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nected, as furnishing the means of an ef- | much greater statesman than the parrot fectual resistance to the power of France; that could only call out, fool, cuckold, and for this reason we had always made it and knave. As to the rejoicing at the suca point to prevent even the emperor to cess of the French republic, the liberty dispose of such of them as belonged to with which it was attended afforded certainhim to any other state. Since the extinc- ly no great ground for exultation. It was a tion of the House of Burgundy in the liberty without property, without honour, male line, and the dismemberment of its without morals, without order, without gopossessions, the House of Austria had vernment, without security of life. In order always been considered as the natural ally to gain liberty they had forfeited order, of England, because it was the only one and had thus forfeited every degree of capable of making head against the enor- freedom. They had violated the law of mous power of France. During the nations by a decree, declaring war against reign of Joseph 2nd, whose unaccounta- all governments, and forcing those counble disposition was not favourable to tries, into which their armies should enEngland, an alliance was formed with ter, to form a constitution similar to their Prussia.

In talking of the English nation, How much, then, must he be surprised, they talked of the sovereignty of the peowhen he heard a great statesman declare, ple: the constitution of this country knew that he rejoiced in the defeat of the em. no such sovereignty; the king was soveperor and the king of Prussia- the em-i reign of the Lords and of the Comperor, the ally of this country-the king mons; the King, Lords, and Commons, of Prussia, connected with it by marriage were the representatives of the country at and by treaty. This, indeed, was a total home; the king was its only representadeviation from the policy of our ancestors tive abroad. They talked of the nation : -nay, when this great statesman required we knew of no nation as a distinct body ministers to interfere to prevent the duke from the representative powers. We of Brunswick from entering France, and talked indeed of the people, but the soveto join with our natural enemies against reignty of the people was a phrase not our allies and friends. There never were recognised by law, and inconsistent with more solid, more substantial, more con- our constitution. vincing reasons given for attacking any

Mr. Burke then animadverted at some country, than those given in the manifes- length on the decree made by the National to which preceded the attack of the com- Convention upon the report of M. Cam. bined armies. The battle of Jemappe bon. The decree was preceded by a cuthe right hon. gentleman had styled “a rious declaration. “ The National Conglorious victory”-that victory by which vention, after having heard the report of France had become mistress of Holland! the united committees of finance, war, by which she had obtained possession of and diplomacy, faithful to, the principles tlie Scheldt, which might now be the oc- of the sovereignty of the people, which casion of going to war! this glorious vic- will not permit them to acknowledge any tory, in his opinion, was a calamitous de- institution derogatory from it,” &c. feat to this country. And why was all this Here, Mr. Burke insisted, was a direct deexultation expressed ? Because those, nunciation of war against Great Britain. truly, who were combined against France The National Convention will not acknowwere despots, and because France itself ledge any institution derogatory from the was a republic. It was indeed a new sovereignty of the people. The decree language, to call the friends and allies contained twelve articles, the first evinced of this country despots. But here he the intentions of the National Convention, begged leave to tell a short story: A

“ to abolish all taxes, nobility, and every very singular parrot was brought to prince privilege; to declare to the inhabitants of Maurice, which had acquired the gift of all countries, that they bring with them language. The prince asked where it peace, succour, fraternity." The syslived-it mentioned the place. What tem of fraternizing was to be propagated was its business-it replied, to call toge by the sword, and if any nation wished to ther the chickens, and I do it very well-adhere to its old maxinis, these regenera. chuck, chuck, chuck (imitating the cry tors were to cram this fraternity down employed to call chickens.) Now, he their throats, and to force them to swallow must own he considered the parrot that the dose, however nauseous it might be could call together the chickens, as a to them. The fourth article authorized the republic to seize all goods belonging to it was replied, that treaties extorted by the treasury, the prince, his favourers, avarice and consented to by despotism, adherents, or satellites. A pretty ample were no longer binding. So, by this word of confiscation the last was! The means, they got rid of the law of nations, sixth article appointed commissioners to and the obligation of treaties. On the fraternize the conquered nation. The passage which relates to their intention seventh provided for the payment of the of making a solemn appeal to the English expenses incurred by the republic, in giv- nation, he remarked that they passed by ing fraternity to any nation. This suffi- the king, the only representative which ciently evinced the resolution of the this country knew in its transactions with French not to fraternize mankind gratis. foreign powers. This was exactly conUnder the pretext of giving full liberty formable to the spirit of their decree of to those people, they sent their commis- the 19th of December, which had a direct sioners to take care that the decree should tendency to excite rebellion among the be fulfilled; and authorized the levying of subjects of every government. The concontributions, in order to defray their duct of the French, he remarked, in levyown expenses ; thus exhibiting a more ar- ing contributions on those people whom bitrary and oppressive conduct, even than they had deprived of all their privileges, those whom they affected to call despots, under pretext of defraying their own exwho had on several occasions respected penses, resembled that of an attorney who the constitution of those cities which should bring in a bill of costs after he had they had invaded, and who had left the stripped his client of all his property, different classes of citizens in possession From this account of expenses, he trusted of their privileges.

