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1831.] Sir Robert Cotton.-Ruerdean, co. Gloucester.

403 tees themselves, they are satisfied that the new MS. Library of the British the whole cost of the undertaking, in- Museum, in the hall of the London cluding the approaches, the expense University, or in the oiladel pelov, as of surveys, plans, Act of Parliament, a panegyric on the Founder of the engineers, clerks of the works, and richest historical library in this counevery other incidental charge, will be try, on the centenary of the calamity covered by the sum of 57,0001.

which I have mentioned (23 October

next), would be creditable to this enMR. URBAN, Oxford, May 6.. lightened nation, and perhaps give a AS the rolling year brings round fresh spur to the investigation of the the seasons, it not only renews the remaining treasures of which he was varied scenes of nature that give to the original preserver. our senses fresh though frequently Nor ought this to be all. The extasted delights, but awakens recollec- ample set by a respectable body in tions of past feelings and events, that London, by proposing a general comare associated in our memory with memoration of the birth-day of the the respective times of their occur- late Robert Raikes, esq. of Gloucester,

Nor does nature only, but the founder of Sunday-Schools, on history and chronology, arts which the 14th of September next; and by men have invented to perpetuate some spirited individuals who have knowledge and memory, do likewise designed to raise a monument to the affect us with things that we were same good man, should be followed not parties to, unless as links of the

in this case.

Let patriots and histochain of the succession of mankind. rians tell us whether Sir Robert Cot. Thus we have anniversaries of our ton does not deserve a monument in personal and social affairs, and cele- the hall of the British Museum more brate at more lengthened periods our than Shakspeare; who stands there, jubilees and centenaries.

but has nothing more to connect him From my “ Year-day-book,” or with that place than his own poetic calendar of commemorations, which genius, of which he has left for himsuggesteth many interesting reflections self a sufficient because a perpetual when I peep at its pages, I find that monument.

ΜΕΛΑΣ. in this year are two centenaries which might easily escape observation, yet when observed, cannot fail to excite

Goodrich Court,

Mr. URBAN, emotions in the breasts of the learned

April 6. and patriotic.

RUERDEAN, in Gloucestershire, SIR ROBERT Cotton, the greatest stands on a very high ground, bebenefactor that the history of this tween four and five miles from this country ever had, died broken-heart- place. It is singular that it should ed by reason of the arbitrary and un- retain its ancient name, for as it is just sequestration of his library, by now spelt, it exactly expresses the order of the Privy Council, just two sound of the more correct orthography hundred years before the time at which Rhiw yr dîn. This appellation is quite I write, namely, on the 6th of May, descriptive of its situation, for the 1631. This invaluable library, se- town is placed on the side of a hill cured to his posterity by especial in- near a fortress. Of this, large earthtailment, after being made national works remain, called the castle tump, property by his grandson Sir John and a small portion of the stone wall Cotton, suffered an irreparable loss still exists. Not far off is the Church, on the 23d of October, 1731 (one hun. containing various architecture from dred years after his death), when but the reign of Stephen to that of Henry for the timely interference of Speaker IV. The place itself has the appearance Onslow and others, all his precious of decay, and as if in former times, MSS. must have perished.

when it had the protection of the Methinks it would be but an act of powerful lords of the castle, it had gratitude due to the memory of so

been of more importance. As my great a man (who even sold some of books are not yet arranged, I cannot his estates to secure monuments of furnish you with any history, though English history from destruction), if I am in hopes you will have some the memory of those events were pub- communication of that kind, taken licly celebrated. A public Oration in from the publie records, &c. from the


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404 Sculpture in the porch of Ruerdean Church, Gloucestershire. (May, pen of your assiduous corrrespondent jeet is to introduce to you a piece of the Rev. T. D. Fosbroke, who serves sculpture in the porch, representing this church as well as his vicarage of the conquest of St. George over the Walford adjoining. My present ob- Dragon.

