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the county, unexpectedly declared himself a eighty at least out of the hundred Irish reprecandidate, and went round to all the Romish sentatives will be romanists; and it is fair to chapels, soliciting the votes of the romanists conjecture, that twenty or more romanists in the county, and promising, if elected, to will obtain seats in the imperial commons for support all their pretensions in parliament. English boroughs, as the whole Romish facOn this occasion the Romish tenants of the tion throughout the empire will exert their gentleman' who gave me the information, powers to strengthen their party in parliamade freeholders by himself, universally ment; and some Romish peers will sit in tha deserted him, and promised their votes to upper house. The romanists will certainly the new candidate; and the Romish priests act in parliament as one body; their union, through the county so effectually bestirred cemented by religious principle, and the inthemselves with their votaries in support of terest of their sect, will smother every seed the new candidate, that my friend and his of dissension among them : all allurements colleague'were obliged to give a large sum of of individual interest will fail of effect, when money to this adventurer to induce him to put in competition with the interests of their abandon the canvass, and thereby to save religion; their bigotry will bind them togethemselves from the fatigue and expense of ther in adamantine bonds; and what their a contested election. Certain it is, that the conduct in the supreme legislative council of whole body of the Romish peasantry, who the empire will be, it is not hard to divine.by the folly and credulity of their landlords The first measure they will unanimously prohave been made freeholders since the year pose, and with unremitting efforts pursue and 1793, will desert their interest on every support, will be the repeal of so much of the election, when told by their priests that it is Irish act of 1793, conferring on them the for the interest of their religion that they elective franchise, as continues the disability should do so. In the last Irish rebellion, the of romanists without taking the oaths, to fill popish peasantry pursued their landlords about thirty or forty of the great offices of (most of them very indulgent to their te- the state, in the departments of which is nants, and from their attachment to roman- lodged the executive power of the governists entitled men of liberality) with the ut- ment. By the incessant intrigues in Ireland most fury and rancour, massacreing them of the English ministry, the test and corporaand their families without mercy, when they tion acts had been repealed in that part of the fell into their hands. Such has been the empire previous to the union, with the exfrenzy of the protestant landlords of Ireland, ception of the above-mentioned great offices and their ambition of surpassing each other of the state : these are the offices of lord in county interest, that they have made al- lieutenant, of lord chancellor, of the twelve most the whole mass of the popish peasant- judges, of the commander in chief of the arry forty-shilling freeholders since the year my, of the king's counsel, of sheriffs, and a 1793 ; so that the Romish freeholders of few others. If the minister of the day, at a that description exceed in number the pro-future critical period, should oppose, or detestant freeholders of every description, cline to support such a measure, the whole throughout three parts in four of Ireland : corps will immediately join the opposition; and if this measure shall take effect, roman- and the opposition, to secure the assistance ists will be returned members of parliament of such numerous auxiliaries, will heartily for most of the counties at large, counties of fraternize with them. In many cases of natowns, and pot-wallopping boroughs through- tional distress and difficulty, the ablest miout Ireland : and the principle of representa- nister, though adverse to their claims, will tion in the British constitution, that property be unable to stem the torrent; and the part should be the basis of representation, will be of the test and corporation acts, yet in force completely reversed in Ireland, and the basis in Ireland, will not survive the admission of there will benumbers, not property.-- Buteven romanists into parliament for many sessions, in respect of property, the influence of popery When the capability of romanists of filling will be daily advancing in Ireland, because, these great offices in Ireland is once estain a commercial country, land is as often at blished, will it be practicable to exclude market, and changes hands, as personal pro- them from occupying them ? Certainly it perty; and landed as well as personal pro- will not. Their dissatisfaction at such excluperty will, in a slow but certain progression, sion would be greater than at their former creep to that class of the population which disqualification. The great majority of the is the most numerous. From the foregoing Irish representatives in the imperial parliaobservations it is a just conclusion, that in a ment being ronianists, aided by the English very short time; if this measure is effected, romanists, and indissolubly connected, would
