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Literary and Scientific Intelligence. [VOL. CI. opinion, existed in the Athenian Constitu- much the vital principle of those republics tion, not in theory, but in daily, permanent, (and of all the first republics without expractical operation, viz. Universal Suffrage, ception) as of the establishment of Mr. Annual Senates or Parliaments, and Vote Owen of Lanark. He described the primiby Ballot, although their application to a tive felicity of the Carthaginian republiclarge territorial state, or to one of radically its gradual deterioration, and the ultimate different construction from Athens, might formation of a corrupt and rapacious Olibe questionable. The extension of ballot to garchy of 104 persons, chosen by a selfthe judgment seat at Athens, and to votes on elected corporation of the Aristocracy, who motions in the Athenian parliament, Mr. monopolized all the places of the state, and Clarkson maintained was a decided legislative filled the Carthaginian colonies, which then and political error. But in order to show covered the civilized world, extending to the beneficent effect of free institutions on England on the one hand, and probably to human improvement, especially as compared America on the other with their tools, rewith the stunting effects of civil and religious lations, or dependents. Mr. Clarkson contyranny in Egypt, it was sufficient to say cluded his reference to Carthage by stating that the most splendid æra in the history of on competent authority that this Olithe triumphs of the human mind, may be garchy were so exasperated by the expocompressed into the duration of one little sures made by the opposition in the Senate, century after the establishment of a purely to which Hannibal's family belonged, and popular government at Athens. After å the consequent dread of disgorging their corshort sketch of the wars of opinion be- rupit plunder, that they thwarted their own tween democracy and monarchy in Greece, General's designs, betrayed his projects and the first with Persia having arisen out of hinself, and caused the ruin of Carthage ; the “ Doctrine of Intervention " set up by this grasping domestic faction having in Athens with reference to the Ionian re- reality smote the sceptre from the hands of publics, Mr. Clarkson concluded his first their country, England's ancient predecessor lecture with the extinction of Greek freedom as Commercial Sovereign of the Seas. Mr. by Philip of Macedon, and the reduction of Clarkson then gave a rapid sketch of the Greece to a province of Rome.
degradation of Rome, from free institutions His second lecture began with the foun- to an absolute hereditary tyranny, propped dation of Rome. He argued that its whole up by a standing army; and of the co-ordiearly history was fabulous or questionable, nate degradation of the literature, arts, mothat the immediate locality of Rome was rality, and intellect of the empire--till all probably colonized by Enotrians or Pelas- descended to so deep a pitch of debasement, gians, and that they were expelled or that the irruption of the Goths and northsubjected by Dorians, at the same period ern barbarians must be regarded as a deas the Oscan tribe of the same Cyclopean sirable consummation, since they introduced family were subjected by the Etrurians. He healthier and hardier peculiarities of morals then described the effect of the co-operative and legislation. Mr. Clarkson at this period commonwealth of the Oscans, being overlaid took occasion to give a sketch of two of the by and incorporated with the representative invading nations—the Celts, who with their feudal system of the twelve united states of subordinate tribe the Cimbri, occupied Gaul the Etrurian league ; the revolt of the Serfs and Britain, and the Teutones, from whom of the Etrurian feudal union; and the final the Saxons derived those free institutions, absorption of Etruria into the Roman go- which they planted in Celtic Britain on the vernment. An analysis of the Constitution fall of the empire. They probably preserved of Rome, after the establishment of the in their witans and great councils the uniRepublic, followed. The effect of its uni. versal suffrage of the Teutonic tribes (qualiversal suffrage and ballot (balanced in favour fied by serfdom, the effect of conquest, of property by being arranged in classes) in which however existed in a mitigated form, producing two parties resembling the Whigs and was reduced by constant enfranchiseand Tories, was then detailed by the Lec- ment, as appears ly Doomsday-book, to a turer. As to the Agrarian division of the minute fraction of the community,) when land at Rome, Mr. Clarkson asserted that, the Norman Conquest occurred. This conparadoxical as it might seem to the majority quest introduced a feudal or military tenure of persons who were accustomed to consider of the land in lieu of the Saxon, which was it as quintessential Jacobinism, it was neither allodial–a tripartite division of lauded promore por less than a feudal system, vitiated perty (as in Egypt) between the three great by the distinction between serfs and freemen; privileged castes -and augmented and agand that at Sparta as well as Rome. The gravated the general amount and character war with Carthage introduced an analysis of of serfdom. But a great crisis and change the Carthagenian Commercial Republic, as was preparing through the mediuin of the compared with those of Sparta and Crete- social organization of the Church, which all three having had a common Phænician having commenced its existence by a recurorigia ; and in this analysis the Lecturer rence to the primitive co-operative structure showed that the co-operative system was as
of all Commonwealths for its model, had
PART 1.] Literary and Scientific Intelligence.