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This I regard as a very great curio- opinion. The pallium or cloak is not sity. I had much to do to convince of frequent occurrence in the representhe parish clerk that he need not apo- tation of military equestrian figures at logise for its not having lately been this period, and therefore has claim to painted, regretting the many incrusta- notice; the helmet is without a nasal, tions of colour it already bore. If the toe points down, and the spur is these were removed, probably some

of the kind denominated spear-spur, details might appear, hidden' in its similar to what is seen in the Bayeux present state. There is sufficient to tapestry. The sculpture itself is in fix its date to the time of Henry the alto-relievo, nearly an inch and a half First, or rather King Stephen, and if in thickness. Within the Church, you compare the drawing sent here- under an elegant arch, is the monuwith, with the seals of the latter mo- ment of a priest of the time of Edward narch, and Milo Fitzwalter, Earl of the First. Hereford, I trust you will be of this



and intent of the pamphlet seem to HAVING seen the revised edition have been to show from the past and of The Ultimate Remedy for Ireland," present state of that part of the realm, from a pen, the productions of which what it would be the most desirable, have often appeared in the Gentle- as well as the safest and most feasible man's Magazine (from the years 1813 to do for Ireland, with a view not to 1823, under various signatures, only to its immediate relief, but its those of YORICK and L. S. in particu. future content and tranquillity. It relar), it may not be unacceptable to commends, once for all, therefore, an the public to give a fuller notice here immediate completion of the Union, than that cursory one which may be not only by consolidating their remainseen in the last number. The scope ing establishments, but also by making



1831.] On the Ultimate Remedy for Ireland.

405 the Irish people one with ourselves ; an Act of Parliament empowering towards which, the following theorem trustees of entailed estates to sell them, is laid down and solved : as the Irish and investing the purchase-money in nominal independence of the year 1782 English government- securities :-this was to the Parliamentary Union in 1800: Act should compel absentee proprie80 will the repeals of 1828-9 be to tors to sell their estates to Govern. some ulterior measure ?

ment at a fair valuation ; Government We may judge of the compression raising a loan for the purchase of such in this tract, when it comprises the estates; and liquidating the debt so spirit of our past transactions in Ire- incurred by the gradual sale of the land from Henry II. to the Union in lands (to Englishmen, or exchanging

[ 1800, its present state, and all that is the lands for English lands]. necessary to do for it in the


of However populous Ireland may be, complete and final remedy. It is im- it is admitted that its produce of possible in this small compass to do food might be vastly augmented-so justice to the details. It certainly as to support a manifold-augmented places a great number of undeniable population. That, as in a compost of facts in an entirely new point of view. two opposite soils, each of which seIt explodes without ceremony various parate, is less productive, or wholly mystifications of the press and of po- barren; so the union of a certain propular opinion. Among others, the portion of the English with Irish pocommon-place of absenteeism, showing pulation, would render that industry that this cannot be prevented; and geometrically productive as mixed, that if it could, it ought not, but which, before, was worse than useless rather should be encouraged ; that in a separate state. That it would those cannot, without a solecism, be create a new demand for labour, and called absentees, who reside in some new requisitions for exertion in both part or other of the same realm ; that parts of the kingdom at once. That the hue and cry about absentees arises it would relieve the land-tax and poorfrom the old anti-union principle; that rates here, and introduce them there. not only the rich, but any or all of At present, in many parts, the Irish the industrious, unemployed, and able tenants cannot (or will not) make the poor who actually flock over to Eng- land fully productive; nor satisfy the land in quest of employment (follow. whole (if any) dues out of it; and ing the rents and pensions of their they will not suffer the land to be country wherever these are spent), taken by others, or so much as bid should, in common fairness, be re- for! It is fair, therefore, to seek for ceived and welcomed. The latter is those who can and will take them, only one of the two wings of Irish who will cultivate them, and thereout absenteeism,--the other wing is that satisfy the dues to the landlord and of the rich ; adding, that it would be to the state :--being moreover held

a fair piece of political generalship responsible for preserving the internal to take of this ARMY of absentees, peace of the country, and its security BOTH WINGS IN FLANK, by sending against foreign invasion. That a reover to the deserted fields, the shut-up ciprocal absenteeism, therefore (if it is villas, and waste country houses of still to be so called), of English and Ireland- -Not an army but an over- Irish, interchangeably, is clearly for whelming and well-appointed colony the common union and safety; were it of Englishmen (Englishwomen and only on the principle of interchanging children along with them), composed the militias of the respective two of all ranks (families of husbandmen parts of the realm. That the proposed and artisans of every description) to plan is further salutary on the prinre-colonize, or to colonise in the way ciple of free trade ; exchanging men it ought to be done, and for the first for men, as you truck one produce time, the unemployed or half-em- of the soil, or one manufacture for ployed, and unpaid or ill-paid-for another : free home trade, take notice, lands, the vast unreclaimed tracts, not free trade with foreigners onlyand rich wastes, in that part of the that is, with all the world but ourkingdom. To further this colony, Mr. selves-engendering separation and Lascelles quotes and seconds a plan starvation at home. And Mr. Lasrecommended in the weekly journal celles subscribes to the eloquent excalled the Spectator, namely, to pass clamation of Mr. Shiel-"That the