wring from the minister the whole civil pa- the one-fifth, without having any exclusive tronage in Ireland, and secure all the offices privilege even in this one-fitth. If the mithere for their own sect : in fact, the civil nister of the day. stood in need of their ssistestablishment in Ireland would become com- ance in parliament, as he often would, he pletely 'Ronish. Would the Romish repre- must listen to such complaints, and listen sentatives in parliament then be contented with attention and favour: circumstances Would their clergy in Ireland, and the mass might compel him to join them in their of their persuasion, acquiesce without mur- efforts to repeal the test and corporation mur in the enjoyment of the ecclesiastical acts; and if he shoukl determine to support rei enues in lands and tithes by the protes- these remaining bulwarks of the constitution,' tant clergy? Would they not immediately they would join the whole herd of republigrasp at them? If the whole executive pow- cans, who have so often reprobated these er of the state there be committed to ro-statutes, and attempted their repeal. Two manists; if the lord lieutenant, the lord attempts of this nature, one in 1789, the chancellor, the judges, sheriffs, and all the other in 1790, must be in the recollection of administrators of the law in that nation many members of this house : it required should be romanists; who would warrant all the abilities of the able minister, who at the enjoyment of the ecclesiastical revenues. that time principally conducted the business there to the protestant clergy, or maintain of the nation, to defeat them. If the party their possession of them? The minister him- which made these attempts shall be reinself would not be able to secure the laws en- forced by above one hundred members, steady titling the protestant clergy to these emolu- and determined in their hostility to these ments from alteration and repeal, if the great two statutes, who can answer for their conbody of the Irish representation in parlia- tinuance as part of the law of the empire for : ment demanded such a sacrifice, which it any length of time? They will undoubtwould not fail to do. The utter subversion edly yield to the incessant mining and conin Ireland of the church establishment would tinued assaults of a determined, vigilant, follow on the heels of the subversion of the and insidious enemy, constantly recruited by civil, and Ireland would immediately be- the venomous offspring of infidelity, recome a popish country.—But would the am- publicanism, and jacobinism : the constitubition of the Romish faction in the imperial tion, in church and state, will infallibly parliament stop here? Certainly it would sink under the combined pressure of such a not. The tenets of popery enjoin con- chaotic mass of desolating innovation. The tinual exertions for its propagation, support, attempt to obtrude this measure on the naand aggrandizement; and every romanist tion, is, in fact, but the rehearsal of the would beside have the additional spur of par- first act of the Gallic tragedy on the British ticular interest and ambition, to stimulate stage. The introduction of members of all hin to further exertions on behalf of the sects into the Gallic national assembly was sec. The test and corporation acts, being followed immediately by the subversion, or in fill force in England, would oppose effec- rather extinction, of their national religion ; trai barriers against the attainment of offices and that by the complete subversion of their . of profit and power in England by romanists
. government, and the substitution of the most They would observe, that Scotchmen, by the barbarous despotism which ever ravaged and weight of Scottish representation in the im- deformed any region of the civilized world. perial parliament, much lighter than that of Principiis obsta: let us firmly resist all apIrish and Romish representation, had obtain proaches of the ferocious monster, Gallic ed such offices in England, though they had anarchy !--Britons, it is necessary to call almost engrossed all places of emolument or to your recollection, and set before your power in Scotland : they would also observe, eyes, the statutes, the repeal of which that British and Irish protestants were capa- must precede, or inevitably follow, the ble of enjoying offices in Ireland; but that adoption of this measure, because such British and Irish romanists were excluded display will convince you, that this measure from all offices of emolument or power in and its consequences directly tend to the England by the test and corporation acts : complete subversion of your constitution, they would then loudly complain of this in which has been improving from the comequality of condition with their fellow-citi- mencement of the reign of the glorious zens in the British empire, and state that Elizabeth, till its attainment of its present they were excluded from such offices in four- unrivalled excellence ! under which you and fifth parts of the British empire, and admit-your ancestors for two centuries have lived ted only to the full privileges of citizens in and flourished ; and which has descended as Vol. IV.
