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1. Sketches of the history, ancient ed to illustrate the subjects embraced and modern, of Africa--of the pro. by the plan. Measures are taken to gress of geographical discovery there establish an extensive correspondence in-of its productions, commerce, and with persons of intelligence and vera. future prospects; and of the man city, in this country and in Europe, ners, government, and arts of the ne from whose communications considergro race,

able assistance is anticipated. 2. The history, character, and inci The editor being anxious so to condents of slavery among the ancients, duct his investigations, that such as with its decline and extinction among differ from him in opinion may not be the moderns.

repelled by any appearance of severi. 3. The African slave trade. Its his ty or rudeness, from a calm and patory, character, and extent-Efforts tient attention to the facts or argu. that have been used for its abolition

ments adduced, every thing of a vinIts present state ; with its effect on dictive character will be carefully exthe inhabitants of Africa.

cluded from his columns, 4. The nature and character of ne

It may be added that a rigid adhe. gro slavery in the islands and on the

rence to the order above exhibited in continent of America--The internal

the arrangement of his subjects, is not slave trade within the United States

intended, and that several of those -Laws and usages in relation to sla

topics will be brought into view in very, including those enacted for its

each of the successive numbers. In extinction or melioration.

the 12th number an index to the vo5. Principles of political economy, lume will be given. in relation to slave labour and consumption compared with free. 6. Biographical notices of negroes

CONDITIONS. who have been distinguished for their virtue or abilities.

The work will be published in Phi7. Plans for improving the condi

ladelphia, on the first of each month, tion of the slaves in the United States,

beginning with the Fourth month with an account of experiments, on

next, each number containing 32 this subject, made by the holders of pages printed in double columns. slaves.

The price two dollars per annum, 8. View of the situation, character, payable in advance. and future prospects of the free co

Such of the patrons of the work as loured population of the United

may choose to withdraw their subscripStates.

tions at the expiration of the year, In the collections which shall be will be expected to give notice to the made on these various topics, the

editor or his agent, two months preworks of the ablest writers among the

viously; those who omit forwarding ancients and moderns will be con

this notice will be considered as consulted; the narratives of travellers tinuing their subscriptions, and their carefully examined ; and such extracts

bills presented accordingly. made from the periodical works of the

ENOCH LEWIS. day, as shall appear properly calculat 12th mo. 23d, 1826.


tion. In governments, as well as in In calling the attention of his fellow families, strength depends upon union, citizens to the momentous and delicate and union on mutual confidence and subject of negro slavery, the writer of reciprocal condescensions. the subsequent essays, though avow This subject presents several quesedly opposed to the system, has no tions of vital importance which merit disposition to treat with severity any, a serious and patient investigation. whose opinions may differ from his First.—What is Negro Slavery? own, or whose practice may be at va Negro Slavery as existing in the riance with the principles which he United States and British West Indies, has been induced to espouse. His ob appears to be a creature sui generis ject is truth, and motive the cause of unknown to the ancients, and though humanity.

drawn from the least cultivated quarWhen truth, and not victory, is the ter of the globe, unknown even there, object of discussion, diversity of opi. except in a passing state. nion, or variety of practice, furnishes The most prominent feature in this no rational ground of jealousy or aver system, by which it is distinguished sion. With minds not blinded by from all its precursors, has been passion, the truth is often elicited by stamped by the hand of nature. The the collision of opposite sentiments. subjects of it bear in their


the There is probably no subject, either || insignia of their servile condition. theoretic or practical, which more This circumstance, though apparently imperiously demands the serious at trivial, and certainly no very conclutention of the people of these United | sive evidence of the moral rectitude States, than that of negro slavery,- of slavery, may, perhaps, be found, none that presents a stronger claim to upon examination, the principal cause the exercise of the clearest under of most of the other peculiarities by standings and finest feelings among us, which this system is marked. to avert the dangers, or to mitigate the The moral degradation which slaveevils which this system leads in its ry entails on its victims, has been protrain.

verbial since the days of Homer. Now The people of colour, held in ser the negroes are known in this counvitude within the United States, have try only as slaves or the descendants become an important part of our po of slaves. They are seen only in that pulation. Their numbers and physi- | low and degraded situation, in which cal force are rapidly increasing. hereditary slavery, immediate or re

