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bat the necessity of submitting their trust to this inspection. In like manner, the inspectors of prisons have, by their admirable reports, exposed the evil and advanced the good in the system of our jails—not by depriving countymagistrates of their authority, but by affording them aid and advice, which have been rejected by none but the ignorant magistrates of the city of London, who still disgrace the metropolis and the kingdom by prisons which bear witness to the abuse of their powers of self-government. But if it be objected, that these instances are borrowed from the history of modern innovation, we have another case in store, to which that remark will not apply. The Crown, when it issues its congé d'élire to the chapter of an episcopal see, recommends, or, in other words, commands that body to name A. B. to the episcopal throne. The Crown, acting as inspector of the chapter, procures the nomination of an inspector of the whole diocese, to whose care the conduct of the gravest spiritual matters is entrusted. We do not contend for powers so extensive as these; but can it be argued in the teeth of these precedents, that the Crown, which can visit a college or name at pleasure an inspector (étrio Kotos) of the Church itself, cannot constitutionally attach the condition of inspection to schools now built with the public money voted to the Crown for that purpose ?

But if there be erroneous opinions afloat on the origin and nature of inspection, those which are entertained by the National Society as to its object are not less unfounded and still more prejudicial. In Mr. Sinclair's letter to Dr. Kay, the following objections are urged :

“With respect to the object of such inspection, they desire to remark, that if secular instruction to the exclusion of religious be made the subject of investigation by a person acting under royal authority, and of official reports made by him to the legislature, the former will undoubtedly be encouraged to the disparagement of the latter. The master will almost unavoidably direct his chief attention to that department in which his scholars by a display of their proficiency will bring him credit with the government, and will neglect the other, which the government passes over without notice. He will be more anxious to see his pupils exhibit their attainments in geography, arithmetic, or history, than to instil into their minds, and impress upon their hearts, that less showy but more valuable

secondary and subservient; and by which alone they can be trained to moral duty here, or prepared for happiness hereafter. The same pernicious prejudice will be apt to arise in the minds of parents, and still more of children, who will naturally undervalue lessons to which no regard is paid on the day of examination."-Correspondence of the Committee of Council and the National Society.

In this and all the other communications of the National Society on the subject, inspection is treated as only another term for a periodical examination of the children, to determine their proficiency in certain branches of learning. Examinations of this kind may be of use as far as they furnish a means of appreciating the character of the management and the master. But it is not as a mere class-examiner that the inspector will be most useful. His influence

His influence upon the children must necessarily be extremely slight and transient. The presence of a stranger in authority may embarrass them; and the preparation for set-examinations is rather to be deprecated than recommended. The business of an inspector is far less with the scholars than with the master-far less, again, with the master than with those whom the master serves :—the clergyman of the parish, who is the appropriate visitor of the school, or the committee, in whom the administrative function is vested. Unless he secure the co-operation of those agents, whose duty and position give them a paramount claim to the whole direct management of the school, the mission of the inspector is vain. So far, then, from interdicting the clergy from the superintendence of schools, so far from shutting the door of a parish-school in the face of the parish-priest (we believe that even the Duke of Wellington condescended to use this gratuitous fiction), the inspector would avail himself of the only proper or permanent means of improving a school, by the instrumentality of those who founded it and who manage it, leaving, of course, to them a veto on his suggestions, subject to no restraint but that of example, public opinion, argument and common sense. Probably the Government do not intend to enforce a harsher mode of inspection than what is defined in the following sentence from the Report of the Diocesan Board of Exeter :

Your Committee, in mentioning inspection among the proposed terms

but the necessity of submitting their trust to this inspection. In like manner, the inspectors of prisons have, by their admirable reports, exposed the evil and advanced the good in the system of our jails—not by depriving countymagistrates of their authority, but by affording them aid and advice, which have been rejected by none but the ignorant magistrates of the city of London, who still disgrace the metropolis and the kingdom by prisons which bear witness to the abuse of their powers of self-government. But if it be objected, that these instances are borrowed from the history of modern innovation, we have another case in store, to which that remark will not apply. The Crown, when it issues its congé d'élire to the chapter of an episcopal see, recommends, or, in other words, commands that body to name A. B. to the episcopal throne. The Crown, acting as inspector of the chapter, procures the nomination of an inspector of the whole diocese, to whose care the conduct of the gravest spiritual matters is entrusted. Wc do not contend for powers so extensive as these; but can it be argued in the teeth of these precedents, that the Crown, which can visit a college or name at pleasure an inspector (étrio KOTTOS) of the Church itself, cannot constitutionally attach the condition of inspection to schools now built with the public money voted to the Crown for that purpose ?

