroyed by the Danes, was converted scholars, were throwing that light into a secular canonry by Edward the upon Druidism, which has been so Confessor, which canonry (according well embodied and exhibited by Mr. to Lelandt) was enlarged into an en- Higgins, up started certain men called dowment of four prebendaries, &c. by Helio-arkiies, and mystified and enThomas Brember, Dean of Twinburne fabled the whole. Now if men read (who died in 1361), not King Edward, for instruction, not for deception, there as our author (p. 4).

ought to exist a conscientious and hoThese matters, which we add to our nourable feeling, concerning the turauthor's account, have however no Pitude of vitiating history, as well as concern with the Church, which, says of forging old coins. Against both our author,

these impositions we have always set " by Gilpin is pronounced a specimen of

our faces; because, independent of the the heaviest and earliest style of Saxon disgust naturally felt at the attempt, architecture ; but we have in fact no eccle- we know that there is both positive siastical remains in this country, near so con

and circumstantial evidence so extensiderable in grandeur or extent, of an age pre- sive in favour of sound archæology, as cedent to the Conquest.—p. 6.

to render all unworthy resources unneThis allegation we peremptorily deny, cessary. In truth, some men start not only from a repulsive feeling as to

novelties, as Charlatans do quack-mesuch contradiction of fact, but from an dicines, for the sake of notoriety and actual knowledge of the birth, life, distinction; and addressing themselves and (we wish that we could add), to persons who are ignorant of the subdying-speech also of this bare-faced as- ject, find an easy reception. To those sertion. We have studied archæology who understand that subject, the fraud for forty years, and know that in the is vexatious, but they are only few. times of Messrs. Gough, Lysons, Car- In the case before us, it is evident ter, and others, no such hypothesis froin history, that the edifice was oriwas propagated. By some well-known ginally built in the Anglo-Saxon æra ; circumstances, the name of Gundulf and that it received no important alteraas builder of Rochester Castle, &c. was tions as to building, belween the time brought into notice. Persons (who of Edward the Confessor and the

Temple Church style, usually ascribed # Coll. i. 82.

+ Ubi supra.

to the thirteenth century. In the

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