631 become in the tenth century a powerful Fourteenth; of republicanism with absolanded ecclesiastical Aristocracy-having free lutism ; of philosophy with superstition ; general councils for Parliaments, uuder a adverted to the Revolution of 1688 as yapapal President and monastic colonies, move- Juable chiefly for its recurrence to the free able by the slightest impulse from the Teutonic and Saxon political theory-that centre in every part of the world. Mr. hereditary claims might be superseded by Clarkson opened his third Lecture with a superior inerit or by public will; to the description of this great crisis--the Crusades three infamous partitions of Poland ; and -operating, in obvious results, on morals, finally, to the establishment of the Ameintellect, and enjoyment, to this day. Two rican Republic in 1779, by the descendants of their effects were the enfranchisement of of the Dissenting English Republicans, who serfs; and the rise or rapid progress to fled from the tyranny of the Stuarts. The freedom of the commercial towns. The Lecturer then analysed the framework of the Lecturer then described the mode in which American Constitution ; and stating that the latter obtained their charters and privi- La Fayette and his colleagues carried back to leges in all parts of Europe, as well as in France in 1789 the principles of reform and this country—the feudal leagues which freedom, for which they had been contendunited those free towns in diets or con- ing, just as the English auxiliaries of the gresses ; and the representative system, Dutch Republicans had previously done in founded on the basis of taxation and control 1649 ; he gave a brief detail of the first of the public purse, which gradually matured French Revolution ; its glorious promises itself out of those contingencies.
and deplorable excesses ; bringing down his Mr. Clarkson entered into a brief analysis survey to the second French Revolution of of the representative system of the Hans July 1830, and the actual condition of poliTowns and Hanseatic league-of that of the tical institutions all over the world at the Spanish Cortes—that of the Commercial present momentous crisis. What are the Republics of Italy—of the free municipal
future results to the whole human race Communes of Southern France-of the Old likely to grow out of this actual condition ? French Parliaments, with their double stages was the final inquiry of the Lecturer; and of election ; and lastly, of the free boroughs having made Rousseau's view of the Origin of England detailing elaborately the growth of Social Institutions, in his “ Contrat Soof the English representative system, with cial,” the subject of his opening investigaits power over the supplies. Mr. Clarkson tion, Mr. Clarkson said that he would make stated that the theory of this system, as Godwin's theory of their unlimited improveproved by Rolls of Parliament—by the ac- ment, or perfectibility, as laid down in the tual Potwalloping boroughs, and by the “ Political Justice," the subject of his conpreamble of the Act of sth Hen. VI. was cluding remarks. A brief report cannot do Universal Suffrage, but that it was qualified justice to an inquiry which embraces the in practice by the proprietary distinction theories of universal education; Mr. J. between Serfs and Freemen-the latter only Mills's theory (primitive and practical) of being conpetent to hold or obtain property. the advantageous appropriation of new land But intellect even under this vicious distinc- to common fiscal purposes ; the theory of tion was represented, as witness the know- Plato, Socrates, and Godwin, on marriage ; ledge obtained by apprenticeship, and in the Malthusian and Sadlerian doctrines of which a mere future implied con.petency to population; the co-operative system and coobtain property, entitled to freedom and operative colonies in Holland, Switzerland,
The Lecturer, then reminding his America, and Lanark; and the illimitably audience that his object was not history, beneficial results of machinery, when enbut a genealogical analysis of social institu- lightened theories of free trade and political tious with their results (a new and un- ceconomy shall quietly and equably cause beaten track), gave a rapid sketch of the their distribution, under the auspices of wise subjects touched in his syllabus—the pro- statesmen and improved political institutions. gress of religious and political Reform in Europe and this country—the wars of opi
ADVERSARIA. nion which grew out of it; the Albigenses The curiosity for medals is no older than and the Lollards; the struggles of Papal the fifteenth century. One of the earliest claims with religious liberty; the reforma- is that of Ferdinand of Aragon in 1449. tion in Germany and England; the Dutch That of the Emperor John Palæologus, is Republic, founded on the model of the mo- ten
years earlier. dern Hanseatic and the ancient Achaian Fire-engines are mentioned in the reign League. He dwelt with longer emphasis on of Constantine Copronymnus, 741. the English Republic, and Cromwell's medi- The first authentic act of papal canonisatated reform of the rotten boroughs ; the tion, is that of Adalgasa by John XV. at the relapse of the former into arbitrary mo
end of the tenth century. narchy; and the Hight of civil and religious The earliest Coronation of the French liberty to North America. He sketched Kings, the authentic act of which is extant, the struggles of freedom with Louis the is that of Philip I. 1060.
