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From April 26 to May 25, 1831, both inclusive. Fahrenheit's Therm.

Fahrenheit's Therm:



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11 o'clock Night.




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27 196478 78787 86 864 88 73 944 164 i dis. 28 1961 773 4784 864 86% 874 $ 943 16

par. 29 1971 774 7783 864 864 87 941 164 1 dis. 30 78 $79 83 864 88; 7; 95% 16% 1 dis. 2 3 784 $79} 9 86% 86% 88% 8954

5 79 180 886 88 89 96


5 5 199479$ 480 88 89 894 964 16*

8 6 200 798 80g 884 88 89 964 163 7200 792 ; 800 88% 89% 96% 164 207

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5 10 201 82] 1482 31 90 918913 23 984 164 207 par 1 dis. 111998 814 1 82$ 894 91290s 985 16*


par. 12 200 80Ž 1482 894 894 90398 164 par 1 pm. 913 8 13 199 81 $ 1824 891 89 91 903

par 2 pm.

9 14 199 814 8824

894 91 903 98% 16% 16 828 1824 88 89914 1983 17 par pm.

8 17199 82% 13 834 89% 894915 985 17 2051

6 18 199 81 825 893 89391 984 16%

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6 191994 314 825 893 891918


984 17 203 par 1 pm. 92 20 1981 813 782 89 90 91 983 203 21/1994 81% 83



9 23 828 83

90911 98 24 1994 828 833

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95 82 831 904 90'92 994 173 204 12 dis. par.

New South Sea Annuities, April 29, 77%; May 10, 823; 17, 824.
Old South Sea Annuities, April 29, 77 ; May 3, 78; 4,773; 11, 803; 12, 801.
J. J. ARNULL, Stock Broker, Bank-buildings, Cornhill,


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MINOR CORRESPONDENCE. Mr. J. F. Russell says_" I owe you my to explain this custom; which is, however, best acknowledgments for referring me to elegantly and clearly exemplified by Dr. the interesting account of some of my an- Adam Clarke, and confirmed by the Tarcestors in the 94th volume of your miscellany. There is one omission, however, in ARCHIPRESBYTER RURALIS, (who has been those biographical notices, which I should for some time engaged in collecting matethank you to supply, by inserting the follow- rials in illustration of the office of rural Dean ing brief narrative of the Rev. John Mea- or Archipresbyter,) enquires, whether a seal dows, brother of Sir Philip Meadows, K.B. of that ancient office exists in any of the Ambassador, &c. extracted from Palmer's public or private repositories of the kingNonconformist Memorial, vol. iii.p. 284-5. dom That the functionary in question had Owsden rectory, Suffolk. John Meadows, his sigillum auclenticum, on which was enM.A. of both Universities, and Fellow of graven the name of his office, there is no Christ's Coll

. Cambridge. He was a person doubt. Indeed, by the 28th constitution of holy in all manner of conversation ; con- Cardinal Otho, it is expressly enjoined that stantly careful to please God, and preserve rural Deans and other officials should resign the peace of his conscience, always jealous their seals of office immediately on the expiof his own heart, and on every occasion wil- ration of the period of their tenancy. ling to try it. He served God while in his Mr. Madden, of the British Museum, public ministry with great labour and com- would feel obliged for any information refortable success. A diligent visitor and in- spectiog the Original Will of Queen Mary structor of his flock, and a practical and I. which, at the beginning of the last ccamoving preacher. He ever maintained a tury, was in the hands of Mr. Hale of Aldercatholic charity for all Protestants, and ley, Gloucestershire, (a son of Sir Matthew greatly bewailed the divisions of the Hale,) and appears since to have been nischurch, and the intemperate heats of all laid, or lost. persuasions. He held occasional commu- The Rev. J. Graham says—“A friend nion with the Church of England, but of mine, James Prior, esq. of the Royal could not desert the duty of his office. Such Navy, the author of the Life of Burke, has was the integrity of his life, such was his undertaken the Biography of Oliver Goldhumility, gospel sincerity, and quiet de- smith, and requests information on the subportment; such bis moderation as to the ject. He has been already tolerably successcircumstantials of religion, and so well did he ful in Ireland, and is not without hope of refill up all the relations in life, that his ene- covering some dormant documents in England mies could only object Nonconformity as his which may be of use to him.” crime. He was really a pattern of true re- A BIBLIOGRAPHER inquires who the ligion; he preached freely, he lived exem- « Richard Cavendish was, who is menplarily, he died comfortably in the 75th year tioned in a letter from William Capon to of his age, and was buried honourably.'— Cardinal Wolsey (inserted in Ellis's Original My esteemed uncle, John Fuller, esq. of Letters, 1st series, vol. 1), as having preDunmow, the hereditary proprietor of the

