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Cartel for the Exchange of Prisoners of War between Great Britain

and France. W E the undersigned commissioners for the transport service, V and for the care and custody of prisoners of war, on the part and in the name of his Britannic Majesty; and M. Joseph Niou, commissary for prisoners of war, on the part and in the name of the French government; being duly authorized to take proper measures for carrying into execution an exchange of prisoners, have agreed upon the following articles :

I. An exchange of prisoners of war Tall immediately take place between the two countries, man for man, and rank for rank ; and the French government shall begin, by sending over to England, in a French cartel vessel, a number of British prifoners, with the proportion of five officers to one hundred men, upon the arrival of whom in England the British government will cause an equal number, of the same ranks, of French prifoners, to be sent, in an English cartel vessel, to France. The British government shall then cause to be sent to France, in an English cartel vessel, a number of French prisoners, with the same proportion of officers as above mentioned, for whom the French government shall return, by a French cartel vessel, the same number and ranks of British prisoners. The exchange Shall be continued according to the same alternate plan, until one or the other of the two governments shall think proper to put a stop thereto; and, in that case, the party so discontinuing is to return, without delay, whatever number of prisoners may appear to be against it on the balance of the exchanges that may to that time have taken place in consequence of this cartel.

II. In order to prevent any difficulties that might otherwise arise from the diversity of ranks of officers in the service of the two countries, it is hereby agreed, that the table hereto annexed, of corresponding ranks in the English and French services, shall uniformly be attended to by both parties, and that officers on either side, of ranks of which there shall be no corresponding officer or officers in possession of the other power, shall be exchanged for their equivalent, according to the scale of value in men specified in the faid table.

III. All the prisoners on both sides to be exchanged by this cartel shall be selected, according to their ranks, by the respective agents of the countries to which they belong, residing at Paris or in London, without any interference whatever, on the part of the government in whore possession they may be.

IV. It being stipulated, that the British prisoners shall be sent to England in French veílels, and the French prisoners conveyed to France in British vessels, it is hereby agreed, that the whole expense attending such vessels shall be defrayed by the respective


IV. Iebein whose portentior ference whatengresiding at en

countries by which they inay be employed; and that the prisoners, during their passage, thall be furnished with the following daily allowances-viz. British Prisoners. I French Prisoners. 1b.

lb. Bread

1 Bread Beef

il Beef Beer 2 quarts, or wine Beer 2 quarts.

i quart. A table of which allowances is to be affixed to the mast of each Cartel vessel.

V. All prisoners on both sides, not being officers, who, from wounds, age, or infirmities, are rendered incapable of further service, and also all boys under twelve years of age, shall be forth with returned to their respective countries, without regard to their numbers or equality of exchange ; but the selection of persons of the descriptions mentioned in this article, is to be left entirely to the agents and surgeons of the government of the country in which they are detained.

VI. All surgeons, surgeons mates, pursers (or aides-commiffaires), pursers' stewards (or commis aux vivres), secretaries, chaplains, and schoolmasters, being the classes comprehended under the denomination of non-combattants, and also passengers not of the sea or land service, in whatever ships taken, shall not be considered as prisoners, but shall be immediately set at liberty, to return to their respective countries, without being placed to the account of exchange.

VII. All officers bearing authentic commissions in the land service, and those belonging to the sea service of the following ranks-viz. Admirals




Mates (or pilots)

Midshipmen (or aspirants); and also masters and mates, or second captains of merchant vessels exceeding the burden of eighty tons, together with the captain, and in the proportion of three other officers to each hundred men, of privateers of fourteen carriage guns and upwards, shall either be permitted to return to their respective countries on parole, not to serve until regularly exchanged; or Thall have the usual indulgence of parole granted to them in the country in which they are detained. And it is agreed, that whatever officers may, by virtue of this article, return to their respective countries, shall be suffered to depart from their present places of confinement to Dover, or Gravelines, as soon as conveniently may be after the signing of the present cartel; and X x 2


also, that all officers residing on parole in their own countries, shall signify to the agent of the country to which they are prisonèrs their respective places of residence, which they are on no account to change, without first intimating their intention to the said agent; and they are, moreover, at the expiration of every two months, to transmit to the said agent a certificate of the particular places where they may reside, signed by the magistrates or municipal officers of such places.

