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the approach of famine. It câme, accompanied by despair, and followed by the most fearful of deaths. For many days the Indians, consumed by hunger, but still meek and suppliant, were feen wandering like plaintive ghosts around those fortreffes where their tyrants revelled in abundance. A vast silence soon reigned throughout: and the public ways and places were covered with dead bodies, and the rivers rolled thein by thousands to the astonished seas! Three millions of men perished! and their wretched remains, abandoned without interment, fo corrupted the atmosphere, as to create a pestilence, which had nearly destroyed this unfortunate nation!

On recollecting these facts, distinctly and eloquently stated by. the historian of the two Indies (Raynal), we may resent, but we can never be surprised at any conduct of the English government. It is the exclusive talk of that government to deceive, to corrupt, to low divisions, and to employ for their profit all the violent and most hateful passions of the human heart. It is their talk to combat our revolution, after having contributed to excite it; to avenge the fall of the throne which they had previously weakened. They it is who give an asylum to the emigrants, and then cover them with humiliations who pretend to succour these traitors, and then consign them to death. They landed them at Quiberon, and there not only abandoned them to the republican bayonets, but actually fired with grape-shot on those who fought to save themselves by returning to the vessels which they falsely deemed hospitable! It belonged to that government, in fine, at that epoch, fo glorious for Hoche and his brave companions in arms, to expofe as privates the officers of the ancient royal marine, and, on their fall, to say, with a sinile but ill disguised,-“ There the best mariners of France have perished !”

You must remember, citizens representatives, the misfora tunes which marked the first year of the republican æra- Lyons in a state of insurrection - Marseilles agitated–Toulon surrendered_our magazines destroyed, and our fhips either burned or carried off by a perfidious eneiny. A civil war was then kindled in our territory; and the rebels were armed and furnished with provisions by England. The infamous Puisfaye, whom even, emigrants must hate and cowards despise-this confidential agent of Pitt was then organizing assaslination in the weftern dcpartments.

What thall I lay of the sufferings of your colonies, inflicted and paid for by the English? Am I now to speak to you of their

ogs, formed into regiments, breasted with spikes, and, after having been starved for the purpose, let loose among the ranks of our soldiers ? . . · It may seem impossible to add to this long catalogue of their atrocities; but the conduct of this government to their republican


prisoners adds a darker shade to the picture, and must excite the indignation of every civilized country.

From the commencement of the war, our prisoners were infulted. In despite of those proper regulations agreed to by all dations, they placed indiscriminately in the same prison officers and privates--a circumstance productive of unpleasant consequences, and injurious to discipline. When objections were made to this abuse, the agents of the court replied with a Sardonic smile, “ You are republicans, you wish for equality, and you must therefore be treated equally.” They were fearful, however, of reprisals, and soon after accepted the parole of our officers.

Their hatred, however, still manifests itself with respect to our privateers; and certainly not without reason ; for if the national marine has hitherto been in a state of nullity, the auxiliary marine of our cruisers has inflicted some fatal blows on the British commerce. That government has, in consequence, made a diftinction between the officers commanding in national vessels and those of privateers. The latter have still the, melancholy privilege of being most ill treated, and are confined in the same dungeons with their sailors.

We might make a volume of the acts of cruelty which have been inflicted on our fellow-citizens, in the unhealthy prisons in which they are crowded. Some are confined in old ships, others in ill-constructed huts, where they are exposed to damp and cold : even straw is refused to them, and they are compelled to lie in mire and ordure. They are called by the inost insulting appellations, and, on their appearance before a licentious populace, dirt is flung in their faces. They are beaten, and even thot, on the {mallest pretext.

These facts are proved; they are stated in a great number of papers referred to your committee. Judge of them by that I am about to read, and which is not of the most afflicting tenor. There are some of them, the reading of which you could not posibly endure. · [The reporter then proceeded to read a long letter from the owners of privateers, captains and officers, at Nantz, containing a detail of those enormities to which in his speech he had alluded.

Amongst other instances, this letter mentioned, that an English foldier, for his amusement, had fired at a French prisover, and fhot him dead: an English commissary was sent for, but instantly Tetired, after coolly saying, It is only a Frenchman !-again, that a female who had lain in, was sufered to remain for fortyeight hours, without being able to procure a glass of water! " Vergeance !" cries the reporter, “ vengeance against this cruel government!” The members immediately arose, waved their

hats, hats, and in concert with the galleries, repeated the cry of .“ Vengeance !"]

Riou then moved the following resolutions :

That the Executive Directory shall instantly take the necessary measures, to insure the provisionment, maintenance, and consolativn in their illness, of the French citizens, now prisoners in England.

That they are authorized, for this purpose, to take the necessary sums from the most dispofable part of those funds which are assigned to unforeseen expenses; and, if this resource thould not be sufficient, to make it up from the amount of the patriotic donations.

