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Review.-Sir W. Betham on Dignities. [April, central tower are intersecting arches nally situated on the steps, rising one above to relieve the dead wall, exactly con

another, and not on the level pavement of formable to those of Malmesbury Abbey the altar, as they now stand.” Church, founded in or near the same We are told in p. 29, that one of ära* as that of the monastery before the transepts us. To that æra, therefore, we ascribe

“ Has been sometimes denominated Death's it, because we will not elevate the ipse Aisle, from a strange painting of the King dixit of any man over the positive evi- of Terrors bestriding his victim, with dart dence of history. It is necessary thus

and spade in hand, and all the appropriate

devices of mortality, which till very lately to say, because we are menaced with

covered the eastern wall, above the little an irruption of writers upon Gothic niche, in which are the remains of a piscina." architecture, all proceeding upon the same principle of thinking historical

The popularity of the Dance of

Death will here occur to mind. proof utterly unnecessary. Our author says, that there is over

We find that in the library is each side of the altar, a window of a a cupboard full of ancient wills, deeds, lancet form. Now the fashion of two

and deed-baskets, and a curious old box, in or three windows, instead of one large

which offerings for the poor were formerly

collected."--p. 34. one at the east end of the chancel, is decidedly Anglo-Saxon, for we have We should be obliged to the author seen it in a Church which is recorded for drawings of the deed-baskets and to have been consecrated in the

poors' box. 1066, and know that it was copied in

Our Churches are in such numerous the succeeding Gothic, and was super

instances ornaments of our landscape, seded by the great window, still usual. memorials of our ancient arts, and conWe proceed with some extracts.

servators of the best feelings, that we

consider it patriotic and wise to extend “In a survey, thus far, of the exterior of

a due regard for them. Without them the Church, abundant traces will be ob

no places can be considered fit for the served of an innovation, from which almost residence of civilized beings, and the every Gothic edifice in this country appears

mere sight of them reminds all to have more or less suffered. This is, a


of the duties due to God and man. Of contraction in the height of the roof, by which a few pounds have been saved in the

course, then, they should be preserved expense of lead or slates (the latter, by the in a character consistent with their way, a paltry substitute for the grey and purpose; and not be made subjects of mossy stone), at the same time, that an ridicule or contempt by injudicious or awkward mark is left in the outside, orna- ignorant innovations and repairs. We ments and windows are demolished or con- therefore hope that future topographers cealed within, and of course the proportions will, with the laudable zeal of our of the building materially altered."--p. 19. author, expose any mischief which

Our author exhibits good taste and may have been done in this respect, judgment in this and similar remarks;

that a warning may thence be held out for nothing is more true than that

to others. Gothic architecture is spoiled by inattention to proportions.

Dignities, Feudal and Parliamentary. By Our author notices, justly, that pin

Sir William Betham. nacles disproportionately small, are

(Continued from p. 230.) faults not unusual in Gothic buildings SIR WILLIAM BETHAM's cornerof the fifteenth century. We have stone in this work is the “ First Re. noticed the same fault in many parish port of the Lords' Committees.Satischurches (p. 17):

factory as are in general the deductions An unusual thing is noticed in p. 22. of such Reports, and judge-like as is

“ It would seem, from the gradations in the construction of them, they may lie the seats of the stalls, that they were origi- open to a great defeci. They may

* See Carter's Progress of Architecture, Pl. VI. fig. 4.

+ It is well known that the Reports of the Lords' Committee on the dignity of a Peer of the Realm, were drawn up by the late Lord Redesdale. Mr. Palgrave, in his Remarks on Mr. Nicolas's Pamphlet, has the following note at p. 32 : “ With respect to the reprinting of the documents inserted in the Peerage Reports, I must add, what Mr. Nicolas well knows, that these Reports were wholly the Reports of Lord Redesdale ; and that it was utterly impossible to induce that learned Lord to change any plan, however defective, which

1831.] Review.--Sir W. Betham on Dignities.

