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THE

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE.

MAY, 1831.

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

NOTES ON THE EXCAVATIONS FOR THE NEW LONDON BRIDGE.

(Resamed from p. 197.) LONDON was formerly furnished sult. What then could be this wall, with a wall and towers on the south of which the honest monk so confiside, but the mighty fish-abounding dently speaks? The information which Thames in its flux and reflux to and I have liberally received froin an infrom the sea, has undermined and telligent eye witness,+ who has accuthrown them down. . Such is the sub- rately noted every thing that appearstance of Fitz Stephen's assertion re ed most worthy of remark in the prolative to the ancient boundary of Lon gress of the works of the new London on the river side. This early don Bridge, and who may I hope one Chronicler of the City's fame was born day give them in a detailed form to in the time of King Stephen, wrote in the respectable and useful Society of the reign of Henry II. and died A. D. which he is a member, will I think 1191, under that of Richard I. He enable us to draw a pretty strong conwas therefore likely enough to have clusion concerning the nature of Fitz heard by tradition that such a fortifi. Stephen's wall. cation of the southern side of the City In the deep excavations which have had existed in the Roman times; and been made for the land arches of the a massy vallum reared by that nation new London Bridge across Thamesdid certainly I believe exist; not, how- street, and through the site of St. ever, to be ruined and swept away by Michael's Church, Crooked-lane, three the assaults of Neptune and Father distinct lines of embankment have Thames, but to repel their insults, and been discovered at about twenty feet confine their sway within due bounds. depth below the present surface of the

This vallum was not a wall in the streets. The first, on the spot now ocaccepted meaning of the latter word cupied by the south abutment of the in our language. Vallum in the La. Thames-street land arch, was comtin tongue may be extended, I con posed of piles of oak and fir, and was ceive, to mean any rampire formed by backed with a quantity of Madrepore, piles or stakes; in short, any bulwark which had been brought, I suppose, (vallum), vallatum, vallis, between all by ships as ballast, and thrown against which words there is an easy and ob- the piles in that situation as rubbish vious connexion. Now had Fitz Ste to fill up a vacant space. The second phen's vallum or wall been of stone, line of embankment was formed under it is natural to suppose, from the well- the north pier of the same land arch, known durability of ancient masonry, and consisted of huge trunks of oak that some traces of its foundations trees, very roughly squared by the would have been from time to time axe, against which had been nailed, or discovered in the prosecution of such rather spiked, the sort of sheathing public works as have necessarily used in facing wharfs, usually I bemade a section of the north bank of lieve called camp sheathing, but of the Thames to the low water mark ; the most ponderous and substantial nay, which have probed the very bed character. There was yet a third emof the river, but without any such re bankment seventy feet inwards of this

* Similiterque ab austro Londonia turrita et murata fuit, sed Auvius maximus piscosus Thamesis meri influo refluoque qui illàc allabitur, moenia illa tractu temporis alluit, labefactavit, dejecit.-Gulielm. Stephanides, De Firmitate Urbis.

+ W. Kuiglit, esq. F.S A. sub-architect of the New London Bridge.

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388
Excavations for the New London Bridge.

[May, last, that is still more northward, the would necessarily require, as ground structure of which was not so massive was gradually gained, successive emand substantial. Now the first line, bankments. A strong proof of this is from the circumstance of the Madre that the soil of the present Thamespore, was without doubt a compara street is that of a quagmire, and that tively modern work; the second was, hundreds of loads of solid materials I apprehend, constructed by the Rohave been sunk in it, * before the able mans, and no other than that very architects of the new London Bridge vallum or bulwark, of which a vague would venture to place their abutments tradition had reached Fitz Stephen's upon such a suspicious foundation. + time; the third or innermost consti It is very natural to suppose that tuted, I suppose, a yet earlier line of the operations which have been cardefence against the waters, which ried on in the bed of the river Thames were reduced hy degrees to their pre- for the construction of the new Bridge, sent bounds by the conquerors and would bring to light some testimony civilizers of nations.

