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1831.] Review.-Cartwright's Rape of Bramber.

339 Troubadours, in which the word ser It has been said that the excavation continually terminated each division of them by pigs led to their discovery. (p. 219); and that it was a custom 10 Evelyn mentions, in his Diary, that in cut the table-cloth with a knife or Dauphiné “ this earth-nut was found dagger before a Knight, who had in out by hogs train'd to it, and for any way degraded himself (p. 327). which'those aniinals are sold at a great

price. It is in truth an incomparable

meat. Cartwright's Rape of Bramber.

A siugular thing occurs at the same (Concluded from p. 266.)

parish (Patching). Mr. Cartwright WE shall now proceed to give some

says, details connected with antiquarian and

“ At the time of the Norman Conquest, topographical subjects. Offington House, the seat of the

this parish appears to have coatained half

the population of later times. As fortylast Thomas Lord La Warre, contain

three men are stated as employed in agried “ sixty-five bed-rooms, and ninety- culture, it is reasonable to suppose that the eight bedsteads.”—p. 31.

population amounted, including women and In p. 32 is a ground-plan of Cissbury. children, to three times that number." —p.78. It is an ancient encampment, surrounded by a single vallum, following ensued from the conversion of arable

This depopulation appears to have the course of the hill, and enclosing into pasture and wood; out of the within its area sixty acres, but it appears to have been totally destitute of being only 451 arable. The size of

1582 acres of the whole parish, there

the church, which is of the architecThat this camp was occupied by the ture of the thirteenth century, suggests Britons, Romans, and probably Saxons

an opinion, that at the period last from the name, seems clear from the

named the parish was much more poremains. But as there have been end.

pulous. less discussions among antiquaries The dining-room of Wiston-house, about the respective appropriations of built temp. Éliz: retains the original canıps to the Britons, Romans, or

oak wainscot, bearing the date 1576, Saxons, it should be recollected that

and on the cornice was carved, in all Cæsar mentions local fortresses, pro

the pride of genealogy so fashionable in vided against intestine wars, as pre- those days, the family pedigree.--(p. existent to his invasion of this island.

152.)

A more perfect specimen of the These, by the remains, were evidently sacrifice of taste to pride cannot exist. occupied and sometimes altered by the The usual substitute of tawdriness could the Romans, sometimes by the Danes

not have relieved this wooden gingeror Sasons; and, wherever anomalous bread from heaviness of effect. features occur, which baffle appropria- We have a presumed æra of pulpits tion for want of a consistent plan, it mentioned under that of Edburton may be justly inferred that the original Church. camp was a local fortress of the kind mentioned. Such Cissbury appears to

“ The pulpit is carved in the fashion of

the time of James I. and was probably done have been.

by direction of Archbishop Laud, who, in The origin in this country of the

his archiepiscopal visitations, was very exact Truffle, or underground mushroom, as

in his direction respecting the pulpit and a viand of precious rarity, is thus de- the communion rails.”—p. 239. scribed : “ The Beech-woods in this parish (Patch

It appears by the endowment of the ing), and its immediate neighbourhood, are

Church of Henfeld, a prebend of the

Cathedral of Chichester, that the said very productive of the Truffle (Lycoperdon Tuber). About forty years ago, William

Vicarage was endowed, anno 1209, that Leach came from the West Indies with " the Vicar for the time being, who sball some dogs, accustomed to hunt for Truffles,

be presented by the Prebendary aforesaid, and proceeding along the coast from the

may be able to live for the future in an hoLand's End in Cornwall to the mouth of the

nourable manner, and may have a suitable river Thames, determined to fix on that maintenance, and not be reduced to the opprospot, where he found them most abundant. bious necessity of begging.”—p. 270. He took four years to try the experiment,

Thus it and at length settled in this parish, where

appears

that vicarages were be carried on the business of Truffle-hunter endowed to prevent the incumbents till his death."-p. 73.

living by mendicity.