335 apply evidence which belongs to re- called by Eadmer “ Principum concent history, to times of which there is ventus. Here is an evident deputano record. They may determine the tion of persons who were distinct from history of the Britons and Anglo- primores ; I nor is it true that the WiteSaxons, by matters which appertain nagemot consisted only of Peers or only to the Normans. For instance, Thanes, or that the King could be as they say, as here quoted (i. 169), arbitrary as supposed, for Bede men

“The rise of the House of Commons, tions the acts of a King done, “ Butan without any express law for the purpose, gepeate his Vitena,” without the admay have been the natural result of the si- vice of his counsellors(523, 31), as tuation in which the country was placed at


And this practice of reprethe close of the reign of Henry the Third, sentation was further evinced, accordor the accession of his son.”

ing to Sir William Betham, in the Now it so happens, that Clerus and

case of the Bishops ; for when the Populus formed part of our Norman Report says, that " the Archbishops full parliaments; and that a charter of and Bishops may be deemed Lords of John, as given by Mr. Lynch, does Parliainent, by tenure,” i. 196, an indefine the populus to consist of “ citi- genious note of Sir William Betham zens and burgesses." This charter,

says, which was given to form an Irish Par

" It would perhaps be more correct to liament upon the model of that of say, that on the establishment of legislative England, discriminates each particular parliaments, it was considered expedient that class of persons necessary to compose a the Church should be represented; and therefull Parliament. Mr. Lynch quotes a

fore the Archbishops and Bishops were record, and that record sets the ques

summoned thereto, than that they were tion at rest as to the existence of a Lords of Parliament by tenure.House of Commons in the periods an- Opposed, however, as we are to the tecedent to the time mentioned in the Henry-third-ian origin of the House

That the populus sat by re- of Commons, (because it suffocates the presentation is matter of course, be- Clerus et Populus of far earlier reigns, cause it was matter of necessity. The and many corroborating circumstances, very word witena, as connecied with particularly this, viz. that there never gemote, implies a selection; and the was a reign, prior to that æra, wherein principle of deputation was acted upon aids could be legally obtained from all by the Conqueror. When Lanfranc the people in the land, nor succession complained of the spoliation of the See to the Crown be authorized, without of Canterbury, the King ordered that the populus forming part of the Parliahis complaint should be heard by the ment, such populus being, we think, assembled primores and probi homines, the real ancestor of the lower House), not only of the county of Kent, but of we still repeat that the matters rethe other counties of England; and ac- lating to dignities, here collected by cordingly they are assembled, and are Sir William Betham, are of the highest

Report. *

he had once adopted.”—Mr. Nicolas, in his Report of the Claim of the Lisle Peerage, says, “ To establish the important fact that Judges who lived about two centuries ago, did not know the law which regulated the descent of dignities as well as persons of the present day, it must be shown that facts have beeu discovered with which they were unacquainted. That no new light has been thrown on the subject, must be admitted by every person who has read the Reports of the Lords' Committees on the dignity of a Peer of the Realm; for, while all proper respect is paid to those compilations, and whilst the labour which has been bestowed on them is fully conceded, it is neither presumptuous towards their Lordships, nor at variance with the truth, to say that it is impossible to draw a single positive conclusion from the mass of statements which occur; that, amidst much learning there are numerous contradictions and mistakes ; and, what is far more material, erroneous deductions drawn from those mistakes. Under these circumstances, it is too much that these Reports should be made the basis on which an argument can be built to overthrow the law, as it has been laid down on two occasions, and on each by some of the wisest judges this country ever saw, as well as the numerous decisious to which their dicta have given rise, especially when they have been iu strict conformity with the dicta of more than five centuries." —Nicolas's Lisle Claim, p. 259.

* We are aware of Sir W. Betham’s inferential arguments in i. 256 seq. + Eadmer, p. 9.

