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VII. In the seventh place, I will direct your attention to a passage which plainly threatens punishment to the unfaithful minister, and promises a reward to him who adheres to the divine master with fidelity. These are the words which Paul addressed to his son Timothy. “ It is a faithful saying; for if we be dead with him, we shall also live with him; if we suffer, we shall also reign with him; if we deny him, he also will deny us; if we believe not, yet he abideth faithful; he cannot deny himself.” The following paraphrase happily expresses the meaning of the apostle. “The profession and especially the preaching of the pure uncorrupted doctrine of Christ, exposes us to many temporary inconveniences and sufferings; but it does not leave us without an adequate recompense.

It is indeed, my friend, a most certain, a most solemn, and a most glorious truth, that whatever sacrifices we may be called to make in the cause of truth and virtue, nay, if we even suffer death itself for the sake of Christ and his gospel, we shall be acting a safe, a wise, and an honorable part. He died for us, and rose again; if we die with him and for him, we, like him shall rise to a glorious and immortal life. If we suffer persecution for his sake, we shall hereafter share with him in his throne, and participate in his everlasting triumph. To these animating considerations there is also an alarming counterpart, which may justly awaken our utmost solicitude. If we who make a profession of christianity, and who are placed in eminent stations in the church, who know the truth and the infinite importance of the doctrine we are commissioned to teach, if we,


from indolence or timidity, or from any other unworthy motive, should be induced to desert our post, and abandon our profession, our case is wretched beyond expression. He has himself declared that he will another day disown those who now disown and forsake him; and in vain may we flatter ourselves that we shall escape his just animadversion. We may violate our engagements, but he will never swerve from his declarations, either of reward or punishment. He will never contradict himself. And his veracity, his wisdom, and even his benevolence are pledged to the performance of his threatenings, equally with the accomplishment of his promises.” I should not suppose any one would even attempt to reconcile a passage which so clearly teaches future retribution with your system. 2 Tim. 2. 11, 12, 13.

VIII. In the eighth place, I will notice that class of passages which use the word perish for future punishment, and saved for future happiness. Take the following as a sample of the whole. “For we are unto God a sweet savor of Christ, in them that are saved, and in them that perish; to one we are the savor of death unto death, and to the other the savor of life unto life.” The word perish is used for some kind of misery; I am not concerned to show its nature; it is the consequence or punishment of rejecting the gospel. To be saved is to be made good, and thus prepared both for present and future happiness. That the punishment in this passage extends beyond this life I have no doubt. The whole sentence may be illustrated by the following paraphrase. “Our labors as ministers of Christ are attended with various

Some of our hearers receive our doctrine, and gladly accept the blessings and privileges of the gospel; others despise and reject our important message, and choose rather to remain and perish in ignorance, idolatry and vice, than to embrace the glad tidings of salvation; but whatever be the effect of our doctrine upon our hearers, our fidelity and zeal in all cases are equally exerted, and equally acceptable to God, in whose estimation they are as the fragrant incense of a costly sacrifice. To some, the doctrine of the gospel is a fatal venom; it excites contempt and hatred, malice and rage; they oppose it to the utmost; their guilt and misery are aggravated; and their ruin is sealed; so that the gospel, which should have been their salvation becomes their bane. Upon others the effect is widely different. The doctrine of the gospel, approved by the understanding and cherished in the heart, becomes a reviving, invigorating, exhilarating principle, which dispels their darkness, which soothes their sorrows, which prepares them for, and will in due time advance them to a happy and immortal state of being.” Now suppose Paul had believed your doctrine, how different must have been his declarations. He would have said something like the following. "Our preaching produces different effects upon our hearers. Some believe and obey the gospel; they are made wiser and better and happier; at the same time they expose themselves to serious inconveniences, and severe trials, and cruel persecutions. Some of them remain unconverted; they live in their wretched heathen condition; they lose all the pleasures of religion; they indeed escape all the revilings, and indignities, and sufferings, and cruelties to which their believing brethren are exposed. When they die however all will be on an equality; and as the longest life is but short, no great can be gained by embracing the gospel.” This however does not sound like any of the apostolic instructions which I have read. And I must conclude that the apostle to the gentiles taught future rewards and punishments. 2 Cor. 2. 15, 16.


IX. In the ninth place, I will notice some of the parables in which our Savior plainly taught the doctrine of future retribution. As a specimen of the whole of this description, take the one which relates to the rich man and Lazarus. These are the words of our Savior. 6. There was a certain rich man which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day. And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus which was laid at his gate, full of sores, and desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table; moreover the dogs came and licked his sores. And it came to pass that the beggar died and was carried by angels into Abraham's bosom; the rich man also died and was buried; and in hades he lifted up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off and Lazarus in his bosom. And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue, for I am tormented in this flame. But Abraham said, son, remember that thou in thy life time receivedst thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things; but now he is comforted and thou art tormented. And besides all this, between us and you

there is a great gulph fixed; so that they who would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us that would come from thence. Then he said, I


thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father's house; for I have five brethren; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment. Abraham saith unto him, they have Moses and the prophets, let them hear them. And he said, nay, father Abraham, but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent. And he said unto him, if they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.” Such is the parable as recorded by Luke 16. 19—31.

Now one simple question naturally arises. Did our Savior mean to confirm the belief of his hearers in rewards and punishments after death? You believe he had no such design. I think he intended to teach the

doctrine of future retribution. I will now endeavor to prove the correctness of my opinion. Before I proceed to my direct evidence I will mention four rules' which all sound critics apply to the interpretation of our Savior's parables.

In the first place, you will remember that every parable is designed to inculcate some one essential truth, or to impress upon the minds of the hearers some one important duty. You will readily recall to mind several illustrations of this observation. The parable of the good Samaritan was designed to inculcate universal benevolence. The parable of the prodigal son was intended to teach the paternal character of our Father in heaven. The parable of the marriage feast was related to impress the importance of personal holiness. The parable of the ten virgins shows the necessity of watchfulness.

In the second place, you will remember that the attendant circumstances in a parable do not all admit of an allegorical exposition. Many of them are introduced by way of imagery. They render the story more interesting and striking. Illustrations of these remarks may be drawn from almost any of the number. The prodigal son eating husks, the dogs licking the sores, the pouring of oil and wine upon the wounds of the halfmurdered traveller, may be mentioned as examples.

In the third place, you must determine the lesson of each parable mainly by what precedes and what follows, or by the particular occasion which gave rise to the narration. By turning to almost any of the number you will see the truth of this assertion verified. Why did he relate the parable of the pharisee and publican? Because there were certain present who trusted in themselves that they were righteous and despised others.

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