340

Review.---Cartwright's Rape of Bramber. [April, In several old houses are known to found the bones of a fowl (p. 388). be secret rooms for the concealment of Mr. Pennant says, concerning a suJesuits during the reign of Elizabeth perstitious custom still practised at and her successors. One of the most Llandegla, by the sick, ingenious was the following at Shipley: “ If the afflicted be of the male sex, he

- In a closet belonging to the garret, is a makes, like Socrates, an offering of a cock Supboard with two shelves, which served for to Æsculapius, or rather to Tecla Hygeia ; steps, by which the Romish priest could if of the fair sex, a hen. The fowl is carried ascend to a place of concealment, through a in a basket first round the well, after that false top of the cupboard.”—p. 301. into the church-yard ; when the same oriIn p. 304 is engraved from the Cei. Deasuil] are performed round the chureh.

sons and the same circumambulations (the meliæ of the Church chest of Shipley, The votary then enters the church, gets una reliquary of wood, in shape a box

der the communion-table (as under the with a pyramidal house.roof, standing cromlech), lies down with the bible under on four corner feet. It is made of his or her head, is covered with the carpet wood,“ seven inches in length, and six or cloth, and rests there till the break of in height, enamelled and gilt in the day; departing after offering sixpence, and sides and ends with the subject of the leaving the fowl in the church. If the bird Crucifixion and angels ; over the cross dies, the cure is supposed to have been efare the Greek letters X. P. &. It is of fected, and the disease transferred to the dea workmanship coeval with, or perhaps

voted victim.”—(See Fosbroke's Wye Tour, before the donation to the Knights p. 171, ed. 3.) Templars” (the beginning of the 12th As this ceremony was accompanied century]

with the Druidical Densuil, and a siThe nimbus around the head of our milar custom concerning fowls obtains Lord is much larger than that of the among the Cingalese Priests, who are Saints and Angels, being a wheel with modern Druids, there can be little four cross-patee spokes within the circle, doubt of this custom being Celtic; and the intervals picked out with blue it may have been the cause why the and red,

bones of a fowl were here found; ese Below the ceiling of the Church of pecially as on the breast of the skeleton Horsham,

was found a fibula, representing a cock “When it was under repair in 1825, the engraved in vol.c.ii.p. 17); and fowls, remains of an inscription were discoverable,

hares, and geese, were held too sacred of which the letters were upwards of a foot by the Britons to be used for food. in length, and which extended the whole We have already spoken in high and length of the church on both sides.” just terms of Mr. Cartwright's splendid

and valuable work; and we are happy In the Church of Raglan, co. Mon

to learn that he is about to publish a mouth, still remains below the ceiling of the chancel, a hollow cornice, Dallaway's History of the Rape of

new and improved edition of Mr. carved in open scroll-work. Tradition

Arundel. says, that it was intended to assist the sound; upon what foundation, we are too ignorant of acoustics to decide.

Historical Sketch of the Bank of England: At Horsham Church,

with an examination of the Question, as to “ The room now used as a vestry is of the

the prolongation of the exclusive privileges time of Edward IV.; over it is a chamber of that Establishment. 8vo. p. 76. with strong grated windows, the access to The arcana and effects of the Bankwhich is by a stair-case, terminating in a ing system are exbibited in no work trap-door."-p. 355.

more satisfactorily than in this. The These upper-crofts and rooms were great principle is to prevent over-issue ; not uncommon in Ireland, and there and this our author

says, is seasonably are some in England. The intention controled by the Bank of England, was to have a place of security under which is itself again controled by the invasion, for the goods of the inhabi- obligation of paying in specie. He tants, the relics, and sacred utensils. shows us, from the Report of the ComSee full accounts of them in the Trans- mittee of the United States, that the actions of the Royal Irish Academy “Substitution of a National Bank would for 1789, p. 83.

be most unischievous ; that the Ministry Under the head of a skeleton in one would have, in fact, the entire management of the graves on Lancing Down, were of the Bank; that it would eventually dege

1831.] Review.-Sketch of the Bank of England.