your Grace's colmanor of Witnesham, possesses a valuable lege” at Ipswich. He appears to have and interesting portrait in oil of the above been of Suffolk, and is called “ your Grace's clergyman, in which he is represented as a servant." youth of 16, in his academical dress, with M. U. will feel obliged for any notices of his hair flowing gracefully upon his shoul- Benjamin Parker, who, fruin 1744 to his ders."

sented a

death in 1747, read Theological and PhiloL, remarks—“ Templarius, on the Ad- sophical Lectures in London, having preministration of Oaths, having alluded to the viously published several treatises in these engagement of the servant of Abraham upon sciences. He is slightly mentioned by Hutbeiog sent into a distant country to fetch a ton, Hist. of Derby, and by Lysons, Mag. wife for his master's son, is referred to an Brit. Derbyshire. explanation of great delicacy and learning, M. U. is informed that there is no other respecting the mode of adjuration by put- engraved portrait extant of Rev. Stebbing ting his hand under the thigh of the pa- Shaw, the historian of Staffordshire, than triarch: not because “ the posterity of the a private plate drawn and etched by Thomas patriarchs are described as coming out of Donaldson ; an inferior artist, who was unthe thigh, and this ceremony therefore hav- der obligatious to Mr. Shaw. It bears ing some relation to the belief of the pro- scarcely any resemblance to the original. mise, to bless all the nations of the earth by M.T, is informed that the MSS. from means of one that was to descend from Abra- which Mr. Shaw compiled his History of ham,” as in Burder's Oriental Customs, Staffordshire were privately bought by the cited by your correspondent, p. 598, nute, late Mr. Hamper, whose collections are now vol. c. pt. ii., but actually thus swearing hy preparing for sale hy Mr. Evans. the sign of circumcision, typical of that pro. The communication of H. H. has never inise. Harmer and Barrington both failed been received.

6 bukk” to



JUNE, 1831.



ITALY, the land of the Church of the student. The ancient Romans the country where Christianity first must always in their history form a acquired a national character, the soil theme of intense curiosity to the where on a grand scale a new and reader who explores the peculiar and purer religion than the world ever distinctive features of human characsaw, became first indigenous, and ter, as displayed on the great arena of taught the doctrines of her sacred in- nations, together with the causes stitutions to the surrounding nations which push some States on to high of Europe ;—Italy, although in more eminence, while others slumber in than one period of modern history, perpetual mediocrity. The storied several of her States have, even in the narrative of their transactions and midst of intestine feuds and open hos- exploits, blazes forth with a promi. tilities, risen distinguished in art and nence and lustre in the history of in letters, – ranks at present low in the mankind which distinguishes the reintellectual sciences, and all her efforts cords of no other nation or people.for political emancipation have hitherto The soul expands whilst expatiating proved unavailing. The various causes over the lengthened series of their which have tended to produce her pre- republican history,-over their fame, sent state of degeneracy, when com- ripening through centuries, and throw, pared with her former greatness, may ing the transactions of all other nabe interesting to the philosophical and tions into the shade. For the littlespeculative inquirer.

ness of comparative obscurity circles In tracing the history of nations, over the chivalric deeds of other naand the varying complexion of human tions, inasmuch as no other State with character, animosity is often arrested which history brings us acquainted, by the diverse circumstances under ever maintained so long its political which mankind at various periods of ascendancy over the nations of the the world are presented to our notice. earth. It is remarked by Boileau, while The scholar who lucubrates amidst speaking of the characters of the va- the scenes and narratives of days long rious ages of life,

gone by, sees in fancied retrospect the

ample space which the empires of “ Le temps que change tout, change aussi Semiramis, Sesostris, and Cyrus, oc.

nos humeurs ; Chaque age a ses plaisirs, son esprit, et ses

cupied on the map of Asia,--although meurs.”