an inheritance, during that period, in suc- for the unalterable security of their respeccession from father to son! The statute of tive church establishments, are recited : the first of Elizabeth, enacting that all that of England being for effectually and public officers shall take the oath of supre- unalterably securing the true protestant re'macy: that of the first of William and Mary, ligion, professed and established by law in or táe bill of rights, new-modelling the oath the church of England, and the doctrine, of supremacy, and extending the sphere of worship, discipline, and government thereof. administration of that oath : the acts of the The English acts of uniformity of Elizabeth thirtieth of Charles II. ch. 2, and the first and Charles II. and all other acts then in of George I. ch. 13, enacting, that no mem- force (among the rest, the thirtieth of her shall sit or vote in either house of par Charles II. before-mentioned), for the preinent, till he hath, in the presence of the servation of the church of England are dehouse, taken the oaths of allegiance, su clared perpetual : and it is enacted, that premacy, and abjuration, and repeated and every subsequent king and queen shall take subscribed the declaration : the act of the an oath inviolably to maintain the same thirteenth of Charles II. called 'the test act within England, Ireland, Wales, and the requiring all public officers to take the town of Berwick upon Tweed. And it is above oaths, repeat and subscribe the de- further enacted, that these two acts shall claration, and receive the sacrament of the for ever be observed as fundamental and Lord's Supper according to the usage of essential conditions of the . union. On the church of England : and the act of the these conditions of the treaty of union twenty-fifth of Charles II. ch. 2, called the judge Blackstone makes these observations : corporation act, incapacitating all persons « that whatever else may be deemed fundafrom being elected officers of any city or mental and essential conditions, the presercorporation, without their having within a vation of the two churches of England and twelvemonth previous to their election, re- Scotland, in the same state they were in at çeived the Sacrament of the Lord's Sup- the time of the union, is expressly declared per according to the usage of the church of so to be ; and that therefore any alterations England ; and also requiring them to take in the constitutions of either of thesechurches, the above-mentioned oaths :--all these acts would be an infringement of these fundamust be repealed! all the fortifications, mental and essential conditions." The fifth erected for the safety and preservation of article of the union of Great-Britain and our constitution in church and state for two Ireland is in the following terms :- “ that it centuries must be levelled with the dust.-- be the fifth article of union, that the churches Judge Blackstone, ai able and constitutional of England and Ireland, as now by law establawyer of modern days, states, that the acts lished, be united into one protestant episof Charles H. and George 1. requiring all copal church, to be called the United Church members of both: houses to take the oaths, of England and Ireland ; and that the docand repeat and subscribe the declaration, trine, worship, discipline, and government were enacted, to prevent crude innovations of the said united church shall be and shall in religion and government. The test and remain in full force for ever, as the same corporation acts he styles the bulwarks of the are now by law established for the church of constitution, and states, that they were England ; and that the continuance and enacted' to secure the established church preservation of the said united church, as against perils from non-conformists of all the established church of England and Iredenominations, among whom he particularly land, shall be deemed and taken to be an esenumerates papists. (See Blackstone's Com- sential and fundamental part of the union : mentaries, vol. i. p. 158, and vol. iv. p. 57, and that in like manner the doctrine, wor8vo. edit.)--It is now time to advert to the ship, discipline, and government of the conditions of union between England and church of Scotland shall remain, and be Scotland, and between Great Britain and preserved, as the same are now established Jreland, which relate to the church estab- by law, and by the act of the union of the lishment; and to enquire whether the pre- two kingdoms of England and Scotland."sent measure can be be adopted consistently. It is clear that every measure tending to the with the obligation of these conditions, and breach of these fundamental arid essential the preservation of the public faith.-In the conditions of the two unions ought to be act of union of England and Scotland, the rejected by this house with indignation : the fifth of Ann, ch. 8, two acts of the respec- very proposal of such a measure to this tive parliaments of England and Scotland, house is an insult to it; as it must be found