But if there be erroneous opinions afloat on the origin and nature of inspection, those which are entertained by the National Society as to its object are not less unfounded and still more prejudicial. In Mr. Sinclair's letter to Dr. Kay, the following objections are urged :

“With respect to the object of such inspection, they desire to remark, that if secular instruction to the exclusion of religious be made the subject of investigation by a person acting under royal authority, and of official reports made by him to the legislature, the former will undoubtedly be encouraged to the disparagement of the latter. The master will almost unavoidably direct his chief attention to that department in which bis scholars by a display of their proficiency will bring him credit with the government, and will neglect the other, which the government passes over without notice. He will be more anxious to see his pupils exhibit their attainments in geography, arithmetic, or history, than to instil into their minds, and impress upon their hearts, that less showy but more valuable

secondary and subservient; and by which alone they can be trained to moral duty here, or prepared for happiness hereafter. The same pernicious prejudice will be apt to arise in the minds of parents, and still more of children, who will naturally undervalue lessons to which no regard is paid on the day of examination.”—Correspondence of the Committee of Council and the National Society.

In this and all the other communications of the National Society on the subject, inspection is treated as only another term for a periodical examination of the children, to determine their proficiency in certain branches of learning. Examinations of this kind may be of use as far as they furnish a means of appreciating the character of the management and the master. But it is not as a mere class-examiner that the inspector will be most useful. His influence upon the children must necessarily be extremely slight and transient. The presence of a stranger in authority may embarrass them; and the preparation for set-examinations is rather to be deprecated than recommended. The business of an inspector is far less with the scholars than with the master—far less, again, with the master than with those whom the master serves :- -the clergyman of the parish, who is the appropriate visitor of the school, or the committee, in whom the administrative function is vested. Unless he secure the co-operation of those agents, whose duty and position give them a paramount claim to the whole direct management of the school, the mission of the inspector is vain. So far, then, from interdicting the clergy from the superintendence of schools, so far from shutting the door of a parish-school in the face of the parish-priest (we believe that even the Duke of Wellington condescended to use this gratuitous fiction), the inspector would avail himself of the only proper or permanent means of improving a school, by the instrumentality of those who founded it and who manage it, leaving, of course, to them a veto on his suggestions, subject to no restraint but that of example, public opinion, argument and common sense. Probably the Government do not intend to enforce a harsher mode of inspection than what is defined in the following sentence from the Report of the Diocesan Board of Exeter :

Your Committee, in mentioning inspection among the proposed terms template anything of an inquisitorial or invidious interference with the local managers of any school-union; but they entertain a strong conviction, that a personal inspection, by qualified and authorised examiners, when carried on with the concurrence of the clergymen and managers (without which it should never be attempted), will tend at once to raise the character and quicken the zeal of the master, to stimulate the energies of the boys, and by these means to improve the general quality of parochial education."

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In fact, by the course adopted by the Committee of Council, the concurrence of the clergymen and managers has become an essential part of the contract between the State and those persons by whom the school is founded, since the correspondence between those individuals and the Council-office is now direct.

The Government entrust a portion of the parliamentary grant to the incumbent of a parish for the erection and support of a national school; the Government do not wish or attempt to found a rival establishment in the parish, but they demand that the clergy should, by their superintendence and co-operation, discharge their part of the contract to the full. This is well put in Dr. Kay’s reply to the passage in the letter of the National Society above-quoted :

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“The Lords of the Committee of Council have too strong a trust in the clergy of the Established Church who superintend the schools, and too much reliance on the sound principles of the schoolmasters selected with their concurrence, to believe that religious instruction will be neglected in order to produce an apparent advance in branches of secular learning. Their lordships cannot, therefore, admit in any way the justice of an apprehension which is founded on the supposed neglect of the clergy, and the implied delinquency of the schoolmasters in connexion with the National Society.

My Lords observe that the Committee of the National Society urge that the claim to the inspection of the schools aided by public grants is grounded on a small contribution to assist in the first erection of the buildings,' and that the 'claims' of the public ‘to inspection appear to be exhausted when it is ascertained that the contribution has been fairly expended, that the tenure of the site is good, and the edifice suitable and substantial.' My Lords request you to reflect that such a conclusion rests on the untenable assumption that the interest of the public in the increase of the number of schools extends only to the nature of the site and the quality of the building erected thereon; and that Parliament and the public have no interest in obtaining by inquiry information so necessary, with a view to the future application or extension of grants, as the certainty

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