they would deduct the thousand pair of But he should now read to the House shoes which had been sent them from a paper in which this country was still England as a first subsidy, from those more deeply interested. Jr. Burke then who wished to adopt their constitution in proceeded to read a translation of the re- this country. The French when they port of the French minister, on the situa- were slaves had wooden shoes-now that tion of France with respect to England. they were free they had no shoes at all. Upon that passage which mentions the The liberality of their English friends howreciprocity of good dispositions between ever promised to supply the defect. He the people of the two nations, he remark- defied anyone to mention instances of such ed that this was a serious fact which de- excesses under any despotism in so short

he observed, mentions agents not acknow. this new government of French freedom. ledged by the court, whom they kept in During thirty years of the reign of England: there was one minister whom the empress of Russia, there had not been he knew, M. Chauvelin, who had been committed so many cruelties as had been minister from the king of France, but perpetrated in France within one week. who consequently was not now acknow- No such instances of arbitrary imprisonledged. With respect to the ministers ment had occurred under the reign of the having had communications with any such king of Prussia, as might be found in the agents, it might be necessary, from politi- transactions of every French municipality. cal causes, for ministers to have commu- Every man's house was his bastile, and nications with the worst characters; but nothing in the old government could be surely that these agents were numerous, found to equal the atrocity of those prowas matter of serious alarm, as long as ceedings, which had taken place under the the nature of their mission, and the pur- sanction of the new government of French poses for which they were employed, re- freedom. mained unknown. What answer does the Mr. Burke next adverted to the system French minister give to the arguments of atheism, as now avowed in France. employed by our court against the open- To prove this he quoted several passages ing of the Scheldt? Their answer is from a speech of one Jacob Dupont, to founded on the rights of nature and on the National Convention, in which he dethe principles of justice and liberty, which nied the existence of a God, and declared the French nation have consecrated: the that the people would never be thoroughly only consecration, he remarked, which ripe for the “ holy doctrine of insurrecthey had made. When our ministers al- tion and opposition to tyranny, if in the leged the positive engagements of treaty, primary schouls the rising generation


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should be taught any thing about God. trees of liberty were to be the only altars
He concluded, that the Christian religion before which the nations were to kneel.
being a monarchical one, preaching sub- And all about old stockes and stubs of trees
jection and obedience to God, ought not Whereon nor fruit nor leaf was ever seen,
to be suffered in a republic; and that all Did hang upon the ragged rocky knees,
the altars raised to religion, and to the On which had many wretches hanged beene,
Almighty, ought to be overturned, and Whose carcases were scattered on the greene,
none suffered to exist in France, but the