of a circumstantial nature, of the sackDugdale, indeed, in his Treatise on ing of London by the spirited BoadiEmbanking and Draining, with the cea, or Bonduca, wife of Prasutagus, strongest appearance of truth, sur King of the Iceni. While the proflimises that the embanking of our prin- gate, the impious Nero was celebratcipal rivers was an operation of the ing his juvenilia on account of his first Romans, who were most enterprising being shaved! causing the hairs of his engineers. Now Llyn Dinas, ancient beard to be put into a golden box, Lyndun, or London, the Hill Town and consecrating them, ridiculously on the Lake, must before the embank- enough, to Jupiter Capitolinus, makment of the Thames have peculiarly ing the aged attend the feasts of this justified that appellation,—I speak ra farce, and join in the dance with the ther in confirmation of this idea than young ;-whilst he was singing as a claiming it as original. On the east harper, the fable of Acis and the Bacside it had low marshy grounds, which chantes, applauded by five thousand every flood tide must have submerged, soldiers, stationed for the

purpose

in and the southern boundary of the the theatre, who saluted him incombroad expanse of waters which lay at parable Cæsar, Apollo Pythicus ; Ithe foot of this slight eminence must whilst he was engaging the Imperial have been the hills of Peckham, Cam. City in these diversions, the disho. berwell, and New Cross near Dept. noured and incensed Queen of the ford : thus unconfined and unob. lceni, at the head of one hundred and structed in its progress, the flood tide twenty thousand of her countrymen, would not only spread over a large advanced to the ravage of the princisurface, but from having no deep and pal Roman colonies in the neighbourcompact column of water flowing from hood of her dominions, by fire and west to east to contend with, would sword.§ rise much higher than at present. As The historians Tacitus and Dio the Romans proceeded with the work usher in their accounts of this insurof embanking the Thames, this resist. rection with the relation of prodigies ing column was created ; the channel which occurred at Camelodunum preof the river, confined to a smaller cursive of the event, as if it were a space, deepened itself by the action matter of too fearful importance to be and reaction of its tides, and the wa passed over in an ordinary way. Thus ters, which had formerly at high floods we hear of howlings and lamentations nearly laved the site of the Monu- in the empty theatre, of phantom ment now on Fish-street Hill, were

coursers, and the appearance of a degradually fenced out, which operation stroyed colony in the neighbouring

* Din, the same as Dinas, a city. Its primary signification is a fortified hill or mount ; hence the Roman terminations Dinum, Dinium, and Dunum. Dun in the Irish signifies a fort.-See Antiq. Ling. Britann. Thesaurus, by Thos. Richards. + Information of W. Koight, esq. F.S.A.

Dion. Cassius, by Xiphilin. Ś Jam primum uxor Brodicea verberibus affecta et filiæ stupro violatæ sunt. Tacit. Audal. lib. xiv. p. 360. edit. Elzevir.

war,

1831.] New London Bridge.--St. Saviour's Church.' 389 æstuary.* Shakspeare has finely am This I cannot think they are justified' plified on similar circumstances in his in doing, but I have little doubt that Julius Cæsar :

on the utter devastation of the open “ A lioness hath whelped in the streets,

town Londinium by Boadicea, the And graves have yawn'd and yielded up their

mass of the Roman population redead!

moved to the Southwark side, and Fierce fiery warriors fight upon the clouds, that for a long period this suburb In ranks and squadrons, and right form of existed in comparative superior im.

portance by the ruin of its opposite Which drizzled blood upon the capitol!" neighbour. In the name South wark,

In this revolt, which was at length i. e. south work, I may also inci. subdued by the generalship of Sueto- dentally mention, that I think we have tonius Paulinus, Camelodunum, Veru recorded the embankment which was lam, and London were sacked, and above necessarily raised on this spot by the seventy thousand Romans or their al. Romans, to keep out the waters of lies put to death with all the cruelty the Thames. of studied tortures. Such of the af. Allow me, Mr. Urban, before I confrighted Romans as were able to re clude, to say a few words with regard move would naturally seek refuge on to the rumoured removal of the Lady the opposite shores of the river, into Chapel g at the east end of St. Saviour's which much of their treasure and Church, which would be indeed an household goods was probably thrown; act of the grossest barbarism, and in accordingly the bottom of the Thames violation of every principle of taste or in the late excavations has afforded common sense. Had this appendage images of household gods, silver of the 13th century no other plea but keys, coins of Nero, and a closely its interior beauty, that would be suf. particular observation of the greater ficent to save it, but, added to this, it part of the relics and coins disco. has important historical associations, vered, † would I think be found which I need not particularize, dear further to confirm this suggestion. to every member of the Protestant This great calamity of the Roman co community. The removal of the lonists may serve also to explain the Chapel of Bishop Andrews was judi. marks of a dense population in the cious,-let the traces of the aperture Roman times, which have been found which was broken through for that in the borough of Southwark; # to edifice be effaced, and let the Lady such an extent indeed as to induce Chapel resume its primitive external some antiquaries to transfer ancient appearance of four high pointed roofs, Londinium to that side of the water. twelve lancet windows united in

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* I think I am justified in understanding that the Camelodunum mentioned by Dio and Tacitus, must have been some place in the immediate neighbourhood of an arm of the sea, and not very remote from the Straits of Calais. I apprehend it is rightly placed, by Camden and others, in Essex. Let any one examine the 9th Iter of Antoninus, from Venta Icenorum, the capital of the Iceni, to London, and he will see that Camelodunum would by that route be in the line of march of Bonduca from her capital on London. Notwithstanding the obvious pretensions of Maldon drawn froin the affinity of its name, I should be inclined to agree with those who fix it at Colchester, where such numerous vestiges of Roman antiquity exist. There was certainly, I believe, another Camelodunum in the West, which may have increased the perplexity of antiquaries on this contested point.