Literary and Scientific Intelligence. (VOL. CI. The famous Genoese Admiral, Andrew nature at Paris, called Mont-de-Piété, under Doria, is said to have been the first person the direction of the Government, and the who found the art of sailing in spite of a interest produced by the loans is given to contrary wind, by turning the stem of his
the hospitals. ship in an oblique direction.
Milner says, in his Church History, vol. When the Duke de la Plata made his iii. p. 27, that the island of Aletha was the entry into Lima, as Viceroy, in 1692, the retreat of St. Malo, and now bears his name. tradesmen caused two streets through which There is a slight error here ; for the Breton he had to pass to the palace, to be paved antiquaries place Aleth at the suburb of St. with silver ingots. The expense was com- Servan, or, to speak more correctly, in that puted at eighty millions of piasters.
part of it which is called the City. The The title of Generalissimu was formerly rock on which St. Malo is situated, was first given to princes of the blood only. Henry called Le Rocher d'Aaron, from a monk of the III. of France is the first person who bore fifth century. After the ruin of Aleth by it, being then Duke of Anjou.
the incursions of the Normans, the See was Josephi Pellerin, first Commissary of the transferred to St. Malo, which probably did French Navy, made the finest collection of pot acquire that name till the twelfth cenmedals ever possessed by an individual. tury. They were 32,000 in number. Louis XVI. It is the fashion among writers on Italian purchased them in 1776, for 300,000 francs, literature, to consider that Tasso was deeply leaving M. Pellerin the enjoyment of them injured by the Duke of Ferrara, and imprifor his life. He died in 1782, in his 99th soned on a false plea of madness. But no year.
one can consider his portrait, without seeing If the Greek X had resembled our Ch in the most evident marks of insanity, sufficient sound, the Greeks would not have written to exculpate Alfonso from the odious charge the Indian Chandra-gupta as Sandrocottus, of persecution. but Χανδροκοττος.
There is a curious misprint in La MartiThat curious poem, the Hanes, or History piere's edition of Puffendorff's Universal of Taliesin, is supposed to relate to the History, vol. i. p. 15. Speaking of the Rotransmigration of the soul, because the au- manis,
- Ensuite ils ruinèrent la thor asserts that he was in the ark of Noah, Perse, et conquirent entièrement la Maceat the building of Babel, and in Britain doine." It should be Persee, for King Perwhen the Romans came. There is no au- seus, for Persia is quite foreign to the subject. thority for my conjecture that I know of,
CYDWELI. but I am inclined to think, that Taliesin, being a foundling, and feeling his want of a
EDUCATION IN THE Sandwich Islands. pedigree among a genealogical people, ap- Amidst the varied movements (says the pealed to the doctrine of transmigration for Rev. Mr. Ellis in his “Polynesian Reone. When, he says, in another poem, searches,') that are now changing the asI was a fox, &c. which Mr. Turner consi- pect of society in every part of the world, in ders as containing some allusions to the a degree and to an extent unprecedented in mystical reveries of Druidism, is be not any former age, the intellectual, moral, and enumerating the vices and evil passions from spiritual changes which have occurred in the which he has been delivered by regeneration ? Society and Sandwich Islands are among the
The etymology of the word Chaplain is most interesting and satisfactory. In the referred by some writers to the Chapel of South Sea Islands there are few incapable St. Martin, which relic the Kings of France of reading, and most of them of writing their used to carry in their camp, and from own language. Besides spelling books, which the priests who had the care of it, grammars, and other elementary and miscelobtained their name.
