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THE KING AND QUEEN OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.-We have more than once during the present century entertained in this country the Sovereign of the islands on one of which Capt. Cook met his death. The quite recent visit of King Kalakaua in 1881 is yet fresh in the memory. Few, however, remain with us to-day who lived in George IV.'s reign and can remember the sad termination of the visit of King Tamehameha with his wife in 1824. From John Bull for that year I cull the following references (which some octogenarian may recall) to the royal couple and their tragic fate:

May 23.-The King and Queen of the Sandwich Islands, as everybody knows, are arrived in a whaler, on a visit to this country. Her Majesty is nearly seven feet high, and smokes cigars with evident satisfaction. It is a curious fact that she and her husband are remarkably good whist players. They have brought over the bones of the celebrated Captain Cook, which will now be consigned to some suitable place of interment. The king's travelling name is Tirahee Tira hee, which being translated signifies Dog of Dogs. How her Majesty is designated, as the female of so noble a race, we have not yet learned.

We understand that the object of the visit of their Majesties to this country is to make an offer of ceding their possessions to the Crown of Great Britain, and in return to demand its protection against all hostile attacks that may be made upon their territory.

June 13.-We are completely sick of the nonsense which we see in the newspapers and playbills about their Majesties......To see the Royal Boxes at our theatres ......occupied by a copper-coloured Chieftain and his female companion, whose first steps towards civilization have been taken since their arrival here, in the assumption of coats and petticoats, is quite abominable. It savours of burlesque to see this person, attended by the Lord High Admiral of a navy, comprised of five canoes [five brige, Courier], and the Lord High Treasurer of a revenue, consisting of thirty pigs and fifty plantains per annum, sitting in state amongst Englishmen.

June 27.-Her Majesty, it is said, committed an extraordinary solecism at a party some few evenings since, and "it was well it was no worse was the general observation upon it, but at present their Majesties have gotten the measles, which will detain them within doors. July 8.-We have this day to record the death of her Majesty Tamehamalu, consort of his Majesty, Tame

hameha, the second King of the Sandwich Islands...... We learn that the immediate cause of her Majesty's death was inflammation of the lungs.-Courier.

July 8.-We [John Bull] certainly did not anticipate so tragical a termination to the absurd farce which has been acted......and yet the smallest consideration would have prepared us for the event. A groupe of savages are suddenly transported from their huts in their native climate, to a pent-up hotel in the dense smoke of London, their limbs, for decency's sake, straitened and confined in European clothing, their hours of rising and sleeping wholly changed, their food suddenly altered from yams and plantains to rich soups and fricandeaux...... the pure limpid stream, their wonted beverage, supplanted by the mixture of Buxton, or Whitbread, or Calvert, which, together with wines and spirits, the poor creatures have been, of course, allowed to revel with unlimited and savage profusion. The consequence is, the poor female dies first, and in all probability will shortly be followed by the male......Since writing the above we find from the Courier that his Majesty has five wives. July 18.-Poor Tamehameha was but twenty-eight years of age. The pathos of the Courier, in describing his death, is somewhat marred by the grave statement ......which it appears that the poor fellow himself mentioned....that he was dead and happy." We had hoped that our poor visitor, after his removal to the Terrace for the benefit of the mud, would have recovered from his illness, and returned to happiness and his domestic circle at Owhy hee;......but we were disappointed, and really and sincerely regret the sad fate of these over-fed, ill-regulated poor creatures. N. E. R.

West Herrington.

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SILVER IN BELLS.-We think there was some years ago a discussion in N. & Q.' as to whether it was ever the custom to mingle silver with the other metals used in bell-casting. If this be so, it may be well to note that in the Tablet of Jan. 14 there is an article on the 'Interesting Relics of the Franciscans in California,' in which it is stated that at the mission of San Juan Capistrano there are five bells which contain five per cent. of silver, and that at another mission, called Santa Barbara, there are some bells, imported from Spain, which are composed of equal parts of copper and silver (see p. 53). N. M. & A.

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"No civilized race could exist as such without...... iron...... True, the ancients did manage at one time to manufacture cutting instruments out of bronze: true, that Sir Francis Chantrey, in our own times, in his reverence for classic metallurgy, caused a bronze razor to be made wherewith he shaved; nevertheless, we doubt whether any one less ardent in the love of ancient metallurgy than himself would have borne contentedly the daily infliction."-The Useful Metals,' by John Scoffern and others (Loudon, 1857), p. 11.