And throwne about the cliffs. sacred altar of liberty.” Some murmurs These trees of liberty, he doubted not, being heard in the assembly, on account would soon be without fruit or leaf; and of this abominable doctrine, they were it would be said, that on them “ Had drowned by the loud applauses of the many wretches hanged beene." Thus afmajority of the members. This daring ter having brought so many calamities on man observed, that some people might individuals, they wished có deprive them imagine that a priest was useful to a man of their last consolation; they wished to in his last moments; this however he de deprive the pious and penitent of their nied; and to such he pointed out the ex- sole refuge, and, if possible, to extinguish ample of Condorcet closing the eyes of the idea, that there is a God who will pud'Alembert ; in other words, one atheist nish tyrants and oppressors, and who will closing the eyes of another. He said that reward and comfort suffering virtue. the brave Marseillois would not have been Thus, after having made men miserable in so well qualified for the glorious deeds of life, they wished also to make them desthe 10th of August, if they had had the pair in death, and consign them to all the weakness to believe in the existence of a horrors of a gloomy annihilation. Such God. The man who had uttered these were the principles upon which they were blasphemies, so far from having been dis- to form their youth, and train them to the avowed by the assembly, was appointed commission of crimes, by taking away one of a committee instituted for the pur- from them the salutary restraints of relipose of drawing up a plan of national edu- gion! For his part, he was determined to cation ; and the only difference of opinion wage eternal war with such abominable among the members was, which plan principles, which would drive morality would be most economical, that which out of the world, and cut asunder the proscribed the existence of a God, or that bonds which unite man to man, and the which admitted it. Mr. Burke described creature to his Creator. the benefits which society in general deriv- Adverting, lastly, to the bill immedied from the morality founded upon the ately before the House, he said, he would belief of the existence of a God, and the give it his most cordial support, as being comforts which individuals felt in leaving calculated to keep out of England those this world, in the hope of enjoying hap- murderous atheists, who would pull down piness in the next. He mentioned the church and state; religion and God; mochurch of St. Genevieve at Paris, one of rality and happiness. "The extraordinary the finest buildings in the world, which power which it would give ministers was was now called the French Pantheon, be necessary, and even proved that the peocause all the statutes of the ancient gods ple who gave it were free; for if the and heroes of antiquity were to be taken crown possessed such power in time of from Rome, and deposited in that famous peace, it would be too great for liberty; temple; there strangers from all quarters and if they had not more in time of war were to be instructed in the best mode of than was necessary in time of peace, they destroying the government and religion of would not have enough for the public their respective countries; there they safety. Where the crown had its power were to be taught how to lead men on enlarged or diminished by the people, acimperceptibly from crime to crime, from cording to times and circumstances, there murder to murder. The philosophers of the people could not be justly said to live old used to apply the origin of every under despotism, but to be perfectly free. thing to God —à Jove principium. But It had been said, on a former occasion, the modern French philosophers would that there were only nineteen persons at begin by saying, that every thing had present in the kingdom likely to be affected been made by nothing; and that the idea by the bill; but when it was considered of a God was weak, childish, and absurd, that they were murderers and atheists, and unbecoming a true republican. The the number might be said to be very great;

they exceeded by many the whole of the ces in the passing of the bill, should well royal family, whom they might perhaps weigh in their minds against them, the be commissioned to murder. Besides, danger and inconveniences which might they might take apprentices to the trade arise if it was not passed. Could any of blood; and then God only could tell gentleman say, that the continuance of so where their numbers would end ! The many foreigners as were in the country, persons by whom so many murders had uncontrolled, was without danger? It been committed in France never exceeded was notorious, there were among them two hundred; though their assistants and some, who had come from the continent abettors amounted to many thousands ; for the sole purpose of exciting disconbut those believed that there was no God; tent, and of purchasing amongst our own and therefore people ought not to be at people, abetiors of their designs. Within their ease because we had at present only a few days of the time he was speaking, nineteen of them among us." He menti- members of the actual convention of oned the circumstance of three thousand France had been in town. Was it to be daggers having been bespoke at Birming- supposed, that such men had abandoned ham by an Englishman, of which seventy their stations to pay us a visit for good had been delivered. It was not ascer- purposes? There had been assassins in tained how many of these were to be ex. London; they still remained in it. The ported, and how many were intended for same who had been employed at Paris on home consumption (Here Mr. Burke the dreadfully-memorable 2nd of Septemdrew out a dagger which he liad kept ber. Was it a matter of no importance concealed, and with much vehemence of whether such men remained in this counaction threw it on the floor.] This, said try, or were sent out of it?-With respect he, pointing to the dagger, is what you to the bill, the power it would give should are to gain by an alliance with France : be exercised with the greatest attention. wherever their principles are introduced, | The foreigners, over whom so much their practice must follow. You must power was intended to be given, were of guard against their principles ; you must very different descriptions: many of them proscribe their persons. He then held were men deserving of punishment and the dagger up to public view, which he severe treatment; but others were desaid never could have been intended for serving of kindness and hospitality. fair and open war, but solely for murder. These last were the reverse of those, who ous purposes. It is my object, said he, at present governing France, were so to keep the French infection from this justly the objects of execration. They country; their principles from our minds, were the oppressed, the others were the and their daggers from our hearts. I oppressors. They were exiled, unfortu. vote for this bill, because I consider it the nate gentlemen, who came to England, means of saving my life and all our lives, as to their last asylum, to escape persefrom the hands of assassins. I vote for cution. They were whatever France had it, because it will break the abominable possessed that was virtuous and dignified. system of the modern Pantheon, and pre- They adored the God the others had abvent the introduction of French principles jured. They were the devoted victims and French daggers. When they smile, whose hearts were to be pierced with the I see blood trickling down their faces; I daggers the others were to wield. He was see their insidious purposes; I see that sure the House would join with himn in the object of all their cajoling is-blood! recommending to the protection of miI now warn my countrymen to beware of nisters, a class of foreigners, in so many these execrable philosophers, whose only respects the contrary of those emissaries object it is to destroy every thing that is who were sent here to plot mischief and good here, and to establish immorality foment rebellion. and murder by precept and example- The bill was read a second time,

“ Hic niger est hunc tu Romane caveto."