laneous books,-the whole of the New, and John Zimisces, Emperor of Constanti- detached portions of the Old Testament, are nople, who died in 975, is the first monarch in extensive circulation and daily use. So who coined the image of Jesus Christ upon late as the year 1819, the people were, as a his money, with this inscription, Jesus the nation, and so far as we know, without an King of Kings, in 975.
exception, wholly given to idolatry; and Towards the close of the fifteenth cen- that not a mild and benevolent system of tury, some charitable persons at Perusia in error,-but
system as oppressive, degradItaly, who had witnessed with pain the ex- iug, and sanguinary, as ever enslaved the actions of Jews and Usurers, subscribed a darkest portion of the pagan world. Until sum of money for assisting their townsmen 1820, no Christian teacher had set his foot by loans without interest, on condition of ou the shores of Hawaii. Early in that leaving a pledge by way of security. It was year, a devoted band of American missionat length found advisable, that such as bor- aries arrived, and commenced their labours rowed large sums should pay a small com- by endeavouriug to acquire the rude unwritpensation. Hence the name of Pawnbrokers, ten language of the people. Soon after this formerly called Lombards, from their Italian an alphabet was formed, and as the misorigin. There is an establishment of this sionaries acquired a knowledge of the native
PART 1.] Literary and Scientific Intelligence.
633 tongue, they endeavoured to instruct a few of Juillerat. Le Chasseur, and the Rev. Mark the children. Early in 1822 the first sheet of Wilks, chaplain to the American Embassy. a spelling-bonk was printed. In the month We may congratulate the editors of this of March of the same year, Messrs. Ben- miscellany on the higher and purer nett, Ellis, and Tyerman, and two native they are taking: we need hardly add, that teachers, visited the Sandwich Islands. The it is Protestant. The Mémorial Catholique first school which the natives publicly pa- (if it still continues) advocates the other tronised was opened shortly afterwards. It side, under the auspices of M. de la Mencontained two scholars, but these were the nais and his friends. The first numbers King and the Queen. Such was the state displayed talent, but the succeeding ones of the islands in 1822. Now, according to fell off. the most recent intelligence, there is not an
Royal GEOGRAPHICAL Society. idolater to be found, while between fifty and sixty thousand profess themselves Chris
At a recent meeting of this Society, a tians. Places for religious worship are
letter was read from Lieutenant Glennie, erected in every island; and in some not
giving an account of a visit which he had fewer than two thousand meet within one
made from Mexico to the Pyramids of Teobuilding erected for this purpose.
tihualcan. There is a village of that name, language has been reduced to a system,
which Lieutenant Glennie states to be in elementary and other books prepared,-
lat. 19 deg. 42 min. N. and long. 98 deg. considerable portions of the Scriptures trans
51 min. E., the variation of the needle belated, -printing presses established, and ing 9 deg. 49 min. E. It is elevated 7492
feet above the sea. during the past year, including 10,000
The pyramids are discopies of the Gospel by St. Luke, 10,000
tant about a mile and a half from the village. copies of the Acts of the Apostles,
The largest is 727 feet square at its base, 114,000 copies of books and tracts have
and 221 feet high, with two of its sides been published, besides 10,000 copies of parallel to the meridian. A rampart, of the other three Gospels translated into the
about thirty feet in height, surrounds this language of the people, and printed in the pyramid, at the distance of 350 feet from United States. The above are only the
its base; on the north side of which are number of books furnished last year.
the remains of a flight of steps, with a road Schools are established in all the principal leading from them in a northerly direction, islands, and in the whole group there are
covered with a white cement. The remains about 500 schools, under the care of 500
of steps were also found on the pyramids, native schoolmasters, who are occasionally
which were covered with the same sort of visited by the missionaries. In these schools
white cement, as well as broad terraces exthere are 40,000 scholars; and not fewer
tending across the sides. The number of than 25,000 capable of reading the Holy pyramids surrounding the large one was esScriptures. It is probable that at the pre
timated by Mr. Glennie at above 200, varysent time the number is increased, and that ing in their dimensions. They are all conit includes nearly one-third of the popula
structed with volcanic stones and plaster tion.