L. L. K.

WM. LOVEGROVE (1778-1816), ACTOR.-He entered the Bath company, a comparative novice, under Dimond's management, and rising to a foremost place as a light comedian, succeeded, on Elliston's departure, to his position. Lovegrove afterwards passed on to Drury Lane, and was making

a highly favourable impression as a leading mem-whirlwind, and is most likely to occur with a southber of the company of the then national theatre, when the rupture of a blood-vessel, probably caused by over-exertion, stopped short his career. He retired to the village of Weston, near Bath, and was progressing to recovery and to the resumption of his profession, when the hemorrhage returned, and he died on June 26, 1816. His remains were laid in Weston Churchyard.

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.


"BRUMMAGEM."-In September, 1681, "whigs, fanaticks, covenanteers, and bromigham protestants" were all included, by the other side, in the same category. This is the earliest instance of the use of brummagem I have come across. I need,

west wind. Sometimes the blasts are very violent, and come without warning. Even if you see one coming over the marsh, convulsing the grasses or lifting the reedstacks high in air, you cannot tell whether it will strike you or not, its course is so erratic. It may wreck a windmill fifty yards away, and leave the water around you unruffled. It may blow the sail of one wherry to Occasionally you may see a dozen wherries in the same pieces, and another wherry close by will be becalmed. reach, all bound the same way, with their sails now jibing, now close-hauled, now full and now shaking with the fitfulness of the wind. Sometimes, in a large reedbed, you may see the reeds all laid flat in a circle, or in a carr the trees uprooted for a space, where a rodgesblast has descended. Now and then, although rarely, a veritable waterspout crosses the country, and does great damage when it breaks."

These extracts explain what this strange pheno

perhaps, hardly add that I cite from the only Lut-menon is; but why is it called "Rodger's blast," as by most of the natives it is?



BEVERLEY SANCTUARY.-In the Parish Maga. zine for January, there is an article on 'Sanctuary,' with pictures of churches at Hexham and Beverley. But the Beverley picture is of St. Mary's Church, whereas the sanctuary church was that of St. John of Beverley, commonly called Beverley Minster. W. C. B.

A MOTTO FOR THEATRICAL MANAGERS.-Dr. Johnson, in his preface to the works of Shakspere, has a pertinent paragraph, poetic, pathetic, and prophetic; it was written more than a century ago, and it will hold good for many centuries more. It is as follows:

"The stream of Time, which is continually washing the dissoluble fabrics of other poets, passes without injury by the adamant of Shakspere.'

10, Little College Street, S.W.


RODGER'S BLAST OR RODGES-BLAST. Mr. Christopher Davies, a well-known writer on the Norfolk broads and rivers, often mentions the violent winds known as rodges-blasts. One such he describes as follows:

"These rodges-blasts seem to come with a south-west wind. We remember one day waiting on the staithe at Coldham, on the Yare, whistling for the wind, while the cutter Zoe, with all sail set, was moored by a strong rope to a tree. It was a dead hot calm, when, without any warning, a whirling puff of wind came upon us. The Zoe was thrown over almost on her beam-ends, She snapped the mooring-rope like a piece of thread, shot out into the river, and then luffed up herselfthere was no one on board-and drove her bowsprit through the wood-casing of the staithe and deep into the soil behind, whence it was a work of time to extricate it. The blast passed in a moment, and there was again a dead calm."-Norfolk Broads and Rivers, 1884, p. 55.

At. p. 265 of the same work he writes :

"We have not been able to trace the etymology of the name by which these blasts are known, and it is spelt as it is pronounced. It is really a rotary wind-squall or

In a correspondence on "Broad Norfolk," which recently appeared in the Eastern Daily Press of Norwich, one writer boldly suggests that "Rodger'sblast," alias "Sir Roger," may be a corruption of "sirocco." It is not likely that the name is so far-fetched.

Is it possible that the term is connected in any way with the water-fowl called a rodge? Or may the origin be sought in the Anglo-Saxon rogge, to shake, found in Chaucer?

I may say that I do not know what sort of bird a rodge is, but, so far as I know, at the present day there is no bird so called in East Anglia. JAMES HOOPER.