On the Ultimate Remedy for Ireland. [May, Union must not be an union for pur- secretariates, the colonies, and war. poses of affliction only, and a separa- And the author asks, what is become tion as to all other intents and pur- of the third estate among the Clergy? poses of any good, any blessing, ho- Also, whether some benefices should nour, or real benefit, to the great body not be conferred by election, and not of the Irish part of our people.” all, as now, by nomination? For the

This done, English capitalists might ecclesiastical state of this or any then (but never before, while in their realm, must be analogous to the civil senses,) be encouraged to go over. constitution; which, with us, is esNor is it fair, till then, to expect its sentially Parliamentary one ; having own middle order of gentry to reside a third estate, eligible by the people in Ireland ; they cannot with safety. only. We know that the Convocation Let such English capitalists adopt the is now become merely nominal, while Irish manufactures, which are become clergymen are the only professional really orphan. Let England occupy, men who are excluded from the House reclaim, and reconquer the rich of Commons. But, unless the Convo. wastes of Ireland, for the last time, cation sit, in good earnest, to do busiin this best way; not with the sword ness every session, as formerly: or unof a mercenary army, or more merce- til clergymen are eligible, as well as nary set of adventurers, as in former any other, to sit in the House of Com. times, but with her industrious peo- mons, never can that house be prople; whether husbandmen, artisans, perly said to represent the nation in manufacturers, miners, soldiers, and Parliament. sailors ; instead of cannon, using only It is curious, by the way, that the forges, looms, and ploughshares. The Lowlanders of Scotland (contradistinorphan manufactures and farms thus guished to the Highlanders), were, becoming really English, all national originally, not British but Englishand mercantile jealousy would cease, Circumstances, however, havand the whole Irish revenue system ing severed them from England, they might be swept away. While Ireland, lost, in their separate state, their Engthus become really a part of England, lish institutions : such as the third not called so only, but sincerely and estate in Parliament, with distinct honestly treated as such, and both sovereign attributes; which are, and people having become one, English in can be, preserved in a distinct, sepaopinions, in interests, and feelings, rate, and co-ordinate assembly alone ; England might then also disband her as in our English House of Commons. army.

The very same occurrence destroyed Concurrently with this most essen- the liberties of Spain. With the Engtial union of the people of the two lish laws, the Lowlanders lost also parts of the kingdom, the author sug- their old juries on the English model, gests the expediency of revising the and all notion of English liberty unIrish Ecclesiastical regimen, includ- der their feudal, needy, and very baring its jurisdiction, by a Convocation barous oligarchy. I need not add that at London, of the three (at present) the first estate, or the royal power acknowledged churches of the realm. and spiritual lords, were reduced to Both reforms should be subject, of a mere cypher. course, to the Parliamentary one now It

appears, too, that the penal laws in progress; and which he considers in Ireland, and the orange-party men as certain. Had this, first, taken of the time of Geo. III. and IV. in place, there would have been no need the eighteenth and nineteenth cenof what is called Emancipation. It is turies, had their prototypes in the needless to add, that the acts of such Kilkenny Statutes of Edward III. a Convocation would be more memo- in the fourteenth, and in the Knights rable, so far as regards this entire of St. George of Edward IV. in the realm, than those of the celebrated fifteenth century. The same dull Council of Trent, or of any other, round of events has been ever resince the four first Councils of Chris- curring (under other names only), in tendom. It is remarkable, by the way, our past Irish transactions; which, that the King has no secretary for ec- if composed in a new view, as clesiastical affairs, as he has for law, part only of the history of England trade, finance, the home and foreign (by way of illustration to this last),


Dr. Forster's Aërial Ascent.