VIII. The settlement of the balance now existing on the account of such exchanges of prisoners of war of both countries, as have taken place from the commencement of hoftilities to the day of the date hereof, shall be deferred until the termination of the present war; but it is clearly understood, that all officers, on both sides, who have been released and permitted to return to their respective countries on parole, since the commencement of the war, and who have not hithertó been regularly exchanged, are not to serve in any capacity, either civil or military, until they shall have been duly exchanged for prisoners of equal ranks, according to their original engagements.

Done at the Transport Office, London, the 13th day of
September 1798.



Table of the corresponding Ranks in the English and French Scr.

vice, with their Jalue in Men.


Vice-admira! commanding in Admiral commanding in

chief, having the temporary chief rank of admiral. .

Admiral carrying his flag at Vice-admiral.

the main : Vice-admiral 40 Rear-admiral.

Chief of a squadron.

Poft captain of three years

standing, whose rank anCaptain of a thip of the line. swers to that of colonel.

Ditto, having rank of

lieutenant-colonel - 15 Malters and commanders, or

captains not post, having Captain of a frigate.

rank of major, amongst
whom are included captains
of fireships, who are mal-
ters and commanders - 8

Licutenant French.

English. . MEN. Lieutenant of a ship of the line. Lieutenant without distinc


Lieutenant, when all the

French shall be exchanged, Ensign of a ship of the line.

and in default of English

lieutenants, midshipmen 4 Midshipman, master of a mer- Midshipman, master of a

chant vessel, and captain of a merchant vessel, and cap. privateer.

tain of a privateer - 3 Lieutenant of a merchant vel

sel or privateer, and all petty Mates, and all petty officers 2

officers. Seamen, volunteers, and others, Seamen, volunteers, and being considered as common others, being considered seamen.

as common seamen RANKS IN THE LAND SERVICE. French.

English. MEN. General of division, command. Captain-general, or field. ing in chief.

General of division.

General of brigade.

Inferior to the preceding--su-
perior to the following.

Chief of brigade.

Chief of battalion or squadron.



Sous Lieutenant.

Non-commissioned officers, Non-commissioned . officers,

down to the rank of corpo. down to the rank of cor-
ral, inclusive.

poral, inclusive

Rupert George, John SCHANK,


PROCLAMATION. At the Court at St. James's, the 29th of August 1798, present the

King's most excellent Majesty in Council. W HEREAS, by the unjust aggression of the persons exer

ciling the powers of government in France, now in hoftility with his Majesty, many parts of Italy have been forcibly taken poffeffion of, and the ancient governments thereof subFerted, and new governments erected, under the influence of Majesty, mane ancient goverder the influence heir

their councils, for the purpose of aiding more effe&ually their designs against the common interests of Europe, and especially

for the prosecution of their hostile inientions against the com-merce, navigation, and property of his Majesty's faithful subjects : and whereas divers acts, injurious to the just rights of his Majesty and to the interests of these kingdoms, have in consequence been committed ; his Majesty is pleased to declare (by and with the advice of his Privy Council) that such parts of the coasts of the Mediterranean as are occupied by the arms of the said persons exercising the powers of government in France, or are subject to the government of persons acting notoriously under their influence and direction, and especially the coasts and ports of Genoa, and those of the territory of the Pope, shall be considered as in a state of hostility with his Majesty ; and all his Majesty's subjects and others are required to treat and consider the inhabitants and subjects thereof as his Majesty's enemies.

aceinment in erams of the candidates of the



Message to the Council of Five Hundred on the 28th Fruclider

w (September 14). THE Executive Directory is desirous to inform you that the

French troops have entered Egypt. The French nation, the Ottoman Porte itself, and the oppressed people of that fine but unfortunate country, are at last avenged.

This memorable event had been long foreseen by a small number of men to whom glorious and useful ideas are familiar ; but it was too much the custom to rank it among chimerical projects. It was reserved for the French republic to realize this new prodigy.

The causes which prepared and insured its success are now to be retraced.

For nearly forty years the Beys with their Mamelucks, those domincering llaves of Egypt, practised the moit shameful vexations on the French settled in those countries, on the faith of our treaties with the Porte. From the period of the domination of Ali Bey, about 1960, we may particularly date the excess of those outrages. That audacious usurper, after having thrown off the yoke of the Grand Seignior, by ignominiously expelling his Pacha, refusing to pay tribute, and ai rogating the right of making money of his own coin, infulted our consuls, menaced our droge mans with the most infamous punishments, and practised nurrerous impofitions on our merchants. His fucceffors, Krahil Bey, and Mohamed Bey, partly deserve similar reproaches; but their vexations were more moderate, Mourad Bey, and Ibraham Bey',


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