Primores were Lords, as distinguished from Commoners. Ducange, v. Baro.



Review-Betham on Dignities.-Snow's Prayers. [April, value. The difficulties on the subject cording to the will of the Sovereign, seem in the main to have grown out summoned also. That the Caput Baof nothing more than the capricious roniæ, or principal residence of the and discretionary exercise of the Royal Baro major, gave title to his peerage, Prerogative, especially in regard to the is evident, but that the Parliamentary Writs of Summons.

seat itself was dependent upon that In vol. i. p. 174, we have a long ac- Caput Baroniæ, is not adınissible; the count of Baronies by Tenure. We cause of such Baro major becoming a think that confusion has produced mis- Peer being property and rank in the take here as elsewhere.

country, and a moral necessity, bearThe old distinction of Peers is Ba- ing compulsorily on the Crown, not a rones majores. Parliaments were held legal claim of right. The more proper three times a year, viz. Christmas, term therefore for a Peer (to judge from Easter, and Whitsuntide, and then Magna Charta, &c.), is, as to the these Barones majores came to Court, early periods, not a Baron by tenure, de more, from custoin, and transacted or by writ, but a Baro major, who parliamentary business ; at other times expected that particular individual sumwrits of summons were issued. That mons from the Crown, which sumpoverty annihilated nobility was mons placed him in the Upper House. maxim of the age, and acted upon as The custom still exists of elevating a such, and that respect was had to ex- Commoner of large landed property to tent of property, in regard to the Ba the Peerage, and it is by comparing rones majores, or Peers of Parliament, existing customs with the glimmering and that defalcation of property might lights thrown by our old contemporary reduce a Baro major to a mere Knight chronicles and records, that we draw or Baro minor, can be shown from va. different inferences from those which rious instances. But tenure by barony are given in the Reports of the Peers, might be merely territorial, and not and modern works upon Dignities. imply in se a seat in the Upper House. In regard to the subject which we It merely denoted certain military duties havejust discussed, Sir William Betham or assessments, or judicial local privi- supports us with the following strong leges. A Buro major, or Peer of Par- testimony. liament, was a person in the earlier “ No evidence is to be found of the extimes, who considered himself from his press reservation of the service of a Baron, consequence in the country, entitled or of attendance on the King's Court, or to be called to the Upper House, and Great Council of Parliament, in any grant of one who expected to be so; nor could land. Military service is reserved in many the King despise his expectation, un- and in most grants, and services by grand less he was notoriously rebellious or serjeanty are extant on record. But no incompetent, or deemed personally grant, charter, or inquisition, imports a rehostile to the sovereign. But the pub- servation of the service of attending the lic affairs, military or political, could King's Court, or his Council, or his great

. not be carried on under total neglect of the Barones majores, because they

Possessors and claimants of dignities were most intimately connected with will find in this work most curious the execution of national business and interesting elucidations. What local influence, what military power, could the Crown have coni- Forms of Prayer adapted to the Use of Schools manded without them? They there- and Families consisting of young Persons ; fore necessarily became Peers of Parlia- also Poems on Religious Subjects. By J. ment; but numerous cases show, that Snow. Hatchard and Son. although the Peerage did mostly de- THIS little volume is presented to scend hereditarily, chiefly because the the public with a modest preface, in estate did so too, still there was no which all attempt at novelty is disright even in the Barones majores, in claimed, and a blessing is invoked from those æras, to deem the peerage an in- Him“ who as he best knows the imdivisible adjunct to succession or pri- perfection of the most eloquent ad.. mogeniture. In short, the Crown ap- dresses, does not resist the feeblest cry, pears to have been morally compelled uttered in sincerity, by the humblest, to call the Barones majores to the of his worshippers." The work posUpper House ; and others, on account sesses considerable merit. It unites a of their wisdom or loyalty, were, ac departure from the hacknied phraseo

1831.] Review.-Snow's Forms of Prayer.

