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on the 10th of August. The massacre of them, and showing how they were so, was the 10th of August was never called by its a calumniator. Mr. Fox called to order, proper name; the murders committed on and said, if the right hon.gentleman meant that day which murdered the constitution, to affront him personally, he should do were not murders, but acts of national jus- that elsewhere. With respect to his assertice, of which all were emulous to share tions, six of them had been confuted in the glory. When Brissot, Petion, and one day. Mr. Burke was again going on their party, had murdered or filled the pri. with the same subject, when th Speaker sons with their opponents, and obtained reminded him that it had no relation to power for themselves, they became all of the question before the House.] a sudden great lovers of order; but when Mr. Burke continued. He said, the another party that wished to supplant them subject was not introduced into the debate murdered these very prisoners, which they by him. He could not bear patiently at. were suffered to do unopposed, and were tempts to pervert the English character preparing to remove the new men in by apologies for murders. A newspaper, power, as they had removed their prede. the Morning Chronicle, in the month of cessors, then, and not till then, they ex. November, attempted to apologize for claimed against the massacre of Septem- those murders, as acts of substantial jus. ber as a thing totally different from the tice, though shocking to humanity. Mr. massacre of August, and in which the na- Burke pursued his subj ct in the way tion had no part. What was murder in of question to Mr. Fox, and being again one month was not murder in another. called to order, adverted to Mr. Sheridan's They reminded him of the directions in old charge of bad taste for introducing the almanacks-in such a month let blood-in trick of a dagger on a former debate ; such another take cooling physic. But the whose manner, he said, seemed rather to people were not quite so nice in their dis- be borrowed from his new connexions tinctions as the Convention. When the than to be the natural growth of his old latter ordered that the murderers of Sep- principles. He read a long letter from tember should be prosecuted, the forty- a manufacturer at Birmingham, giving an eight sections came with an address, and account of the order given by Dr. Maxwell said“ these murders were our act; they too for making daggers there, and said, the were national murders : we were all en- only error he had committed in mentioning gaged in them: will you prosecute eight the business before, was in stating that hundred thousand people ?" They did not three thousand were ordered and seventy ascribe these murders to the invasion of two made ; whereas in fact ten thousand the Austrian and Prussian armies, an ex- were ordered, and four thousand had cuse first invented for them in that House; been made. He remarked on some pubthey said, that the persons murdered were lication by a Mr. Oswald, now in Paris, aristocrats, who had contrived to get who expressed his hopes that all governthemselves crowded into all the prisons, ment by representation would soon be at from which, as from so many forts, they an end, and that France would be freed might sally forth on the Jacobins, the first from the iron yoke of property. This convenient opportunity. What would the was now in agitation all over France. The hon. gentleman, who was such a critic in old proprietors were pretty well got rid plots, say to so well-devised a plot as this? of by murder or confiscation. Those Mr. Burke dwelt upon this topic for a who had shared in the plunder were endeaconsiderable time, enumerating the priests vouring to make a stand, but they would and the women that were murdered. soon be overpowered. The sovereignty Among these was the princess of Lamballe. of the people was the most false, wicked, It happened that her head was cut off, and and mischievous doctrine that ever could it happened, that next day M. Egalité got be preached to them. It was false, because her jointure. [Mr Fox, by some gesture, they had no means of exercising their soexpressed his disbelief of this. Mr. Burke vereignty. And why was it broached ? hastily asked, if it was untrue ? Mr. Fox Under a delusion, to strip them of their said, certainly; but not more untrue than natural guardians, to kill the shepherd much of what he had stated besides. Mr. and his dogs, and make way for the wolves. Burke said, he had stated nothing but on If the majority of the public was to be accurate inquiry, and with the proofs in taken not by weight, but by tale, the bis possession ; and any man that said his most ignorant would elect, and none but assertions were untrue, without confuting the crafty and the wicked would be elect

set up.