ed on the presumption, that this house is ments therein-recited, shall be perpetual ;" capable of violating the public faith reci- and in both of these recited acts, an addiprocally plighted by the nations composing tion is made to the coronation oath ; and it the British empire to each other, on their is enacted, “ that the succeeding kings of consolidation into one body. If this mea- Great-Britain shall, at their coronations, sure should be adopted, the act of the 30th swear to maintain and preserve inviolably of Charles II. requiring all members of both the settlement of the church of England, houses to take the oath of supremacy, and as specified in that statute, for the unalterrepeat and subscribe the declaration, will be able security of the church of England, and repealed by its adoption, as well as the bill the doctrine, worship, discipline, and goof rights and the test and corporation acts : vernment thereot, as in that act specified; these are made perpetual by the conditions within the kingdoms of England and Ireof the union of England and Scotland, being land, the dominion of Wales, and the town enacted for the preservation and continuance of Berwick upon Tweed, and the territories of the church of England ; and, as Judge thereunto belonging." A similar oath is Blackstone expresses it, for the prevention prescribed to be taken at the coronation by of crude innovations in religion and govern- all succeeding kings, for the inviolable prement. Exclusive of this direct breach of servation of the then established religion in the conditions of the union, it is already Scotland. The coronation oath not only shewn, that the whole tendency of the mea- binds the king to refuse his assent to any sure, and its notorious. consequencss, are, alteration in the religions of England, Iréthe subversion of the established church in land, and Scotland, as they were establishGreat-Britain and Ireland, in violation of ed at the time of the union of England and the public faith plighted on the completion Scotland, but he is equally bound to refuse of two incorporating unions; the introduc- his assent to any measure, directly tending tion of infidelity and atheism, by the an- to the subversion of the roligion then estabnihilation of all the bonds of society spring- lished; and also to discountenance, aş far ing from an established religion: and the as in him lies, all attempts of that nature. consequent introduction of anarchy and de- The patrons of this measure, sensible of mocracy - the true reason (however dis- this impediment, have not been wanting guised under the mask of liberality) why in their endeavours, by sophistical arguthis desolating, faithless, Gallic measure has ments, casuistical. distinctions, misrepre. met the approbation, and acquired the pa- sentations of some facts, suppression of tronage and support of all the jacobins in others, and suggestion of falsehoods, in the British empire.--It is some consolation pamphlets and newspapers, to sap the foundato reflect that the subjects of this empire, tion of this barrier, which they were unable attached to the constitution, have yet one to surmount. One pamphlet of this nature barrier left to resist that inundation of im- deserves particular notice, inasmuch as it is piety, democracy, and barbarity, with which an epitome of all the arguments against the this measure is calculated to overwhelm obligation of the coronation oath ; and is it : that is, his majesty's coronation oath ; launched into the world under the name of a barrier, I am convinced, sufficient to de- a gentleman, whom I understand to be a fend us, during the precious life at least, person of some reputation, as a lawyer or of the pious and conscientious prince who conveyancer, and of the Roman catholic now sways the British sceptre; a barrier persuasion. It is entitled, " A Letter to a raised by the wisdom, piety, and patriotism Nobleman on the proposed Repeal of the of our forefathers. The oath enjoined by penal Laws which now remain in force the statute of the first of William and Mary, against the Irish Roman Catholics, from to be taken by the king at his coronation, Charles Butler, Esq. of Lincoln's Inn, Auths has the following clause : os I will to the of the Notes and Annotations on Coke in atmost of my power maintain the laws of Littleton." This pamphlet, after stating, God, the true profession of the Gospel, that the author is less acquainted with the and the protestant reformed religion estab- Irish popery laws than with the English lished by law.” By the act of Anne ratifying (which is indeed sufficiently manifested by the union of England and Scotland, as is its contents), proceeds to give what it styles already stated, it is enacted, “ that two an outline of them; but in truth it is an acts of the respective parliaments of Eng- odious, monstrous, and detestable caricatura land and Scotland, for the unalterable se- of the provisions and effects of the Irish po. eurity of their respective church establish- pery acts of the 2d and 8th of Queen Aune,