341 nerate into a mere financial and political would, at such a moment, venture to supengine : that it would be abused in order to port its customers, either in the city or the promote party purposes; and would 'neces- country, by making advances to them. The sarily hecome a focus for every sort of cor- stocks of coin and bullion in all the banks ruption and intrigue.”—p. 64.

would necessarily be very much reduced by As to the Scotch Bank system he ob- idea of their making an advance in coin

the drain for gold from abroad, so that the serves, that it will not do for periods of would be out of the question. There is, commercial depression. These banks however, quite as little probability that they

" Are most liberal of their advances, so would be disposed to make advances in paper, long as they conceive they run no risk in seeing that whatever portions of such paper making them; but the moment that alarm came into the hands of any other bank, and discredit begiu to make their appear

would be forthwith returned upon them ; ance, they demand payment of every advance for each bank, anxious about nothing but that is not made on the very best security; its own safety, would be desirous of inthey cease, in a great measure, to discount; creasing its own supply of bullion, which it and provide for their own security by ruin- could only do at the expense of its neighing thousands of their customers. Had the bours; and it is easy, indeed, to see that Bank of England acted in 1792, 1815 and the stoppage of any bank would be inevita1816, and in 1825 and 1826, as the Scotch ble which did not husband its resources with banks act, when they apprehend a return of the utmost care. The consequences of a their notes, all classes would have been in- considerable fall in the exchange, with a volved in bankruptcy, and we should have

number of banks in London, would, in been fortunate had we escaped a revolu- truth, be quite frightful. Every one knows tion.”—p. 54.

the ruin occasioned by the crisis in the lat

ter part of 1825 and the beginning of 1826; The third point is, the injurious con- but we hesitate not to say, that that ruin sequences that would infallibly follow was trifling in the extreme, compared with from multiplying banks of issue in what it would have been had the paper curLondon.

rency of London been then supplied by dif

ferent establishments. ..“ In periods of distress and discredit,

At the period in arising out of a falling exchange, whether question, the Bank of England made loans that fall be brought about by previous over

upon the credit of funded and other proissue, bad harvests, demands upon the Trea- perty, which had become quit unsaleable, to sury from abroad, or any other cause, the

the extent, we believe, of about ten millions;

and those acquainted with the facts of the mercantile classes are placed in a situation

case will be forward to admit that, but for of great difficulty, and require efficient support. The Bank of England, aware of the

this opportune and liberal supply, the ruin demands that will be made upon her in such

of most private bankers, and of a very large

part of the mercantile class, throughout the a crisis, and that she alone will have to uphold the pecuniary system of the metro

country, would have been consummated. polis and the country, takes care to have, It would, however, be worse than absurd to generally speaking, her coffers well supplied suppose that any such advance, or anything with coin and bullion; and is able, from approaching to it, would have been made her immense command of cash and credit, by a number of banks, all jealous of each and the confidence placed in her by all other, with scanty stocks of bullion, dreadclasses, to meet a severe drain for gold, and, ing the return of their notes, and exempted at the same time, to render effectual support mit, that, were nothing more to be urged,

from any public responsibility. We subto private bankers, merchants, &c. But, were there various banks issuing paper in what we have now stated is complete and

decisive.”- pp. 52, 58. London, then, as no particular bank would incur any sort of general or public responsi- lu these statements we place the utbility, all of them would act only with a most confidence, and heartily pray, view to their own interest, in the literal and that the longevity of the Old Lady in most contracted sense of the term. They Threadneedle Street

may

be would not endeavour, like the Bank of Eng into immortality; and that we shall

protracted land, to provide large supplies of cash and bullion against any emergency; but each

have no flaunting misses (some of them being naturally disposed to trust as much,

sure to be no better than they should in a matter of this sort, to the efforts of be) substituted for her in the performothers as to its own, the chances are ten to

ance of her maternal and matronly duone that there would be most inadequate ties. It was a maxim of our ancestors, provision to meet a fall of the exchange.