ed. It was said to be dangerous to intro- pursued this allusion to a considerable duce an opposition of interest between length, tending to convey an idea that the rich and the poor, was not this very Mr. Fox had acted during the present opposition now the question all over session without consulting with his friends. France and Flanders ? The right hon. Fears, the right hon. gentleman said, had gentleman who warned the House of this made a chancellor. In times of difficulty danger, said, the man who possessed no and danger, those who saw the danger, property had as much interest in the were meritorious in accepting offices of constitution and good order of society trust and responsibility. In such times as the man who did. True, an interest every sacrifice to the public good must visible to every well-informed man, but by be made by every good citizen. The no means so to the ignorant. The mo- right hon. gentleman himself had sacri. ment that equality and the sovereignty of ficed no interest to the value of a cat's the people was adopted as therule of go. whisker. He was only sacrificing to the vernment, property would be at an end, vilest idol that ever was

Mr. and religion, morality, and law, which Burke concluded with discussing the difgrew out of property, would fall with it. ference between party and faction, and

The right hon. gentleman had talked expressing his entire disapprobation of the of desertions from the party of which he present motion. was the leader, from weariness of travelling Colonel Macleod said, the right hon. so long in the barren track of opposition. gentleman had ventured to renew one of The deserts of Arabia had no charms for the most unconstitutional propositions he these deserters: but perhaps, if a caravan had ever laid down, namely, that the litravelling through these deserts should ving mass of humanity did not enter into find that their leader, from passion or the constitution. With respect to the inobstinacy, had wandered from the right surrections in Scotland, he quoted a reroad, and that by following him they were corded speech by the president of the in danger of being attacked by some plun- court of session, expressing the surprise dering sheik, they might be allowed to and concern of the court, on being inthink a little of their own safety, and take formed of these insurrections by the king's measures for securing it, independent of proclamation, and the debates in parliathe caravan bashaw. He could say for ment. Thus these insurrections, which had himself, that he had deserted no party, been stated as the cause of the late extraand that of those with whom he had been ordinary measures, were totally unknown accustomed to act there was not one that to the fifteen judges of Scotland, till sigdiffered from him in opinion on the present nified to them by the proclamation, which state of affairs, or disapproved of a single they could not believe, till confirmed by vote he had given in the course of the the debates in parliament. present session. Those who had inciden- Mr. Sheridan said, that the gentlemen tally joined that party by the way had no who opposed his motion had said so little claim

upon him. He had a high opinion that was applicable, and that little tending of the right hon. gentleman's abilities, rather to confirm, than to refute the probut he could not submit his judgment priety of it, that he had nothing to reply implicitly to the abilities of any man. to. With respect to any harshness of exThe right hon. gentleman had learned pression imputed to him, no affectation of from Dr. Price, that kings might be ca- candour should ever induce him to spare shiered, but seemed to forget that the those whose conduct seemed studiously leaders of parties could do wrong. Yet calculated to throw discredit on the prinif the leader should seem to consider the ciples he maintained, or the friends with party as made only for him, instead of whom he acted. considering himself as but a part of it; Major Maitland said, he had no persoif he should adopt a line of conduct with nal acquaintance with Dr.Maxwell

, but he out consent or consultation ; if he should knew, from undoubted information, that make speeches and motions, as if he meant the daggers ordered by him were intended to say, “ you dislike what I did to day, for no such purpose as had been insinuated, I will do more to-morrow; if you disap but as a weapon for horsemen, armed with prove of what I do to-morrow, worse rifles. The same construction might, with awaits you for the day after that ;” it equal plausibility, have been put upon the might then be supposed that the party daggers of a company of light horse, armed was at liberty to leave him. Mr. Burke in the same manner in the American war,


The motion was negatived without a di- pride and the cause of our happiness, but vision.

which had been first ridiculed and de

spised, and finally was sought to be overThe King's Message respecting employing thrown by these same enemies of the laws a Body of Hanoverian Troops.] Mr. Se under which we lived, and by which we cretary Dundas presented the following were protected—of the religion which our Message from his Majesty:

ancestors professed, and on which we “George R.