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The Batavian Constituent Assembly to the Batavian People:

Fellow-citizens, THE day has arrived, when, for the second time, your liberty

was to be defended, when the independence of this republic was to be protected againtt the violent attacks of sedition, when, at length, the explosion of a plan as baleful as artfully convived, was to be prevented by the vigorous measures employed by your faithful representatives for the safety of the country ; measures, without which, you would groan under heavier chains than you had ever carried; measures commanded by imperivus necessity; measures which we have been compelled to adopt by the criminal conduct of those men, who, though enemies to the fundamental principles of our last revolution, have constantly coinbined to hold in their hands the reins of government It was time to fill up this abyss, dug between the conltituted government, and the 1hapelets federalism of some people united in appearance, but each regarding only his own particular interest. Our country has often felt the baleful effects of such an order of things: it is owing to it, that you never know your own proper strength: it is to it ihat England is indebted for the means of forming among you internal divisions: it is it that has chained down, nay, that has even extinguished a courage otherwise so intrepid, and that patriotic spirit so frequently manifested. It is owing to it, in fine, that each page of our annals is filled with baleful events; and it is this which would bring us back insensibly to the detestable government of the Stadtholder, and which would make us to regret those chains which we have broken, with the atlistance of our faithful allies, and at the price of the greatest sacrifices. It was time to remove all obstacles, and to organize every thing necessary for the attainment of a fixed order of things. It was time to put an end to that state of confusion and uncertainty, which for three years has slopt up the sources of our happiness, and conducted us


to the brink of the precipice which we have just this moment escaped. It was tine to direct our attention to a danger, which the patience and indulgence of the French people so long endured, whose attachment is not cooled, notwithstanding the intrigues emploved by a wicked faclion to alienate them from us. It was time to render illusive all the attacks upon your liberty, attacks which were every day renewed. It was, time to render useless the plans of those who, with a view of self-aggrandizeinent, have endeavoured to support the federal regime, and to render the revolution, so salutary in its principles, not only illusory for you, but even pernicious in its effects. It was time that the oath, which was made for the safety of the country-an oath, which many pronounced with a false heart-an oath lately renewed in your presence, should be realized by your true friends. For those, then, who have no object but the general good, and to point out '' to the country the means of repairing the evils which cunning and treason have caused; for those, then, there is no other line of conduct to adopt, but to deprive those wicked beings of the means of injuring you again. The plan of establishing the reign of some patrician families upon the ruins of the government of the , Stadtholder, by attempting to oppress the real friends of their country, of extinguishing their courage, and depriving them of ftrength to oppose tyranny; the plan of subjecting you to the infupportable yoke of an elective aristocracy, under the name of a Popular government by representation, and making you embrace a thameful flavery, by giving you nothing but the shadow of. liberty—this wicked plan, so clearly expressed in the form of the conftitution which you have just rejected, was never lost sight of; on the contrary, it became more and more dear to all its adherents; and the only difference between it and the attempts hitherto made for the same purpose, is an increase of artifice and violence. It was reserved for the French republicans to second the projects of true republicans, to extricate you a second time from the gulf into which they would have plunged you. We had no alternative between the last political crisis and the prospect of sceing liberty for ever enchained ; and what patriot could hefitate a moment in his choice? Yes, Batavians, we are seen in the cruel neceflity of putting in a state of arrest several members of your representative assembly, and of removing others from the government, not with a view to injure them, or prosecute them for their conduct, for we are too well convinced of the banctul Consequences of a reign of terror ; but to prevent them from undermining the foundations of our last political revolution, and, by deltroying all obitacles, to direct your attention to a regular order of itings, for the purpose of destroying despotisın, and thutting out all access to anarchy; a measure which will cement the safety of the Batavian republic, and render it as useful to jis allies, as


formidable to its enemies. Do we offer you an exaggerated pi&ure of the state of things? Have we recourse to calumny to inspire you with hatred towards honest men? Or, do we render homage io truth? The attacks upon civil liberty, are they not manifest? Are not the protection and favour-shown to the House of Orange well known? Was it not enough to be a patriot, to be despised and rejected ? Have they neglected any means of destroying public spirit? And has not the organization of the troops of the land been a long time the source of complaints? Have they not endeavoured in your representative assemblies to defend the committee of union? Have not several of your governors shamefully combated the lenity of the republic?—the sole means of rendering us happy at home, and powerful abroad. Have they not retarded by every possible means the formation of the national guard, that bulwark of liberty, as formidable to despots as falutary to the happiness of the people?

Is not commerce with our natural enemy tolerated? What do we say? Is it not protected, in defpite of the laws? Is it not Suffered, in various places, to employ the armed force, to stile the voice of the citizens, and to maintain with vigour an insolent despotism? Have they not employed the treasures of the nation, those treasures amasled at the price of your sweat and your blood, to corrupt every thing, to make you accept, at the point of the bayonet, a constitution which you have rejected with indignation? Have they not, in every respect, given vile egotists an assurance of impunity? Have they not permitted a few individuals to enrich themselves with the fruits of your labours, which you emptied in coffers no fooner filled than exhausted? Are not these nourished by the blood and tears of the orphan and the widow ! Have they not rashly, without any necessity, and even against the intention of the French government, exposed the national navy, the weak remains of our former grandeur, to destruction ? Have we not recenly remarked the detestable efforts put in practice, to deprive us of the means of re-eilablishing our maritime force ? and if the government had not been changed, would not the plan have effectually succeeded? Has not the public credit been shaken by ineafures as impolitic as perfidious? Have we not seen the different provinces openly oppose the will of the national representatives? and are not the latter torn to pieces by the spirit of party? Are they not rendered contemptible by the want of energy and have they not, by half measures, broken the ties of administration? Ah! while all this passes under your eyes, and the loss of The republic becomes inevitable by the continuation of these horrors, the national spirit will never awake from its lethargic sleep. Will you not all arm to combat the enemies of your happiness, and to cruth them, if they obftinately persist in their designs? The descendants of those heroes, who, without any other means than


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