337 logy of supplication, with a simplicity reader, and here flow in easy and of devotional fervour very rarely com- pleasing numbers. bined. Without falling into that kind In the short prefatory remarks to of conventional language (if we may these poems, a touching allusion is use the term) which characterizes most made to the contributions of a friend, forms of prayer, and really, renders “ rich in all the treasures of human them the counterparts of each other, learning, and the accomplishments the author has avoided the opposite which exalt and dignify our nature." error of straining, at originality of ex- The contributions of C.* to this little pression, and sacrificing the grand ends collection, ought not, indeed, to be of supplication to an attempt at no- overlooked. To much originality of velty of diction.

style and thought, is added an evident In the so

appropriateness” at which depth and reality of devotion. he aimed, he has admirably succeeded, A work like the present has long and in many passages which might be been a desideratum in our supplicatory quoted, there is an attractive simplicity forms, and we heartily recommend its very likely to draw the attention and

use to those for whom it is benevoawaken the interest of young minds. lently designed.

The poetical effusions are chaste and Mr. Snow is the author of a volume musical; while the principles they sub- of Poems recently reviewed in this serve are pure and orthodox. Our journal, and is Secretary to the Litelimits admit but of a single specimen. rary Fund Society.

1 Kings xviii.

The History of Chivalry. By G. P. R. James,

Esq. Author of De L'Orme, &-c. National In presence of approaching good

Library, No. 1V.) 16mo, pp. 348. ColOn Carmel's height the prophet stood; burn and Bentley. And though the blazing sun had spread A sky of brass above his head

BY Chivalry, in the modern accepThough the parched earth through years nor tation, we understand that romantic The gracious rain nor gentle dew; [knew and noble code of manners, which miStrong in the promise and the power, tigated the natural savageness of war Faith's ear drank in the coming shower, among the higher nobility and gentry And now with prayer he waits the hour.

of the middle ages. The best exemSix times the prophet's " servant


plification of it is shown in the pictuHis eager glances to the wave,

resque Chronicle of Froissart. Iis real But the horizon made no sigo

origin is chiefly to be sought in the reAcross its hard and burning line.

finements, engaging qualities, and arts But faith is strong, he looked again,- of pleasing, which were indispensable A small cloud issued from the main,

in intercourse with the female sex, Small as the least of clouds that lie,

who among the Celtic nations were Like snow-flakes op a summer's sky. Within him leapt the prophet's soul,

not only free, but were regarded with

superior homage, and had an authority As on the spreading blessing stole;

and influence not to be found among Till with their freight the dark heavens bowed,

the orientals, where meretricious blan. And rushed the torrent long and loud,

dishments are alone practicable under And Judali's parched and withered sod,

their enslaved condition. The precise Now felt a long-neglected God.

period of this improvement of manHow oft, like Judah, we have known

ners cannot be given, because it was No God, but idols of our own;

of gradual adolescence, through acOur soul's best powers, all high desires companying the progress of Society. Withered by sin's consumiug fires. By Chivalry ( Chevalerie) however, no Forgive us, Lord,—and from above more was originally understood, whatDrop gentle dews that nourish love, cver Mr. James, in that supercilious Till the full tide of grace divine,

manner which here and there blemishes Rush on our hearts and make us thipe.

his work, may say to the contrary, In many of these pieces the thoughts than what appears in the following of some of our most eminent Church- definitions of Cotgrave: poets are released from the cramped " CHEVALERIE. Knighthood ; the order diction and obsolete phraseology, which cloud their modern meaning to the

We believe the late Mr. Christie. Gent. Mag. April, 1831.

