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having passed their very brief sojourn in this country at Osborn's Hotel, John Street, Adelphi."

This fixes the place of their sejour when in England and of their burial. It would appear from the interesting newspaper extracts at p. 105 that their deaths were in great measure hastened by change of climate_and diet, and the restraint of European dress. It would be interesting to know whether they did really bring with them the bones of Capt. Cook, who was killed at Owhyhee in 1779; and, if so, what became of them.

In Hood's amusing poem 'Lament for the Decline of Chivalry,' which appeared originally in the 'Bijou' of 1828-a time when most of the good writing in this country found its way into the annuals-the death of the king seems to be alluded to in the following stanza :—

Our Cressys, too, have dwindled since
To penny things-at our Black Prince
Historic pens would scoff;
The only one we ever had
Was nothing but a Sandwich lad,

And measles took him off.

I can remember some amusing lines which appeared at Oxford as a parody on the Newdegate prize poem The Sandwich Isles,' by Samuel Lucas, of Queen's College :

They brought him slices thin of ham and tongue, With bread that from the trees spontaneous hung, Pleased with the thought the gallant captain smiles, And aptly names the spot the Sandwich Isles. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. Allow me to inform your correspondent N. E. R. that I was a lad of sixteen when these people visited London in 1824, that I shared in the excitement produced by their presence, and approved of the epitaph suggested at the close of their career: "Waiter! two Sandwiches!" cried Death. The Royal Darkies then resigned their breath. C. TOMLINSON.

"ONE HEARTH HEN" (8th S. iii. 109).-Hens and eggs often went to make up rents, when these were paid in kind. "Hearth hen" is probably an equivalent of "smoke hen," a rent paid for fuel-rights. In the Plea Roll for T. T., 27 Car. II. (Q.B. j.s., 1233), it is said that all the customary tenants of certain ancient messuages in Loughton, co. Essex, were wont to cut necessary estovers on the waste, each paying upon requisition a hen called a 66 smoak hen.' And in a Court Roll of about the same date (penes dominum) is record of a presentment that smoke hens had been paid from certain ancient tenements until within the preceding six or seven years. From a Survey (D. of Lanc., Div. 3 and 4) made in 10 Jac. I., it appears that there were as many as twenty-nine copyholders of the manor who each paid a "Smok Henn," or in lieu thereof for every hen, 12d. The Loughton Court Rolls furnish also an instance of

the creation of a similar rent, without pecuniary equivalent, so late as 1715; when a cottage and garden on the waste were granted by rent of two capons, power to distrain for them being reserved to the lord. W. C. W.


CROSSING THE BAR' (8th S. ii. 446; iii. 137).-The similarity between the 'Charge of the Light Brigade' and the 'Battle of Agincourt' was pointed out in print so long ago as 1875, by the late Mortimer Collins, in one of his weekly Adversaria,' which were to be read in the St. James's Chronicle, that did not long survive him. He cites, as does MR. BLOUNDELLE-Burton, the last stanza of the Agincourt'; and takes occasion to observe that "Agincourt was as much greater than Balaclava as Drayton than Tennyson"; concluding by asking if "you see where Tennyson gets metre and thought.' W. F. WALLER.

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"SACERDOTES CORONATI" (8th S. iii. 128).— Dugdale, I quote from the third and latest edition, and Canons of St. Paul's by Sir William le Baud, has some account of the grant made to the Dean knight, in the reign of Edward I., of a doe on the feast of the conversion of the patron saint, and of

a buck in summer on the feast of the commemoration of St. Paul. He says that,—

"The reception of the doe and buck was, till Queen Elizabeth's days, solemnly performed at the steps of the Quire, by the Canons of this Cathedral attired in their sacred vestments, and wearing garlands of flowers on their heads; and the horns of the buck carried on the

top of a spear, in procession, round about within the as the learned Camden, upon his own view of both, body of the Church, with a great noise of horn-blowers, affirmeth."-P. 12.

His reference is not very full, being only to "Camd. in Mid." The two festivals of St. Paul are, of course, January 25 and June 30.

Dean Milman, in his 'Annals' (second edition, p. 252), observes that "these gifts were always received at the west door of St. Paul's, conducted without, about, within, the Church up to the High Altar with noisy merriment." He quotes a passage from Machyn's Diary' (p. 141, anno 1557), modernizing that estimable person's eccentric spelling. I will venture, however, to restore it; though, the original MS. being defective, the editor of the Diary' has been compelled to complete the entry from other sources:—

"[The last day of June, Saint Paul's day, was a goodly procession at S. Paul's. There was a priest of every] bishop] of Londun wayreng ys myter; and after cam [a parryche of the dyosses of Londun [with a cope, and the fat buck] and ys hed with the hornes borne a-pone a baner [-pole, and] xl hornes blohyng a-for the boke and be-hynd."

"Imagine Bonner," says Dean Milman, " mitred in the midst of this strange tripudiation. Pleasant relaxation from burning heretics! Have we not got back to our Diana worship?"