“ to let well alone;" but their posterity But, although such were not the case, it is seem to think it an improvement not to sufficiently certain that no private bank do so.

342 Review.-Bp. of Llandaff's Charge.Life of Geo. IV. (April, A Charge delivered to the Clergy of the Dio- Continent, to be a general, a philoso

cese of Llandaff, at his Primary Visitation pher, or a man of business. He is to in September 1830, by Edward Lord Bishop be umpire upon all concerns of state, of Llandaff. 8vo. pp. 34.

and studious of conciliating his subTHE Bishop, with his known ta- jects, by humouring their habits, cuslent, has ably vindicated the cause of toms, and prejudices. If he is a family the Church Ministers, who have been man, he best pleases the wisest part of of late years grossly libelled ; though, the nation, and George the Third in pojot of fact, they are persons who found the success of that policy: he endeavour to do all the good which was an esquire of moral character. they possibly can. But how can they George the Fourth was an officer, with be expected to succeed in religion, all the ton of that finishing school, the more than statesmen do in politics ? Guards. Our author has most ably Nothing but fear or interest can make and minutely dissected every bone, musmen unanimous in any thing; and cle, and sinew of their respective chawherever there is freedom of opinion racters; even tweezered out their grey and action, the variety of sects shows from their black hairs. That he has so in se the operation of that freedom, done with more contracted ideas than but not the right or wrong of the mat- becomes a liberal man of good society, ter. The desire of kuowing this is not is, we fear, too true; but there is the the motive, and motive infuences highest value and precision in his reaction.

marks; and composed as England is, A clamour of the present day is par in the main, of stiff people and sectaticularly directed against the non-resi- ries, his work will be the more likely dence of beneficed clergymen. But to please them. There are thousands every man of fairness knows the truth who like to see characters through mi. of the following paragraph :

croscopes. We do not, because huma" Residence is, in many instances, a

num est errare, et nemo omnibus horis thing either physically or morally impossi- sapit ; and because we should not like ble. There is often a legal, or rather a ourselves always to live in state, and technical, non-residence, which in no degree act and move only as automatons. affects the spiritual interests of the parish. There are, too, more valuable machines There is often a non-residence of persons worked' by steam than by gravity. actively and zealously engaged in parochial Buonaparte and Talleyrand, who were duties, for which their talents are peculiarly worked by steam, did greater things qualified, while their own benefice is served

than the Emperor of Austria and Prince by a person equally appropriate to that situa

Metternich, inachines of clock-work. tion. A derangement of these plans might

Every body has heard of the strange improve the abstract symmetry of our Establishment, but it would be at the expense of person who turned the “Whole Duty the practical benefit, for which it was itself

of Man" into a libel, by marginal created. The end would be sacrificed to the notes, affixing to his neighbours sevemeans ; and a cruel disregard would be ma- rally, by name, the vices denounced in nifested, not only of the feelings of the the text of the work. George the clergy, but of the more important interests Third did a similar thing, no doubt of the parishioners themselves.”—pp. 27,28. with the prudential motive of regulat

Does the master always do his own ing his conduct in regard to persons with work, in any one line of business whom he might have to deal, and who whatever? Is such a thing ever re

were too numerous to be satisfactorily quired as indispensable? If the work recollected. We really do not put the is well done, or the goods well made,

harsh construction upon the matter does any one care who did the one, or

which our author has done. It was made the other?

evidently not a manuscript intended for publication or injury. It was well

known to be a habit of George III. to Memoirs of the Life and Reign of George write in various folios, for an hour after the Fourth. (Dr. Lardner's Cabinet Li

he rose in the morning. This practice brary.)

was not obviously consistent with his GEORGE the Third chose for his want of facility and taste in any sort of pattern character the English country composition ; but his manuscripts gentleman, and George the Fourth were only registers of names, with that of a man of fashion. A King of notes annexed, of the services, the ofEngland is not required, as on the fences, and the characters, as he

1831.] Review.- Annual Retrospect for 1831.