Dec. 31. On the order of the day for Mr. J. T. Stanley approved of the bill, going into a committee on the Alien bill though aware of the unusual power it being read, would convey to the executive govern- Sir Peter Burrell considered himself ment. The circumstances of the time bound to rise upon the present occasion, required such power to be given. Those as he differed in opinion with those with who apprehended danger or inconvenien- whom he liad been accustomed to act, and especially with one right hon. gentle | clared his own opinion to be and which man (Mr. Fox), for whose great abilities opinion he still entertained that the pohe entertained the highest respect, and of litical difference of sentiments between the purity of whose motives he could not him, and those with whom he formerly harbour the smallest doubt. As he con- acted, were too great ever again to hope sidered the bill to be highly necessary, for future concurrence. He concluded and fully justified by the existing circum- by declaring that seeing an absolute nestances, he now rose to state the ground cessity to give every support to the goof this difference of sentiment, and vindi. vernment, he was determined zealously cate the motives of his separation from to co-operate in his public and private cathose with whom he had formerly agreed in pacity, with his majesty's ministers, in opinion. The question now was, not who their exertions to defend the constitution, should govern, but whether there should and to save the country from the evident be any government at all ; not who should attacks meditated against it. be minister, but whether there should be The Marquis of Titchfield said, it was a ministry. While we were quarrelling with great pleasure that he had heard about the shadow, the French were en- what had just fallen from his hon. friend deavouring to deprive us of the substance. who, in expressing the sentiments of Had gentlemen really considered the na- others as well as his own, did not seem to ture of the question? The sort of war have said any thing in which he could which the French carried on, was a war not readily concur. He agreed that the not of insult, but of extirpation. It was a circumstances of the country were in the war which had for its object to erect their highest degree critical; and in such cirown system on the ruins of every other cumstances those who were as little ingovernment. It became necessary, then, clined to think well of the present admithat the French should be acquainted nistration as himself, might be disposed to with the real state of the sentiments of such a conduct in some instances, as at the people of this country, that they other times they would not be inclined to might know how little they had to hope pursue. His political sentiments and atfrom the progress of their doctrines in tachments remained the same that they this quarter. He considered the present had ever been. His opinion of the genbill as a measure calculated to maintain tlemen who composed the present admitranquillity and confidence. By vigorous nistration, was in no respect altered. But measures of preparation, accompanied he felt the dangers which surrounded us, with a spirit of unanimity, we should best and the necessity of giving to government provide against whatever might happen. such support as might enable it to act On this account he highly approved of with effect; a support, therefore, directed the bill, as putting into the liands of the to that effect, and governed by those concrown a power fully warranted by the pre- siderations, was that which he meant dissent crisis.

tinctly to give them. The bill under Sir Gilbert Elliot, understanding that consideration he conceived to be one of what he had said in a former debate had those measures, and therefore it should been misunderstood, emþraced the earliest have his support. But in declaring those opportunity of restating what he had be- intentions, he could not too explicitly defore advanced. He had had the assent of clare, that in no other respect could he several of the gentlemen who had been give them any share of his confidence. accustomed to act with the right hon. Sir M. W. Ridley complimented the gentleman (Mr. Fox) and had been dis- members of opposition for their abilities tinctly authorized by a noble personage and integrity. He had frequently acted who had been alluded to in a former de with them, and had no doubt that he bate (the duke of Portland), who had ap- should again ; but the reason why he proved of his conduct, in the opinion he supported the present measure was, beexpressed, that it was the duty of every cause he thought the country and the man, in parliament, and out of parliament, constitution in danger. in the present situation of affairs, to sup- Mr. Fox said, he should trouble the port administration in their exertions to House but with a very few words. What defend the constitution, and to save their he chiefly had to observe was on what country. Further than that he had not had fallen from the noble marquis. He pledged the authority of the noble per- thought it rather unnecessary to take sopage alluded to. He had however de much notice of what had been expressed

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