If any sections of our country, are, mote, has placed them. Their characmore deeply than others, interested in ters are viewed only as moulded by this subject, those where negro slavery their servile state. But when slavery is tolerated are they. To them the is the general portion of persons of dangers, appalling as they are admit one complexion, and peculiar to them, ted to be, of an extensive slave popu the contempt and aversion incident to lation, directly and chiefly apply. this degrading condition, becomes as

Circumstanced as we are, it is time sociated with the complexion, and to repudiate the bickerings of party, hence a mere concomitant of slavery, and cultivate sentiments of concilia comes to be considered as a cause and


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we y tie wortive me the Erreng ire frases Pr s t celcz. TUSE to e approfit th us on are re panel i ne mis m Slimang artha

tiekte i te nguset. Tie

cars a meni musiave seen sa Womasrooration et

ne or a sizaron ne manthat made to trainn, s hr muset tat he save vium hey the fourth big te wees 'hat the ivm n he contierei sure 8 Paglich rtlen, slave, a he turtle als he teenen som et wa, sa mishet z'em De mezi o erre, must ne jeen roman, wrich e .ll anseo * neror. n duwee ni aineHong he too win i * Dent. Der TTS Era je syd erat, eriet, jax ong anez us suren t t must be seen ***

sararans vien comparei vn ne Among o 1 ong utrury, the endnen i cacris These arounHasz ** meally went vi. stances, they are act asun je vieT', ** reing miy mout je *683 of er reitt, vouit, leist fun boning On ne slave sten or prevent that ineficie con*** **om fistirgustest harm his tempt rich i serie ecoToG, ISSOMarutan yg my bagong at anal arsc ciated wa mtaleetaal mercrty, ne****, in here, nås the chances ver fins a engender in the mind of a **** MAN searly mai, ac death or harzt sesercr. Hence srpaty prima e k*, the vagisteris for the scierings of the slave would ***** ** r*** h three pic be more easily avikesed in the mind #ich #cehr, which tuished a of the master. We secrängty and

will be laut munity, the 2 among the ancients, riricus mocnica. abant, \ 700 bent, waa burrakli re tiors of the servile size, wzich tended

morn thy the nation of a slave. to sten considerably, the rigues of Hanet, **try have trave appeared as that hopeless codion. In the MoThe peolt (A thve, Bontaneofwa, and saic institutions, we find numerous ** ** the postafrar ka A the inhabi. provisions, obviously designed to

4*, ¢h my particular part of the smooth the rugged features of a sys. W*** 'I be calum of slavery would, ter, which the people of that day the often be tuwaly confined w those were not sufficiently enlightened to in winul sarvitne, and not extended abolish. hry mary and waruntea to those that were Among the most prominent of these free, in regard intellectual attain. was the following: metom, the superusrity was frequently “ Thou shalt not deliver unto his on the side of the slave, There is no master the servant which is escaped Team too surpme that the Israelites, from his master unto thee: he shall st the time of the Mbylonish captivi. || dwell with thee, even among you in 1y, were less enlightened than their that place which he shall choose, in Chaldean invulers, The Romans were one of thy gates where it liketh him

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best: Thou shalt not oppress him.” mosthenes, “that the condition of a Deut. xxii. 15, 16.*

slave at Athens, was preferable to that The laws of Minos, the legislator of a free citizen in many other counof Crete, expressly prohibited cruelty tries.” But if any exception happenand injustice to slaves, and inculcated ed, as was sometimes the case, from humanity and kindness on their mas the general treatment described; if ters. Once in the year, viz. at the persecution took the place of lenity, feast of Mercury, the masters were re and made the fangs of servitude more quired to exchange situations with

pointed than before, they, like the their slaves, and perform the same Egyptian slaves, had the temple of services for them which they were Theseus for refuge, where the legisaccustomed, during the rest of the lature was so attentive as to examine year, to receive.t

their complaints, and, if they were The Egyptian slave, though one of founded in justice, to order them to the greatest drudges in existence, if be sold to another master. But a still he had time to reach the temple of more important privilege was guaranHercules, found there a certain asy teed to them. They were allowed lum from the persecution of his mas an opportunity of working for them

and he received additional com selves, and if, by their industry, they fort from the reflection that his life, were able to accumulate a sum equiwhether he could reach it or not, valent to their ransom, they could, could not be taken with impunity. upon paying it down, demand their