he may not probably credit the pro

digious “circumstance" of warlike It may be also said of the several ages operation related of the former by of the world, as exemplified in the Diodorus Siculus, who was in these history of mankind, and having espe- matters guided chiefly by the authocial reference to some of its periods, rity of Ctesias the Cnidian. But the that its contrasts, as exhibited in the influence and preponderating ascendmanners, caprices, and views of its

ancy, if not the actual territorial posinhabitants, are not less striking to session of the Romans has been long him who contemplates them.

acknowledged to be without parallel In viewing, then, these contrasts, in the entire history of mankind. The that which ancient and modern Italy, terror of their arms reached much furin some of the periods of its history, ther than their actual conquests; and presents in the character of her inha

envoys from all the civilized nations bitants, must ever arrest the curiosity of the globe crowded either to do

Italy and the Italians.

[June, homage, or negotiate an amicable al- lution of the Roman power. After the liance with a people whose military hives of barbarians, who with such renown was only equalled by the ma

perseverance struggled for the ascendtured wisdom of their policy. While ancy throughout the Western prothey introduced throughout the na- vinces, had become the occupants of tions they subjugated the arts of civi. the soil, the grossest superstitions lization and the literature of Greece, were presently foisted upon the purer their magnanimity and patriotic devo- precepts of the Christian faith, and tion to the interests of their country, the human mind soon became veiled protracted through centuries, and ani. in ignorance and gloom. The relimating to deeds of heroism on a grand gious orders and institutions which national scale, has no parallel in the grew with the growth of every sucannals of mankind.

cessive century, and spread themselves In periods of her modern history, particularly over the nations of Italy, alas ! *how has Italy distinguished were doubtless, in the abuses to which herself? and how in a national point they led, generative of that blindness of view does she rank at the present and superstition which to this day moment among the pations of Europe prevails to a greater extent there than and the world ? Alas! a nation of in any other country in Europe, with singers and fiddlers can never hope, the exception perhaps of Spain and by any human ingenuity, to rival the Portugal. " In this barbarous age,” dignity and grandeur which attached says Mosheim, speaking of the 7th to her name, when Rome in her re

century, " religion lay expiring under publican strength stood the proud ar- a motley and enormous heap of subiter of the universe.

perstitious inventions, and had neiWhat political and moral effects, it ther the courage nor the force to raise may be asked, have Christianity in her head, or to display her native modern times had upon the people of charms to a darkened and deluded Italy? A spectator, in view of the world.” He expresses himself in sipuerile superstitions of ancient Rome, milar terms concerning the 8th cenmight have predicted amongst the mo- tury; for though, as he says, Charlederns another state of things,-a moral magne seemed disposed to stem this expansion of character at least equi- torrent of superstition, and opposed valent to that of any former period. the worship of images, yet profound But, alas! nothing (if we view the and grovelling ignorance, both as it whole period of their modern history) regarded religious light and the cultican stand more utterly in the teeth of vation of mind, again spread itself any such prediction, than the narra- after his death through the nations of tive of those moral and religious vir- the West. tues which have adorned the charac- Italy was the soil from whence most ter and temperament of the modern of these perversions of reason and Italians.

common sense, as well as of religion, Constantine the Great doubtless may be said to have first emanated, supposed, when he removed the seat the head quarters of superstition and of empire to a spot which seemed to

spiritual tyranny, from which the command the riches (or the facilities alleged successors of St. Peter and of acquiring them) of Europe and their innumerable coadjutors, wove Asia, and Christianized the Roman their ingenious web of entanglement world, that the ancient vigour and for enslaving the minds and consoundness of moral temperament was sciences of all ranks of people. about to be restored.

In point of commercial greatness The history of Italy, for the last and richness, the famous maritime ten or twelve centuries, if viewed in Republics of Italy in the middle ages relation to Christianity, may almost may be said to have rivalled the anindeed in its general character be cient states of Tyre and Carthage,thought a summary of all that is anti- luxury which followed in its train, Christian, All ecclesiastical histo- was carried to a high excess, and even rians concur in depicting in the most the independence of its denizens was glowing characters, the frightful state often asserted and maintained. But of obliquity and declension which pre- over the states of the Church, and vailed in the Church throughout Chris- their dependancies, there generally tendom for many ages after the disso- reigned a frightful moral gloom, which

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