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[See 5th S. vi. 502; 6th S. i. 375; ii, 11.] ERRATA CURIOUS EDITORIAL NOTE.-The following is a translation of a note Ad lectorem " which appears at the end of a volume_comprising the Attic lexicons of Thomas Magister, Phrynichus, and Moschopulus, with two trifles on military matters, and printed by Michael Vascosanus in Paris "mense Novembri 1532" :

"Gentle reader, we had compiled a list of errors which have found their way into this book, partly through our following a corrupt copy which we trusted overmuch at the outset, and partly through a degree of haste usual in work of this kind, when the printers, impatient of delay, injudiciously press you to finish in a the book be issued to the public correct or full of moment what you have in hand, not caring a jot whether blunders, so long as they bring their task to an end. We meant to print these errata at the end, but we are reluctantly obliged to abstain from doing so owing to want of paper, not a single entire leaf [nulla charta integra] remaining to us. Kindly, therefore, excuse us should you detect any errors in reading. Do this, and best authors with the greatest possible accuracy, and so daily more and more advance your studies—our sole aim.

we will take care in future to turn out editions of all the



HISTORICAL MSS. COMMISSION: HOUSE OF LORDS PAPERS.-The very lengthy character of the documents calendared in the report just issued,

covering the years 1690-91, accentuates still more the need for a small concession to the reader who does not wish to wade through the whole work, but (with the guidance of the very excellent preface) to select and study those documents which bear on his own line of thought and research. As the book is at present printed it takes sometimes two or three minutes to find the document to which a passage in the preface refers. This might be easily obviated by each page in which a document is continued being commenced with the number of that document in heavy clarendon type, followed by a square bracket. The total space occupied would not amount to a whole page in this report, and the time and temper saved would be immense-using the word in its etymological sense-and I venture to express the hope that this modest suggestion may be adopted in all future reports.

I am sorry to notice that the report is disfigured, as were the Statutes of 1890, by a change of paper in the middle of the volume. Then it was from white to cream; now it is from cream to white. Mr. T. Digby Pigott, "these things ought not so to be " ! Q. V.

DIVINING ROD. (See 1st S. viii., ix., X., xi., xii. passim.) The appended "modern instance," corroborative of its powers, may be noteworthy :"Will you allow me to state my experience of the powers of the divining rod in searching for water? Having had very great difficulty in the supply of water at this house, I sent for John Mullins, of Colerne, near Chippenham, who, by the aid of a twig of hazel, pointed out several places where water could be found. I have sunk wells in four of the places, and in each case have been most successful. It may be said that water can be found anywhere. This is not my experience. I have had the best engineering advice, and have spent many hundreds of pounde, and hitherto have not obtained sufficient water for my requirements, but now I have an abundant supply.-HENRY HARBEN, Warnham Lodge, Horsbam. January 3, 1893." Sussex Daily News, January 6.

55, London Road, Brighton.



"GOD SAVE THE QUEEN." The following paragraph is taken from the Manchester Advertiser of July 22, 1837, when William IV. had been dead about a month :

"IMPORTANT TO TOAST MASTERS.-At public dinners, after The health of her majesty, Queen Victoria,' is given, the second toast is 'Queen Adelaide and the rest of the royal family'; and the National Anthem is commenced thus:

God save our gracious Queen,
Victoria, England's Queen,
God save the Queen."

It would be interesting to know whether this fashion of varying the verse was long continued. ALFRED F. ROBBINS.

PROLIX VERBOSITY.-The following example of prolix verbosity, which seems to have been inspired

by the injunction, "Put away all strange notions, in order to pay profound respect to the instruc tion that is correct and upright," is culled from a contemporary :

"An American exchange tells a story of how a father cured his son of verbal grandiloquence. The boy wrote from college, using such large words that the father replied with the following: 'In promulgating your esoteric cogitations, or articulating superficial sentimentalities and philosophical or psychological observations, beware of platitudinous ponderosity. Let your conversation possess a clarified conciseness, compacted comprehensibleness, coalescent consistency, and a concatenated cogency. Eschew all conglomerations of flatulent garyour extemporaneous descantings and unpremeditated rulity, jejune babblement, and asinine affectations. Let expatiations have intelligibility, without rhodomontade or thrasonical bombast. Sedulously avoid all polysyllabical profundity, pompous prolixity, and ventriloquial vapidity. Shun double-entendre and prurient jocosity, whether obscure or apparent. In other words, speak truthfully, naturally, clearly, purely, but do not use large words."" JOSEPH COLLINSON.

Wolsingham, co. Durham.

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COWPER'S 'CASTAWAY.' It seems to have escaped the notice of critics up to the present that no such "story as that alluded to by Cowper in his note to the Castaway,' is related in 'Anson's Voyages.' This is a very serious matter, as it will, doubtless, lead many readers of that poem to entirely miss the point of it. It has a certain bearing, too, on Cowper's sanity that, I think, cannot be mistaken. Let me add that the three opening lines are suggestive of an acrostic-quite in Cowper's manner, namely, O T W. J. O'BYRNE CROKE.


We must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that the answers may be addressed to them direct.

ST. GRASINUS.-Can any of your learned and expert readers give me information on this point? In the will of John Regnolde, in Somerset House (Dogget 21), he bequeaths lights to the images, among others, of St. Blasius, St. Grasinus, and St. Dominic. Who was St. Grasinus? I can find no such name among the Roman saints. J. CAVE-BROWNE.