407 might perhaps afford both instruction valley, and taking its course towards Writtle. and entertainment. As a part of the

-When nearly over Mr. Knox's house at history of England, it becomes then that place, and at an elevation of about for the first time the interest, as well

1500 feet, we perceived a considerable mo

tion in the car, the oscillation was inas duty, of every Englishman to read

creased, and we found that we had got into a it. Mr. Lascelles has, already, en

different current of air, but so gentle was deavoured to do this in the Res Geste

its force, that we were almost imperceptibly Anglorum in Hibernia, prefixed (in the

wafted back again till we got almost over nature of a preface only), to his Liber the northern extremity of the town of Hiberniæ; the great Parliamentary Chelmsford. This was in fact the S. W. Record Collections, of which see some current, which, increasing in force during account in vol. c. part ii. p. 590. the night, became the S.W. gale that blew, He has there woven all our Irish all Sunday, and brought the showers, havtransactions into the very web of the ing, as I have proved currents do, descendHistory of England, of which, it is

ed. However, it was as yet only a breath

of air. We soon found ourselves in yet understood, this pamphlet is merely the

another current, and the car, which was argument carried on to its conclusion.

now steadied by the grappling iron that Mr. In truth, Ireland has no history of its

Green had provided, and which hung by a own, properly speaking; and in the

rope, was so motionless as to enable me to pamphlet before us it is shown why distinguish our altered course only by noit never can have any. All the other evils ticing

the change in the relative position of of the Irish are incidentally mentioned; objects below. I found we increased the but these resolve themselves into one angle subtended by us and Mr. King's house, —that of our never having been made and consequently that we were going to one people with them. Of course the

Broomfield. We were still mounting, and completion of the union (a scheme I now perceived a sensation of pressure on any thing but “ Utopian,”) is insisted the tympanum of the ear, but not accompaon, in a spirit of true, liberal feeling,

nied by any impetus of blood to the head,

very like what other aëronauts have deand that in a style, natural, easy, and familiar throughout.

scribed, and which I had before experienced CRITO.

in a less degree, after surmounting very high hills in Switzerland. It was also ac

companied with temporary deafness. BlanPARTICULARS OF AN AERIAL VOYAGE,

chard, Garnerin, MM. Charles and Roberts, and all the early aërial traveller


ed very high, have described this sensation, GAS, BY T. FORSTER, ESQ. F.L.S. M.D.

which is, while it lasts, a trifling drawback SO few persons, since the voyage of to the pleasure of breathing a rarefied atof Zambucari and Gay Lussac, have mosphere; but I have ascertained its cause, ascended in balloons, for the express

and I feel warranted in saying that it is unpurpose of promoting science, that we attended with any real danger, particularly

if care be taken not to ascend or sink too do not doubt the following account which Dr. Forster gives of his own

rapidly. We were now gently throwing out

ballast, and the balloon, taking a sort of ascent will be read with interest by all

curved or crescent course while mounting, scientific readers.

must, as I have since become convinced, *** About half-past five o'clock, April 30, have been slowly ascending in a spiral. At I ascended with Mr. Green. The balloon length, at the elevation of near 6,000 feet, was forty feet in vertical and about thirty in we found ourselves perfectly becalmed, and horizontal diameter, which, together with its so remained for pear a quarter of an hour neck, gave it nearly the shape of a pear. It the motionless spectators of a vast panorama, was filled with carbonated hydrogen gas, over which the most profound and indewhich is heavier than pure hydrogen ; and scribable silence prevailed. Accustomed as its buoyant power, when we got into the I had been, in the course of my varied life, wicker basket suspended under it, in which to all sorts of situations, on high mountains, we rode, must have been equal to lifting up in boats, upon the waves, in travelling, in ourselves and several bags of sand, although floating on gentle water, I had as yet seen the balloon was not completely inflated. nothing like this. I remember first in cross

The air was mild and still, and there were ing to France, the experience of a steammany clouds in the upper regions, some of boat paddling across the level brine like a which appeared by their forms to be charged fish, was a curious' phenomenon, having with electric fluid.

before been only conveyed by sailing vessels. On first ascending, the balloon rose ma- But this newborn leviathan of the sea is jestically with a inoderate velocity, in a di- nothing to a balloon ; neither is the sensarection nearly W.N.W. passing over the tion produced by a balloon in motion at all


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