+ I have in my possession one of Nero, 3d brass, found in the new Bridge works ; obverse, Nero.. ...... Reverse, the temple of Janus; a square building, one side seen in perspective, in which is a gate closed. Legend, JANVM clvsit PACE P: R: (i. e. Populo Romano,) VBIQ.PARTA.-S. C. I have also a silver key, found deep in the bed of the river at the same place, which has been already engraved in your vol. xcvii. i. p. 17.

# In the late excavations for the Southwark approaches of the new Bridge, one of the labourers told me they found Roman coins much more plentiful than on the London side, to use his own expression, “as thick as hops.'

§ Mr. Knight, who has in the most friendly manner imparted to me several curious particulars relative to the excavations, has furnished me with a singular fact relative to the demolition of the old houses near this Chapel. Under the ground floor of one of these, they discovered four uncoffined human skeletons, probably of persons murdered in the notorious Winchester Stews. Mr. Knight possesses the jaw-bone of one of these, evidently of a young adult, being furnished with a most beautiful and perfect row of teeth.

390 St. Saviour's Church.-St. Martin's-le-Grand. (May, threes, and separated by buttresses at of Edward VI. being appendages of the proper intervals, with as many the wine tavern which is described by corresponding shorter windows of the Stow as having been built on the site same class in an upper range,-all of the high altar. As for the massive which may be done at a very small piers, from some experience which I expense. To remove this building, have had in the examination of Rowould be to destroy the effect of mag man buildings, I have little hesitation nitude given to the body of the Church in adding to the opinions I have forby comparison with it, and to make merly expressed, that they were dethe latter appear awkwardly sho cidedly of Roman construction. The

In the interior of the Church I would quantity of Roman tiles regularly point out the imperative necessity of worked into the groins was precisely opening the ceiling under the square after the Roman mode of building. tower, so that its internal sides should “Maximè ex veteribus tegulis tecti be made visible as high as the original structi parietes firmitatem poterunt architects intended ; removing some habere,” says Vitruvius ; and it would thing which has now the appearance be most extraordinary to suppose that of a piece of old oil-cloth most im- Roman materials were found in such properly stopping up an elegantly de- plenty as to be so employed in the reign signed aperture.

of Edward VI. No; the circular stone The curious Saxo - Norman door arches at St. Martin le Grand formed near the west returning angle of the the basement story of some Roman north transept, should certainly be re temple or public building, on which, stored ; it is a specimen almost unique de more, was afterwards erected a in its way, and the similarity of its Christian Church. A vast quantity honey-suckle pattern with that of the of the red Roman pottery was found coftin of Gundrada, daughter of Wil about this site; the bases of the liam the Conqueror, places its anti- arches were placed on what I may quity by indubitable characteristics at term the Roman level of the soil, and a coeval period.*

in December last was discovered but a Lastly, I again repeat, that, as con few yards east of the spot, built into nected with the effect of the entrance the foundations of the old Goldsmiths' to the City of London over the mag- Hall, at the same level, a beautiful nificent new bridge, the complete re small Roman altar, which has lately storation of this fine old building on been exhibited to the Society of Antiprinciples of good taste, should be quaries, having on one side a Toxomade a matter of public cost; it must philite Apollo, in a Phrygian cap, his otherwise be an undertaking as bur- bow in his hand, in the act of drawthensome to the parish of St. Saviour, ing an arrow from his sheaf, the shepas the repair of a cathedral church; herd dog with which he watched the and as the architectural decoration of flocks of Admetus by his side. On à conspicuous object in the Metropo- the side faces of the altar is the laurel lis is concerned, the expense would be sacred to his feigned divinity; and on yery unjustly thrown on so small a the back another of his emblems, the portion of the community.

tripod. Thus, while there is not a In allusion to what has been said shadow of ground to imagine that by a Correspondent in your last num these remains were those of a cellar ber, concerning the antiquity of the constructed in the 16th century, there ancient piers of the crypt which was is no small reason to conjecture that demolished for the erection of the they were those of a Roman temple new Post Office, and which are de dedicated to the god of the bow and lineated and described in my Histo- lyre, the dispenser of solar heat, to rical Notices of St. Martin le Grand, whose vivifying influence were someI have only to observe, that I always times offered on a tripod by the anclearly distinguished them from the cients the bloodless sacrifice of the vaultings of brick in connexion with fruits of the earth. them, which certainly were of the time Yours, &c.

