Neither Waif Nor Stray: The Search for a Stolen Identity

Universal-Publishers, 2000 - 284 páginas

My Father became a ward of the Church of England Waifs and Strays Society when he was four years old in 1913. When he was 15, they gave him the choice of emigrating to Australia or Canada. No one wanted him in England. They sent him to work on Canadian farms as an indentured farm labourer. He was part of the little-known British Child Emigration Scheme in which fifty child-care organizations emigrated 100,000 children to Canada between 1880-1930. An unknown number made their way to the United States. These alleged orphan children were between 6-15 years old and were known as The Home Children. The organizations professed a dominant motive of providing these children with better lives than what they might have had in England, but they had other ignoble motives. Half of these children suffered from child neglect and abuse. The scheme persisted interrupted only by WWI and WWII until the mid-1960s when these organizations sent 15,000 children to Australia, New Zealand, and Africa.

My Father never had a Birth Certificate. He had nothing to verify who he was for the first 33 years of his life. For the next 15 years, he carried a tattered To Whom it May Concern letter that stated his name and identified him as of British nationality. For the first half of his life, he had serious doubts if his surname was really Snow. He wondered if someone had simply invented it for him. When he was 48 years old, he obtained a Baptism Certificate that confirmed his name, identified his Mother, but not his Father. For the next 16 years, this was all he had for identification. When he was 64 years old, he received his Canadian Citizenship. He wrote to the Waifs and Strays Society for 55 years, but they withheld from him the vital information he so desperately sought. Why did they not want him to know who he was? I resumed his lifelong search following his death on his unconfirmed birthday in 1994. The Children's Society reluctantly released his 82-year-old case file to me. It took me four years to identify his Parents and locate his Family.

Your ancestors may have been British Home Children. You may be one of the four million of Canada's "Invisible Immigrants." Your ancestor's stories do not appear in Canadian school curricula. The British childcare organizations deliberately severed the Home Children's familial ties. The four million descendants have a potential 20 million British relatives. If one purpose of the scheme was to simply rid Britain of an unwanted element of their society, they only partially succeeded. They underestimated the strength of needing to know who you are - to have an identity. I hope the successful conclusion of my search will inspire others to persist until they re-establish their familial ties. No one should live their lives without knowing who they are and to whom they belong. It is your birthright to know your heritage.


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The Life of a Waif in England 19131925
A British Home Child Deported to Canada 1925
Love at First Sight Port Arthur Ontario 1934
Honeymoon in a Tent Ozone Ontario 1935
Hard Times in the Bush Peninsula Ontario 19381939
St Anthony Gold Mine Ontario 19391940
War PostWar Fort William Ontario 19431949
Middle age Fort William Ontario 19491963
A Hypothetical Reunion Thunder Bay Ontario 1994
Coming into Care Croydon Surrey England 1913
Rumburgh Halesworth Suffolk England 19131921
St Augustines Home Sevenoaks Kent England 19211925
Early Adulthood as a Waif Canada 19251935
Family Life Thunder Bay Ontario Canada 19351994
The Development of a Personal Identity
The Childhood Trauma of Coming Into Care

Middle Old Age Thunder Bay Ontario 19631984
The Final Years Thunder Bay Ontario 19851994
An Inherited Mystery of Family Origins
A Review of Waifs and Strays Case File 18264
A Kind Stranger Joins the Quest
The Unearthing of Relatives in England
Assembling the Pieces of the Puzzle
Child Training or Brainwashing?
Depersonalization and Dissociation
Malignant Memories of a Traumatic Childhood
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