rested our hopes of felicity-and, lastly, “ His Majesty having judged it expedient of our liberties and privileges as an indeto employ in the service of Great Britain pendent state. From the energy of the a body of his Electoral troops, for the pur- executive government, the country have pose of assisting his allies the States-ge- to expect every thing-and the executive neral of the United Provinces, and of government have to expect, and will cerprosecuting in the most effectual manner tainly receive the unanimous support of the just and necessary war in which his this House as long as they shall continue majesty is engaged, his majesty has di- to adopt such measures as may contribute rected an estimate to be laid before the to the vigour of operation. Though he House of Commons of the charge attend- could not help lamenting the necessity he ing the employment of the said troops ; was under of continuing burthens which, on and his majesty relies on the zeal of his their being first imposed, were intended to faithful Commons, that they will be ready be merely temporary, yet he was fortified to make the necessary provision for main- by this consideration, that any attempt taining the same.

G. alleviate these burthens just now, The Message was ordered to be referred would only add to their future pressure. to the consideration of the Committee of At this eventful moment, it was his busiSupply.

ness to forego the consideration of what

was past, and make provision for the exiDebate on the Budget.] March 11. gences of the present moment. A vigorThe House having resolved itself into a ous and active prosecution of the war was Committee of Supply, to which the several now the most indispensable duty, as well accounts relating to the revenue were or. as the highest interest, of the nation. In dered to be referred,

making provisions for the public service, Mr. Chancellor Pitt rose. He said, it was his wish to meet the desires of the thaton entering into the inquiry which was House, and of the people at large. In a about to occupy the attention of the Com- season of emergency like the present, large mittee, it was scarcely possible to forbear expenses could not be avoided, nor ought from making some observations on the they to be spared. True economy would present existing circumstances of the coun- consist, not in limiting the extent of our try. The House having pledged itself, expenditure on the estimate which, in the and, in so doing, having pledged, the commencement of a war, could seldom be country, to prosecute the just and neces- formed with much accuracy, but in a visary war in which we were involved, with gilant attention to the proper application vigour and effect, he thought it his duty of the funds voted for the public service. to take the first opportunity of laying be- The latter the public had certainly every fore the committee a full, accurate, and title to expect; and in return he would impartial statement of the expenses of the look with confidence to the country for present year, and the resources from every degree of assistance and support. which he proposed to supply them. In Whatever degree of exertion we might be the course of this investigation, it would called upon to make, it was not his intenbe necessary for the House to recollect the tion to delude the community. It was his opinion it had expressed of the nature of intention to lay before the House, annuthe struggle in which we were involved, ally, an account of the public income and and with which opinion it had approached expenditure, during the continuance of the the foot of the throne. According to the war, in the same way that he had been terms of this spontaneous declaration, the accustomed to do in time of peace. The House had avowed, that the nation was committee would certainly recollect, that engaged in a contest in support of a be- it was impossible to specify every continloved monarch who had been derided and gent expense which might arise during the vilified by our inveterate enemies-of a course of hostilities; but in general it was constitution which was the source of our his intention to bring every article of expense capable of being ascertained within discharging the national debt ; and it was the account of the current year, and not also his intention not barely to suffer this suffer the surplus toaccumulate, and which, annual million to remain untouched, but by that means, at the return of peace, likewise to add to this fund the sum of would only come upon the people with 200,000l. every year. He would also avoid additional pressure. He likewise begged an accumulation of unfunded debt, and in leave to inform the Committee, that it general endeavour to bring every sum was his design never to forget the system which was expended to account annually. which he had introduced, and from which – Mr. Pitt here stated the supplies necesso much advantage had already been de- sary to be provided for : rived, of setting aside an annual million for


NAVY: 25,000 seamen, including marines

·£.!,300,000 0 0 20,000 ditto

1,010,000 0 Ordinary

2.669,205 5 10 Extraordinary

387,710 0 0

1,056,915 5 10 Excess of navy debt beyond the estimate of the Committee

575,000 0 0

3,971,915 5 10


[blocks in formation]