A. J. K.

* See Gough's Sepulchral Monuments for a plate of Gundrade's tomb, and the Gentleman's Magazine for April 1829, for one of the dour at St. Saviour's.

It com

These papers

1831.) St. Katharine's Hospital near the Tower.

391 Mr. URBAN,

May 5. tion according to the decree of the AMONG the additional MSS. in Lord Chancellor Somers. the British Museum,* are preserved

mences thus : three documents relative to the Hos “ St. Catherine's Hospitallneare the pital of St. Katharine's near the Tower of London is an antient Royall founTower, the history of which has be dac'on, composed of a Master, three Brocome interesting from its removal to thers [clergymen), three Sisters [widdow's the Regent's Park.

and gentlewomen) and tenne Beadeswomen were unknown to Dr. Ducarel, when {poore and aged people). By the deprivahe wrote his valuable workt on the

c'ou of Sr James Butler, late Master of the Hospital, nor have they been noticed said Hospitall at Mich’mas 1698, on the in the recent account extracted from

visitac'on of the late Lord Chancellor Sohis volume, and presented to the pub- versham was appointed by the late Queene

mers, the Right Honble Lewis Earle of Felic in a more accessible form. I The Dowager, Master. first is entitled “St. Catherine's Hos

“ All the lands, tenemis, and heredit'ts, pitall. A short State from Mich’as belonging to the said Hospitall, are in the 1698 to Mich’as 1707,” containing places and (then were) at the ancient rents an account of the annual revenue following (viz.) : of the Hospital, and its appropriaCounties. Premisses.

£. Hartfordshire.—The Mandor of Queensbury

7 Wiltshire.--The mannor of Chessingbury Priory

16
Hampshire.—The maonor of Quarley
Kent. The mannor of Rushenden

The mannor of Queene's Court
Danly Farme in the Isle of Shippy

Lands in Hartelipp parish
Middlesex and London.-Fryer Mead in Stepney

Severall houses in and neare St. Catlaarine's precinct... 248 8

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The improved vallue of all the estates (as in the hands of the tenants) belong.

ing to the Hospitall, over and above the reserved rents, were computed to be per annum

..£5239 7 “At present are—Dr. Verney, Mr. Bissett, and Mr. Ley, Brothers ;-Mrs. Eagle, Mrs. Streete, and Mrs. Holloway, Sisters."

The paper then proceeds to state After this follow the directions of the the several sums paid by the Master Lord Chancellor, that the rents should out of the said reserved rent of 3471. be increased, and out of such increase 98. 4d. namely, to the Brothers of the the salaries or stipends should be augHospital 8l. per annum each, to the mented, viz. the Beadswomen from 41. eldest Sister ill., and to the two to 81., the Brothers from 81. to 401., others 81. each, to the ten beads and the Sisters to 201. a year each. women 4l. each, the High Steward a This had been partly carried into efsalary of 21., the High Bailiff 21., fect. In addition, it was ordered that the organist 18l., the organ bellows as all former Masters of the Hospital blower 21., the Chapel Clerk 21., the enjoyed the whole of the fines on the Surveyor General 10l., the Receiver renewal of leases, so for the future General 61, 138. 4d. ; to the same for they should only take a third part, printed sermons, pens, ink, and pa

and of the other two-thirds, one part per 21., and the taxes 491. 108., mak: should be shared by the Brothers and ing a total of 1851. 38. 4d., "whereby Sisters, and the other go towards the the Master hath to himself the re repairs of the building and incidental maining 1621. 68."

charges.

It is then stated that the fines from MSS. Add. *5017, f. 79. + "The History of the Royal Hospital being nine years, amounted to the

Michaelmas 1698 to Michaelmas 1707, and Collegiate Church of St. Katharine," &c. 4to. Lond. 1782. [No. V. of the Bibl.

sum of 2825l. 10s. 6d. of which the Top. Brit.)

third part, 9411. 168. 10d. had been “ History of the Royal Hospital and

taken by the Master, another third by Collegiate Church of St. Katharine,” &c. the Brothers and Sisters, and the last 4to, 1824.

(together with about 2001, more, still

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