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The following passage occurs in Southey's 'Common Place Book,' iv. 414. The reference is "Camden, p. 315":

"I have heard that the stag which the family of Baud, in Essex, were bound to pay for certain lands, used to be received at the steps of the quire by the priests of the church, in their sacerdotal robes, and with garlands of flowers about their heads."

My late friend the learned Dr. Rock says :"There was another, though less usual kind of adornment, of which our native antiquaries seem unaware, and no modern liturgist has taken any notice; on particular occasions the custom was in England for the clergy to wear a garland twined about the head. Crowned with roses and honeysuckle and other sweet-smelling flowers, the canons and vicars of some of our Cathedrals, and the clergy in not a few of our parishes, walked forth in solemn array at the great processions of the year; and on the festival of the saint under whose name their dear old church was dedicated to Almighty God; and besides this, went through all the Divine service of the day having on these wreaths of blooming flowers.

Such a becoming practice was not confined to England; Germany, France, and Italy followed it; and as the clergy of those countries went forth, bearing in triumphant gladness the body of our Lord in the blessed Eucharist, through the streets and squares of the densely peopled city, or along the highways and by-ways of the lowly village and the little hidden hamlet of a rural parish, they had nothing on their heads but a wreath of roses; and the old men and the young, the choir of singing-boys, and the youthful maidens clad in white .were all garlanded with roses. In some towns abroad was it the custom for the good parish priest to go every year, his brow entwined with newly gathered buds of the rose and orange-blossom, and holding in his hand a posy of the sweetest roses nicely arranged, with his loved and loving flock crowded about him, to do homage to the bishop seated on his episcopal chair in the cathedral: in other places, did he who had been just called to the priesthood, walk with a crown of flowers around his head to the altar upon which he was then about to offer np, for the first time, the holy and adorable sacrifice of the Mass."-'Church of our Fathers,' vol. ii. pp. 72-77.

The learned author gives in notes at the bottom of the pages a large body of illustrative extracts, The late Edmund Waterton, in his 'Pietas Mariana Britannica,' p. 198, also refers to this custom. EDWARD PEACOCK.

Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey.

"CROCODILE" (8th S. iii. 127).-The song of 'The Bashful Man' is at least ten years older than 1850. I have it, copied by my mother before her marriage, which was in 1840.




Sanchi and its Remains. By General F. C. Maisey,
H.M.'s Indian Army. (Kegan Paul & Co.)
NEARLY three-quarters of a century have elapsed since
Capt. Fell, an officer of the East India Company's Army,
paid a visit to the celebrated Stupa, or Tope, of Sanchi,
in Central India, and recorded his impressions in one of
the early volumes of the Journal of the Asiatic Society
of Bengal. About thirty years later the ruins attracted
the attention of two officers of the old Bengal Engineers,
Capt. J. D. Cunningham, the historian of the Sikhs,
who was the political agent at Bhopal, and his brother,
the present Sir Alexander Cunningham, who still sur-
vives as the doyen of Indian archaeologists. The latter
officer, in conjunction with the author of this handsome
quarto, made a careful survey of the remains, and the
results of their labours were embodied in "The Bhilsa
Topes,' a work of the highest scientific value, which has
now become a rarity. This undertaking was a labour of
love on the part of these officers, for the practical genius
of Lord Dalhousie took little or no interest in antiquarian
research, and the Begum of Bhophal, in whose state the
remains are situated, regarded them as merely the relics
of a barbarous creed which it was anathema to a pious
Mussulman to endeavour to preserve. The consequence
was that the monuments fell into decay, the fine gate-
ways remained as they had fallen, exposed to the vicis-
situdes of wind and weather, and vegetable under-
growth gradually undermined and disjointed the careful
morticing of the stonework. Thirteen or fourteen years
ago this state of things was brought to the notice of the
Government of India by the political authorities in
Central India, and the Curator of Ancient Monuments
was commissioned to clear away the jungle and restore
so far as possible to their original appearance the fallen
portions of the enclosure and gateways of the principal


The primary object of General Maisey's work is "to place on record a full and connected description of the Sanchi memorials, and to show their connexion with religious systems antecedent to what is now called Buddhism." Whether he has succeeded in effecting the latter part of his design may, perhaps, be questioned. The position that the great Stupa at Sanchi belonged to a religion which was "closely allied to Sun, Fire, and Elemental worship" is strongly combated by General Cunningham in an introductory note which he has contributed to General Maisey's work. There are points on which it is not likely that archeologists will ever come to any definite conclusion, but it may be regarded as certain that the large Stupa is one of the earliest monuments of Buddhism in India, and that the elaborate sculptures which ornament the gateways afford valuable representations of life in an Indian Court two thousand years ago. Except in one important particular, it is remarkable how little it seems to have differed

from life in an Indian Court at the present day. The processions, the nautches, the very headstalls of the horses, and the ankus, or hook with which the mahout guides the movements of his elephant, might all have been bodily transferred to the stone from the Jaipur or Gwalior of to-day. But the sculptures show that no function, religious or festive, was considered complete in those early days without the enlivening influence of female society, and that the austerity which the practice of Mohammedanism linked with the performance of ceremonial duties had no part in the joyous life of these

Hindu kings of Yvetot.