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Review. James's History of Chivalry. [April, of Knighthood; also chevalrie, doughtinesse, of it. Mr. James, however, has in valour, prowesse ; also a bold attempt, hardy the main treated of these sanguinary enterprise, manly or gallant act."

wars; and we willingly admit his “Chevalier, signifies properly a horse

work to be a satisfactory and able man ; one that rides, or is, on horseback (and digest of campaigns, which were pahence also a Gendarme, or man of armes),

tronized because they had a tendency but particularly, and more commonly, a Knight or Cavaleere (in France the title of

to impede the progress of liberty in Chevalier is often a bare title of honour, and Europe, and fostered superstition. oflen ordinarily conferred on great officers,

In p. 181, Mr. James says, (whether of the short or long robe), and on " It is evident, from the continual menthe Lords of great and meane Seignories; tion of the corslet or breast-plate, that it all which may qualifie and stile themselves was a piece of plate armour used during the Knights, as well as ordinary gentlemen may first crusade. "Mills is wrong in supposing terme themselves Esquires."

that plate armour was not at all known beBACHELIER. Chevalier BACHELIER. A fore the beginning of the thirteenth cenKnight Bachelor, a title of gentry inferior lo tury. As far back as the time of Louis the Banneret, and superior to Escuyer, a young Debonair, the Monk of St. Gall gives a full gentleman that aspires unto Knighthood, and description of a man in plate arnour, and the privilege of bearing a banner in the field. also mentions the barb, or iron covering of The Chevalier bachelier marched under other the horse." men's colours, and had twice as much pay as the Esquire.'

Now it is certain, that the effigies

upon the seal of Childeric, who was In our Law Dictionaries and others, buried at Touinay about the year 481 it will be found that the word Chi- (see Bouterove), has a halluret, or valry among us implied military ser- breast-plate. In Mezeray, Charlevice; and if in Coigrave it occurs in magne is cuirassed with a paludamenan abstract form, as valour, prowess, tum, exactly like a Roman Emperor; &c. as above, it is evident that this is his armour, according to historians, too limited a definition for the modern consisted of a helmet, cuirass, arm use, as a code of manners. If there- and thigh pieces, which latter his suite fore Mr. James complains that he did not use, that they might more could not find in old authors a satisfac- easily mount_on horseback (Malliot, tory elucidation of Chivalry in the mo- Costume des Français, p. 44). It also dern sense alluded to, it is because appears, that the guards represented those old authors never treated of the on the frontispiece of the Bible preword in any such acceptation ; sented to Charles the Bald (anno 369), that the ancients were ignorant of a did wear Roman cuirasses, with lammoral bearing of the word, but as chi- brequius and paludamenta (see Montvalry signified njilitary or martial ses- faucon). Catel has engraved two effivice, and soccage that which is clownish gies of William and Raymond, Earls and rustical ; so between the habits of Toulouse, anno 1061-1088, where and manners of these two classes of the cuirass, though composed of rustres, feodaries, they made a distinction si- is yet of the Roman fashion, with halfmilar to that which we now do, be- sleeves lambrequined, and plaies protween a gentleman and a low-lived tecting in front the thighs, knees, and fellow. Nevertheless, they did not legs. Now by comparing these speci. historicize it, as they would have done, mens with others upon the arch of had it been an affair of dates and de. Constantine and the Theodosian cotails. Under their eulogies of indivi- lumn, such an assimilation (in regard duals, as Milites or Knights, we shall to the cuirass at least) will be found, as find however their moral characters to furnish au inference, that however delineated upon chivalrous principles. co-existent might be the different sorts

The Crusades had a distinct origin of mail, and which were of oriental The Saracens had not impeded or and distinct origin, there nevertheless much distressed the pilgrims, but survived an imitation of the Roman when in A. D. 1065, the city fell into armour, to which the authors quoted the hands of the Turks, the latter by Mr. James have given the appellatreated the Christian devotees so cruelly tion of plate armour, ihough not of the as to provoke the first Crusade. Chi- pattery and kind to which we apply valry is no more connected with these ihe term. expeditions to the Holy Land, than as We have only room to add, that the latter was an arena for the display serenade is derived from poems of the


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