The whole scope of these two wise and pro- | adjacent to his quarters, joined him. What .vident statutes was to prevent romanists then could induce the author to praise the from acquiring landed property in Ireland, loyalty of the Irish romanists? He states, their aniecedent rebellions and barbarous that if the Irish romanists did not flock to massacres of the protestants of Ireland hav- the standard of Britain, frightful indeed ing rendered such a prohibition at that time would be the solitude of her camps and her not onl. expedient, but absolutely necessary. fleets. Poor Britain! Irish romanists, acThe pamphlet admits, that these acts are cording to this pamphlet, are your only dehow repealed, but the caricatura is inserted fenders! The author means to insinuate, ..by way of ornament to the subsequent ar- that all the Irish serving in the British fleets gument against the obligation of the corona- and armies are romanists, whereas not one tion oath, the main drift of the pamphlet. half of them are so. And it is certain, that The pamphlet then praises the loyalty of the the protestants of Great Britain and Ireland Irish romanists in the course of the war ; would furnish sufficient armies and fleets, if and states that tive of the direciors of the romanists were entirely excluded. Since united Irish only one was a romanist; but the mutiny in the fleet, the recruiting ofit should at the same time have stated, as ficers for some time refused to enlist any the truth is, that the other four were des- Irish romanists for the marine service. The perate jacobins and intidels, with which degree of merit of a Romish common sol-species of people the Irish rebels had closely dier, serving under protestant officers in an ..connected themselves ; and that nearly the army, nine-tenths of the common soldiers whole mass of Irish traitors which broke out of which are protestants, in countries reinto open rebellion in the year 1798 were mote from his native land, removed from romanists, not one in five hundred of them the baneful influence of his priests, and subbeing of any other religious persuasion ; and ject to military discipline, is so minute, that that they massacred in cold blood all the its value is not easily appreciated. He enprotestants, men, women, and children, who lists for the bounty; he is paid for, and obfell into their hands; giving bv.other reason liged to perform his allotted service. The for their barbarity, than that the victims author of the pamphlet either did or did not were protestants and heretics. It appears know of the already mentioned rebellion from some passages in the pamphlet, that it and mutiny, when he publisheď his praises .was written and published since the year of the loyalty of the Irishi romanists : in · 1798. In that year burst forth the last re- the first case,' he seems to be deficient in bellion of the Irish romanists, and the bar-candour ; in the other, in information. The barous massacre of their protestant country- pamphlet then states, that the Roman camen. The reports of the comunittees of the tholics acknowledge the spiritual supremacy English and Irish houses of commons have of the pope, but to a man deny his right been some years published: the conspiracy to temporal power. It can be hardly supfor rebellion, and the dreadful and dangerous posed, that the author, if he be a lawyer, mutiny of the Irish romanists in the British can be ignorant, that the wisest and most fleet, are fully exposed in these reports; sagacious statesmen and legislators cannot - yet the author of the pamphlet has the con- separate a vast portion of temporal influence, fidence to praise the loyalty of the Irish ro- authority, and power, from the supremacy manists, and to state, that in the late inva- in spirituals; their adhésion is indissoluble, sions of Ireland, none were more active in they must for ever accompany each other.repelling the invaders, and that among the It is now time to advert to the principal arnen of influence atid property, who were gument in the pamphlet, that the king is engaged in the rebellion, three catholics not by his coronation oath bound to resist Cannot be mentioned. There was but one the adoption of the present ineasure: this invasion of Ireland during the last war, and the author rests on the clause in that oath, conducted by Humbert, at the head of one which binds his majesty. "to govern the thousand French troops. He landed in a people according to the statutes in parliapart of Ireland, in which the bulk of the ineiit agreed on, and the laws and customs inhabitants were romanists, who joined him of the realm.” The author then gives a in a mass on his landing ; .at his first en- mutilated extract from the next clause, to counter with the king's troups, the greater wit, that his majesty swears “ to maintain part of a regiment of Irish militia, all rou the protestant reformed religion established manists; deserted to him; all tire romanists by law ;" [for coronation oath, as settled by of influence of property within the districts the act of ist. William and Mary, see Black