343 judged them, of the respective persons. the whole property of the soil, Tory " In addition," says a publication of members have almost always been re1779, to the numerous private regis- turned to Parliament; in others, the ters always kept by the King, and reverse : for it is happily noted by Pluwritten with his own hand, he has tarch, that when wealth is dispersed lately kept another, of all those Ameri- among the people, the desire of liberty cans who have either left the country increases with it. But democracy may voluntarily rather than submit to the be ruinous, and monarchy conservarebels, and also of such as have been tive; where and how, our author tbus driven out by force; with an account excellently shows. The Allied Powers of their losses and services.”

had resolved to make Greece a monarchy, and the decision, he says, was

right; for Annual Retrospect of Public Affairs for 1831. (Dr. Lardner's Cabinet Library.) “Every attempt which the Greeks them

selves had made to establish a government AT a time when public opinion, the had only begun in faction and ended in “popularis aura," or rather o procella,” anarchy; because they adopted the demoprofesses to have a capacity of ruling, cratic model, for which neither their proan Eolus is necessary to control it. gress in civilization nor the structure of That Eolus ought to be the public their society had fitted them. Ambitious press ; and it should be conducted upon and unpriocipled chieftains, accustomed unthe principles of sound political science der the Turkish dominion to a life of rapine and high reason; otherwise it is merely and violence, habituated to constant fends, a follis fabulis. Now, a better model unacquainted with the restraints of social for newspaper writing on political sub- life, and unable to relish the blessings of jects, than this book, we know not.

peace and order, could neither be safely en

trusted with the administration of a repubIt is impartial, and gives the scientific laws of the respective subjects upon mit to its feeble control. In such hands,

lican government, nor be expected to subwhich it treats. If it leans to party, it

a republican auministration would have deis rather to praise the talents of the generated into an oligarchy of turbulent caleaders than to vindicate mistakes, if pitani, or rapacious primates, oppressive to there are such. The character of Geo. the people, and factiously hostile to each IV., though verging upon severity, is other, affording no guarantee of internal given with a stern justice and unim- order, and as little qualified to promote sopeachable accuracy, that show it to be cial happiness or to extend civilization as ihe best ever written : but it is too the Turkish pachas whom they succeeded. long to extract.

Nothing but a nonarchical government, With regard to the Press, our au

with sufficient power and resources to comthor, speaking of the late Bourbon go

mand the obedience, iustead of consulting

the passions of the emancipated slaves of vernment, justly says:

despotism, could establish order amid such “ The very complaint that journalism, elements of confusion, restore industry and or the periodical press, had declared war cultivation on the traces of a Jesolating against the government, was an admission

war, and render the interference of the althat public opinion was their enemy: for lies a blessing to the great body of the peojournals, in order to possess influence, must ple. The parties to the treaty of London be read; in order to be read, they must be were therefore right in deciding on the approved of; and in order to be approved of, form of government to be given to the must coincide with the doctrines or flatter Greeks.”—p. 49. the prejudices of those by whom they are purchased.”—p. 25.

The History of Maritime and Inland DiscoSo true is this remark, that the va- very, Vol. III. Geography. (Dr. Lardrious

newspapers of England are baro- ner's Cabinet Cyclopædia.) meters of the opinions of the several VOYAGES and Travels grow out of parties to whose political biasses they a principle similar to thatof Columbus's are respectively addressed.

egg; one enterprising man shows the As io the predominance of aris. way, and others follow. New objects locracy or democracy, it generally in natural history, and admirable speturns upon one point. here pro- cimens of mechanical skill, are discoperty is in few hands, the former rules; vered; but nothing which has the aswhere it is much subdivided, the lat. pect of construction upon scientific ter. In counties, where one, two, or principles, or growing out of them. very few individuals have held nearly But in these researches, except with

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