from the adjacent soil. They are coated
with white cement, and the ground between French LITERATURE.
their bases seems formerly to have been ocThe well-known Protestant library in the
cupied as streets, being also covered with
the same sort of cement. Rue de l'Oratoire at Paris, has changed its
mid than that above described was covered proprietor, and has passed from the hands
with a kind of broken pottery, ornamented of Servier to Resler. The late events in
with various figures and devices; and in the France appear to have quickened the zeal of the French Protestants, who, to the credit weighbourhood of these edifices abundance
of small figures were found, such as heads, of our literature, are busily translating our
arms, legs, &c., moulded in clay, and hardreligious works. Scott's Essays, Wilber
ened by fire. force on Christianity, Mc Crie's Reforma
PRUSSIAN Literature. tion in Italy, are published. Scott's Commentary on the Bible, and Milner's Church In the seven provinces of which Prussia History, are in a course of translation. is composed, there are published no fewer Chalmers's Sermons, and the Guide of Caro- than 262 periodical works. Of these 27 line Fry, have also appeared. A Religious are political gazettes, 60 scientific journals, Tract Society is in progress at Paris, and a 55 advertising sheets, 100 purely literary, Magazine comes out monthly with the same 10 devoted to religion and ethics, 3 legislaobject, under the title of Archives du Chris- tive, 3 journals of the arts, and 4 agricultianisme, and conducted chiefly by M. tural and technological. Gent. Mag. Suppl. CI. Part 1.
A smaller pyra
'Tis sweet when the bright orb of day is descending,
To gaze while its splendour moves slow from our sight;
As if loath to give place to the gloom of the night.
Seems gilded by beams from that planet of light,
Some pleasure in it mid a vision so bright.
The present a fairy scene is in our eyes ;
Our spirit seems wafted from earth to the skies.
MAT : CASIMIR
Ah! thorns of direst point annoy
The purple robe of Kings ;
The life of rustics brings.
By the Rev. J. D. Parry. Supposed to be spoken during a hunting expe
dition of Uladislaus King of Poland.
TO THE SEVERN. Who rests upon this shady rock
Thou Queen of our Rivers, fair English Sea, No vulgar einpty strains may
O bright are the sails which are gliding o'er thee, To sooth his day-dreams light, alone
And the lingering beams of the parting Day The Zephyr lends its whispering tone. Tinge thy waters with gold, ere they die away; COURTIER.
Thy billows still roar, and thy waves flow fast
As they flowed on those shores in ages past,
When braving the storms o'er thy bosom which
The merchant of Sidoa set sail on the deep; This gently murmuring silver stream When the Roman arose, o'er the world to reign, As in a precious vase doth seem;
And Freedom's flag was unfurled in vain. Aod, whilst by emerald sides it flows,
But the Roman is gone, and his glory is o'er, An unpolluted cup bestows.
And thy billows roll free, as they swell to the
shore ! COURTIER.
The maidens of Cambria mourn, as they view Ah! thorns of direst point annoy
Those far distant vallies, and mountains of blue; The purple robe of Kings!
And they bitterly weep, as they think of the day,
Ere the Saxon had wrested those kingdoms away, POET
When Cambria in glory, the mighty and free, Whilst through the meads the Poet wends Sway'd all the bright lands which encircle thy sea. Sweet Flora all his steps attends ;
But her sceptre is broken, her harp is uostrung, And flowery robes presents, which bear
And her hymn of proud triumph no more shall The colours of the opening year. COURTIER.
Thou glorious Sun! do thy day-beams smile O what a pure and tranquil joy
On the Western Sea, and the Fairy Isle ?
Do thy golden rays, as thou sipkest to rest,
Gild the waters which flow round the Isles of the POET.
blest; Oft, as beneath the embowering tree, Where the Vesper Star with its silver beam, He lists the birds' sweet symphony, Glitters o'er the sea wave, and the mountain With smiles serene, he gives to scorn
W. The phantoms that in Courts are born.
* No single English word will express this Latin term of Casimir's, which signifies a sylvan Eclogue or Idyll.