Detling Vicarage, Maidstone.

"OASTS."-In the 1668 by-laws of the Fishmongers' Company, Oasts are forbidden to sell four hours old. Hitherto I have been unable to overday fish, that is, over a day, or fish over twentyfind any explanation of this word in reference to the fish trade. Does not oasts mean owners or vendors of fish? The 'Century Dictionary' gives a picture of an oast, or kiln used to dry hops or

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malt, but this evidently has nothing to do with the oasts in the by-laws of the Fishmongers' Company. J. LAWRENCE-HAMILTON, M.R.C.S. 30, Sussex Square, Brighton.

BUCKINGHAM PALACE.-The following para graph appeared among the "Domestic and Mis cellaneous" intelligence of the Manchester Guardian for July 22, 1837:

"It is intended henceforward to call Buckingham Palace by a much more appropriate title, and one which will record the time when the sovereign of these realms first took up her abode there. The new name is to be 'The Queen's Palace.''

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Was this intention ever seriously contemplated or attempted to be acted upon ? ALFRED F. ROBBINS.

HERSE CLOTHS OR PALLS.-I wish to make a list of all the pre-Reformation herse cloths or palls that now remain in England; and I shall be much obliged for any information on the subject. Will any one who knows of the existence of one be so kind as to write to me on the subject, and say where it is and if any account of it has been published, also if it is possible to obtain a photograph of it? Do any of the City companies possess one, other than the following?-the Merchant Taylors, the Ironmongers, the Vintners, the Fishmongers, the Saddlers, the Brewers. There is a remarkably fine one at Dunstable, and I wish, if possible, to make a complete list of those that are now left. Communications on the subject may be addressed directly to me. FLORENCE PEACOCK. Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey.

OBOE.-Can any one throw a light on the etymology of the word oboe, a musical instrument,-Fr. hautbois, Ger. hoboe, It. oboe? It is usually said to be so called because it is a treble instrument of

wood, hence haut bois. Others, however, derive it from Haut Bois, implying that it was first made at a place of that name in France; and I may mention that there are two villages in Norfolk still called Great and Little Hautbois. The oboe being the modern representative of the schalmei, shawm, weyghte, or wait, I should be glad of references to its occurrence under any of its various names and spellings. May I appeal to HERMENTRUDE to give her valuable aid? WEYGHTE.

HERALDIC: BURTON AND HYDE.-Mrs. Reginald Gurney, in her collection of armorial china, has a fine plate with the arms of Burton (Sa., a chevron ermine between three owls arg. ducally crowned or.) quartering Hyde (Az., a chevron or between three lozenges of the second). Crest, an owl arg, ducally crowned or. There is no specimen of this set in the Franks Collection at the British Museum, and Dr. J. J. Howard, himself the owner of a fine collection and knowing well the

principal collections in England, told Mrs. R. Gurney he knew of no other specimen. Who was the Burton who married a Hyde?

G. MILNER-GIBSON-CULLUM, F.S. A. BENJAMIN BRADFORD, of Charmouth (will proved 1792), directs a monument to be set up at Wootton Fitzpaine, Dorset, to memory of himself, his wife and children. Would any reader who may happen to live in the parish favour me with a note of the inscription, for a manuscript collection relating to the name? Reply may be sent direct. J. G. BRADFord.

157, Dalston Lane, N.E.
GLASS EYES.-Lear exclaims:-
Get thee glass eyes,

And like the scurvy politician seem to see
The thing thou dost not.
IV. vi. 174.

If Gloster, whom Lear addressed, were not blind, we might suppose" glass eyes" to mean spectacles. But it seems clear that glass eyes in the modern sense were intended, and therefore well known in Shakespeare's time. How much further back is that witty invention traceable?

Madison, Wis., U.S.


FOREIGN PARODIES.-Can MR. WALTER HAMILTON, or any one else, tell me of any? Are there any French or other equivalents to the 'Rejected and O. W. Holmes? I presume that so illustrious Addresses' or the very clever parodies by Calverley a mark as Victor Hugo did not escape the shafts of parody. Has Balzac's or George Sand's prose ever been parodied by French "jokers of jokes"? Is there any Italian parody?

JONATHAN BOUCHIER. [Theatrical parodies are common in France. We could supply the titles of scores. Scarron's Virgile Travesti ' is, of course, well known.]