Architecturally these monuments are interesting from the fact that no cement whatever was used in their

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construction, the whole of the stonework of the palisade and gateways having been joined on the "mortice and tenon principle." It is, in short, an example of "carpentering in stone on a very massive scale. Few, perhaps, of the travellers who in yearly increasing numbers pass over the plains and uplands of Central India on their way to view the wonders of Agra and Delhi are aware that within easy access of a station on the Indian Midland Railway stand some of the most ancient and interesting monuments of the religious and social life of India at a period which was anterior to the birth of the Christian religion. To those who visit India with an earnest desire to study the present in the light of the past, and to learn to discriminate between what is essential in Indian life and what is merely accidental and accessory, we strongly recommend that General Maisey's book should be taken as a companion and guide in their investigations. The numerous illustrations, which are faithful reproductions of drawings taken by General Maisey on the spot, add greatly to the value of the work, and help to give it the authoritative character which it deserves.

the history of his country with the care that is here
manifested without preferences having developed them-
selves. To his readers they are, however, non-existent.
The bibliographical and other references with which
each of his twelve chapters is introduced will be of much
service to English students, many of whom do not know
what are the best authorities on the various phases of
American history. There are some useful historical
maps and a very good index.
Joan of Arc. By John O'Hagan. (Kegan Paul & Co.)
THIS monograph, contributed in 1858 to the Atlantis by
the late Judge of the Supreme Court of Judicature (Ire-
land), is reprinted by his wife. It is written from a
Roman Catholic standpoint, and its republication is
intended to further the beatification of the warlike

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MESSRS. CHATTO & WINDUS have issued, in four volumes, a new and goodly edition of Charles Reade's immortal story of The Cloister and the Hearth. Scott's Quentin Durward,' even, gives no such picture of life at the dawn of Renaissance as this book, as dear to the scholar as to the general public, supplies. In its present convenient and attractive form it is likely to obtain a fresh lease of popularity. The same firm sends a collection of the magazine articles and stories of Mr. Clark Russell. These constitute, as has been said, a marine cyclopædia, and are the best sea sketches ever supplied. They are, moreover, delightful reading, and beget a half wish for a period of enforced leisure or convalescence, when all could be devoured.

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The Lincoln Pocket Guide. By the late Sir Charles Anderson, Bart. Third Edition. Edited and revised by the Rev. A. R. Maddison. (Stanford.) THIS, one of the brightest, compactest, and most learned of guide-books, is no unworthy "Remain" (as it would have been styled in years gone by) of the venerable scholar, antiquary, and county gentleman who has recently passed away. And no better choice than that of Mr. Maddison for editor could have been made. We have received from Mr. Richard Harte, of CroyThe little volume is prefaced by a brief but very sym- don, The Crypto (patented), an instrument by which pathetic sketch of Sir Charles's life by his old friend writing in cipher that defies detection can be accomSir George Prevost. The following notes may be use- plished. Full explanations are given, and the inventor ful for the next edition. P. 80, Sheffield, Earl of Mul-offers a prize to the first person who will publish the key grave, created Marquis of Normanby by William III., to a cryptogram which he uses. For those who need to was made Duke of Buckinghamshire by Queen Anne. On p. 148, the suggestion of making the organ serve for use such devices it seems likely to be useful. nave services as well has been carried out for some

years. On p. 154, the remark on wrongly removing the plaster from the vault of the Angel Choir might be made applicable to that of the Chapter House, p. 151. On p. 163, the Dolphins almost certainly had nothing to do with the Dauphin of France.

Epochs of American History.-The Formation of the Union, 1750-1829. By A. B. Hart. (Longmans & Co.) OUR American friends sometimes remark that they find English people deplorably ignorant of the national history of the Great Republic. Of Washington and the War of Independence we most of us know something, and also of that terrible time, some thirty years ago, when slavery perished in a sea of blood; but of the intervening years, fruitful as they were in building up the resources of a great nation, most of us have been content to know but little. We would plead that in a great degree this has not been our fault. Who has there been to instruct us? The histories of the United States that have hitherto been written are, for the most part, dull reading. They are very long, and often very provincial. Mr. Hart has discovered that to make his book attractive it is necessary to have the idea of proportion always before him. This is the chief characteristic of his work. We do not know that he has told us anything which we might not find elsewhere, but he has put the leading facts of American history in sequence, and only dwelt on those which have proved themselves to be important factors in the growth of the nation.

We may further remark that Mr. Hart never writes as a partisan. It is impossible to tell which among the great names that flit before us has the greatest attraction for him. It is impossible for him to have studied

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MESSRS. KEGAN PAUL & Co. announce a very appetizing list of books about books, in which Mr. W. J. Hardy's History of Book-plates, Mr. F. Madan's Books in Manuscript,' and Mr. Gordon Duff's Early Printed Books' are pleasantly conspicuous.

Notices to Correspondents.

We must call special attention to the following notices: address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but ON all communications must be written the name and as a guarantee of good faith.

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately.

To secure insertion of communications correspondents must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second communication “Duplicate.”

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The NEW MONTHLY PART, containing the FEBRUARY NUMBERS, contains

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