Though the persons of slaves were freedom for ever. greatly secured in Egypt, yet there Of all the slaves of antiquity, the was no place so favourable to them as Helots, or Spartan slaves, were probaAthens. They were allowed greater || bly subjected to treatment the most liberty of speech, they had their con revolting to humanity. Amongst a vivial meetings, their hours of relaxa people bred to war, and systematicaltion and mirth. They were general- || ly inured to pain, it is not surprising ly treated with so much humanity as that little compassion was shown to to occasion the observation of De

the humble drudges by whose labour

they were fed. The rigour of Spar* The principle of this precept has been recently adopted in one of the new Spanish go.

tan discipline, or Spartan manners, was vernments of South America. 66 The abolition not likely to be relaxed in favour of of slavery was one of the first acts of the consti the servile class. Yet even this iron tuent assembly of Guatimala. It declared not

servitude was tempered by some inonly that, every man in the Republic is free, but that no one who takes refuge under its laws can

gredients, which policy, if not hube a slave; and it positively debars any one who manity, supplied. carries on the slave trade from the privileges of The Helots were considered as the a citizen. This law was no sooner promulgated,

property of the state, rather than of than one hundred slaves from the Honduras es

its individual members. They were caped into Guatimala; and these, though de. manded back by our superintendent, were justly farmers of the soil, at fixed rents, allowed the full protection of the statute which which the proprietors could not raise proclaimed them free.”-Quarterly Review,

without dishonour. Hence they had No. 68. + Morell,

the means of acquiring wealth. They Herodotus, Clarkson.

were not liable to be sold beyond the

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bounds of Laconia, a district of incon gisterial and parental power.

The siderable extent, and therefore must Gentoo master might correct his slave have been free from those cruel dis- | in the same degree with his son and solutions of family connexions, which no further. The Roman father might constitute so prominent a feature of put his son to death as well as his slave, negro slavery. And indeed to the was entitled to the property he acjealousy, excited by their numbers, | quired, and might exercise over him which an open market might have the same inferior authorities of scourgthinned, and to their riches, which an ing, imprisoning, and even selling inabsolute authority, if held by their to slavery. Nay, the Roman law carmasters, might have dissipated, a part ried the power of the parent higher of the cruelty with which they were than that of the master. If the slave, treated, is attributed by historians. when sold, was enfranchised by the

Among the ancient German, ac purchaser, he was forever free, but the cording to Tacitus, each slave had his son, though manumitted by a first and separate habitation, and his own estab second purchaser, might be sold a lishment to manage. The master con third time by the father. The magis. sidered him as an agrarian dependent, terial and paternal authority appear who was obliged to furnish a certain to have been simultaneously abridged. quantity of grain, of cattle, or of wear In the time of Trajan and his succesing apparel. The slave obeyed, and sor Adrian, both the son and the slave the state of servitude extended no fur

began to be effectually protected ther. To punish a slave with stripes, from that cruel abuse of domestic to load him with chains, or to con power, which was the natural growth demn him to hard labour, was un of corrupt and dissolute manners. usual.

The Roman law afterwards proIn an ancient code of Gentoo laws, | gressively advanced in humanity. By we find the following article: “If a a rescript of one of the Antonines a wife, or a son, or a slave, or a female slave, when cruelly treated, might flee slave, or a pupil, or a younger brother, to the temples, or statues of the emhath committed a fault, they may be perors, for protection; on which the scourged with a lash, or a bamboo civil magistrates took cognizance of twig, on any part of the body where the complaint, and if the severity of no dangerous hurt is likely to happen, the master was proved, the slave was but if a person scourges them beyond delivered from his power, by a judisuch limitation, he shall suffer the cial sale. punishment of a thief.”

Though, theoretically, the properAmong the ancient Romans, before ty acquired by the Roman slave was the institution of slavery had been re legally invested in the master, yet in formed by the humanity of Adrian or practice, he was permitted to acquire the Antonines, the master possessed, property, and was therein not only inover his slave, the dangerous power dulged by the master, but protected aof life and death. This, however, ap- || gainst all other persons. It was callpears to have been a relict of patriar ed his peculium ; and the many anxchal authority; for, like the Gentoo ious provisions, in the imperial code, law, an equal extent was given to ma on this subject, plainly intimate the

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