PRINT OF MR. PITT.-There is a print as to the meaning of which I should be very glad if you could suggest the explanation. It represents Mr. Pitt speaking, and holding in his hand a paper inscribed Ways and Means for 1799.' At his side is a large cloak or pall, draped over something indistinct. Mr. Pitt introduced the budget at the end of January, 1799, his speech on that occasion being one of his most successful efforts; and I think it was on that occasion that he first proposed that in the middle of his speech he received news an Income Tax. There is a tradition, however, of the death of some personage, when he immediately changed the subject and continued with unthis story as connected with the print? usual brilliancy. Can you throw any light on


PENINSULAR MEDAL.-When, in 1848, the medal was issued to the survivors of the great wars, I

have been told that two men claimed for the medal with fifteen engagement bars. I should be glad to know the names of the battles, and also of the regiment in which the men served.


JOHN OF GAUNT was, as every one knows, descended from Henry II. in the legitimate line. It is, however, less known that he was also descended from Henry by one of the children of Fair Rosamond. Though this is a certainty, I have not the links of the pedigree which demonstrate it. Will some one be good enough to give them?

EX STIRPE PLANTAGENETArum. PENTELOW.-I am desirous of obtaining information or notes regarding the Pentelow family, of Cambridge and Huntingdon, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Some of their descendants are still living in this district. Did they serve the Royalists or Commonwealth ?


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THE DOVER SLAVE MARKET.-Dr. Cunningham, in his recently published volume, The Growth of English Industry,' refers in very strong language to the horrors of the English slave trade, and states in particular that the slave market at Dover had no parallel in Christendom." Perhaps some ripe and widely read contributor of N. & Q.' can give further information with reference to this slave market, as Dr. Cunningham's observations have excited my curiosity. JOSEPH COLLINSON.


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"LUCY OF LEINSTER."-I have a miniature of

a lady, in dress of the last century, described on the back as above, and signed "Lebonor, 1784." Who was Lucy of Leinster; a character of fiction, or some personage noted in her time? I shall be glad, too, of information about the artist, whose name is new to me as a miniature painter.

F. C. MATHEW.-Can any one give me the pedigree of the branch of this family which settled in Devon, and afterwards subdivided into five branches, from one of which (settled in Ireland), Baron Landaff of Thomastown, Tipperary, is descended? I want more particularly the pedigree of the branch which remained in Devon, descendants of Jenkin, son of Sir David and grandson of Sir Mathew, by whose marriage the Barony of Landaff came into this family. R. M. PRATT.

254, Cowbridge Road, Cardiff.

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P. 225.

H. L. St. Clair, Esq., of St. Clair Abbey, near Stirling, and granddaughter of Mr. and Lady Edith Maxwell.""Died of rapid decline at Cadiz May 2, 1850, H. L. St. Clair, Esq., of St. Clair Abbey, near Stirling, Scotland, and of the Grange, Yorkshire; and formerly of Sir Roger Campbell."-P. 226. Royal York Crescent, Clifton, and grandson of the late

I find no trace of Lady Edith Maxwell or of Sir Roger Campbell, and shall be grateful if any correspondent of N. & Q.' can throw light upon them, and on the families of St. Clair and Maxwell

referred to.



REFERENCE IN POPE.-Where does "Let us while away this life" occur in Pope? Does Milton or any other poet employ this phrase, i.e., while away" (the time); and, if so, where? J. T. M. [No such expression appears in Dr. Abbott's Concordance to Pope.']

"ONE HEARTH HEN."-In one of the terriers belonging to the parish of Saxted, near Framlingham, Suffolk, there is this term used. What is its meaning? W. B. GERISH.

SOME WORDS IN SMART'S 'SONG TO DAVID.' I shall be extremely obliged to any of the correspondents of N. & Q.' who will be so good as to give me authoritative definitions of the following words in this sublime song, viz.:

Stanza 53. Ivis. (?) Ibis, v interchanged for b. Stanza 57. Silverlings, crusions. Smart was a Kent man. They probably are provincialisms, but I do not find them in Parish's Kentish Glossary' (E.D.S.). The former may mean carp, the latter


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[For "silverlings " as a silver coin see 6th S. i. 37, 222, 246.]

'THE CHRISTIAN YEAR.'-I notice in a bookseller's catalogue the following entry :—

"Keble (Rev. J.) Christian Year, Facsimile of the original manuscript, with preface and collation of the variations, post 8vo. cloth, scarce, 17. 10s. (1822). This Facsimile was rigidly suppressed just after its issue." I was previously unaware of the existence of such a facsimile. Is anything more known of its history? There is another facsimile, but this is A Facsimile of the First Edition of the Christian Year, 1827, printed 1868." This also has a "Notice with "The Emendations in the later Editions." ED. MARSHALL.

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