In these calculations he had estimated | The committee would also remember, that the excess according to the lowest com- perhaps it might be deemed expedient to putation of these expenses on the peace increase the monthly allowance which was establishment. There were, however, cer- made to the seamen already voted. The tain articles of expenditure which he had transports which must be employed in before stated to be of a contingent nature. sending our troops into Holland-other The House at present had only voted foreign forces, as well as the 12,000 Ha45,000 seamen, who had an allowance of noverians being taken into British pay, or 41. a month per man; but considering the perhaps encampments, were all articles of important nature of the contest in which we expense, of the possibility of which he were involved, and the powerful maritime wished to warn the committee. Some allies by whom we were assisted, he did part of this expenditure might be providnot mean to say that the strength of this ed for from the fund which had been set country would not be further exerted. apart for the relief of the American loyalists, and from the profits arising from the extraordinary expenses at one million and lottery. He would not, however, pledge a half. This sum he proposed to raise by himself for the sufficiency of all these granting exchequer bills to its amount, sources of supply: the experience of on a vote of credit; though, at the same what had happened during the first years time, as he did not wish to increase the of the war before the last, during which circulation of these bills, he intended to period the expenditure had always gone discharge those which were already issued, beyond the provisions made for it, would to the amount of one million and a half. be a sufficient reason to deter him from so-Mr. Pitt next proceeded to state the doing.. In order, therefore, fairly to ways and means by which these expenses meet this difficulty, he had estimated these were to be defrayed :



£.2,000,000 Malt

750,000 Surplus of consolidated fund, on 5th January 1793,

435,696 Surplus of consolidated fund on 5th April 1794, viz. Expected surplus on 5th April 1793......

Expected surplus of the four quarters to 5th April 1794,

estimated on the four years average, after deducting
220,0001. for duties, to be appropriated to pay the
interest of money to be borrowed..

Imprest monies to be repaid.....

250,000 Money to be paid by East India company


3,209,000 Money from the commissioners for the national debt, including the annual contribution of 200,0001....

1,650,000 Continuation of temporary taxes...



With repect to the surplus on the reve- and chimerical. He meant the surplus nue of last year, though he had not cal. arising from the revenue of the East India culated that it would arise till April 1793, company. Though at the time at which yet he had the satisfaction of informing the right hon. secretary (Mr. Dundas) had the committee it had arisen so early as the made the remarks, neither he nor any 5th of January last. He had last year stated other of his majesty's ministers could forethe produce of the consolidated fund con- see the war with Tippoo Saib, nor that in șiderably within its value, and he was re- which we were at present involved, yet it solved to use the same caution upon the must be a ground of congratulation both present occasion. However sanguine his to themselves and their country, that this expectations might be, yet as it was ab- prediction had been so amply verified. surd to form any calculation on the chances His right hon. friend had given in his of war, he thought it most proper to make statement of the revenue of India in a a calculation on the average produce of manner which tended to provoke inquiry; the four last years, deducting from the and as no comment had been made on amount of such product the sums arising this statement, the committee must con. from taxes which have been since re- clude it was open to no imputation. The pealed, and the arrears which may be due same candour and openness had been of those which still remain. It was like- adopted in bringing this matter before wise his design to continue the temporary the public at large ; and its silence would taxes which had been voted on account lead to a similar conclusion. Though no of the Spanish armament. They had been regulations for the government of India, or attended with no particular inconvenience the commerce of Great Britain with that to the country, and would consequently country, were at present before the House, be submitted to with less reluctance than yet it could hardly be imagined that any any fresh imposts. There was one article would be adopted which could be producin the account, which he imagined would tive of mischief to the nation, or diminish hardly escape without any animadversion the advantages resulting to us from our

an article wbich, when his right hon. Oriental possessions. friend had mentioned as a possible source The remainder of the sum which was of supply, had been ridiculed as visionary required, he proposed to raise by way of [VOL. XXX. ]


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