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in scarlet; and upon the 5th day of November, being gunpowder-day, unless it be Sunday, the Judges go to Westminster Abbey in Scarlet to hear the sermon, and after go to sit in Court; and the two Lords Chief Justices and the Lord Chief Baron have their collars of SS above their mantles for those two days. When the Judges go to St. Paul's to the sermon, upon any Sunday in the term time, or to any public church, they ought to go in Scarlet gowns, the two Lords Chief Justices and the Lord Chief Baron in their velvet and eatin tippets, and the other Judges in taffeta tippets; and then the scarlet casting-hood is worn on the right side above the tippets, and the hood is to be pinned abroad towards the left shoulder; and if it be upon any grand days, as upon Ascension-day, *... All Hallow - day, or Candlemass-day, then the two Lords Chief Justices, and the Lord Chief Baron wear their collars of SS with long scarlet casting hoods, and velvet and satin tippets. At all times, when the Judges go to the council-table, or to any assembly of the Lords, in the afternoon in termtime, they ought to go in their robes of violet, or black faced with taffeta, according as the time of wearing them doth require; and with tippets and scarlet casting hoods pinned near the left shoulder, unless it be Sunday or holy day, and then in scarlet. In the Circuit the Judges go to the Church upon Sundays in the fore-noon in scarlet gowns, hoods and mantles, and sit in their caps; and in the afternoons to the Church in scarlet gowns, tippet and scarlet hood, and sit in their cornered caps. And the first morning at the reading of the Commissions they sit in scarlet gowns, with hoods and mantles, and in their coifs and cornered caps; and he that gives the charge and delivers the gaol doth, or ought for the most part, to continue all that assizes the same robes, scarlet gown, hood and mantle: but the other Judge, who sits upon the nisi prius, doth commonly (if he will) sit only in his Scarlet robe, with tippet and casting-hood : or if it be cold, he may sit in gown, and hood, and mantle. And when the judges in circuit go to dine with the shireeve, or to a public feast, then in scarlet gowns, tippets, and scarlet hoods; or casting off their mantle, they keep on their other hood. The scarlet casting-hood is to be put above the o: on the right side: for Justice Walmesley and Justice Warburton, and all the judges before, did wear them in that manner, and did declare, that by wearing the hood on the right side, and above the tippet, was signified more temporal dignity; and by the tippet on the left side only, the Judges did resemble priests. Whensoever the Judges or any of them are appointed to attend the King's Majesty, they go in scarlet gowns, tippets, and scarlet casting hoods, either to his own presence, or at the council-table. The Judges and Serjeants, when they ride circuits, are to wear a serjeant's coat of good broad-cloth with sleeves, and faced with velvet : they have used of late to lace the sleeves of the serjeant's coat thick with lace; and they are to have a sumpter, and ought to ride with six men at least. Also the first Sunday of every term, and when the Judges and Serjeants dine at my Lord Mayor's or the shireeves, they are to wear their scarlets, and to sit at Paul's with their caps at the sermon. When the Judges go to any reader's feast, they go upon the Sunday or holy day in scarlet; upon other ão. in violet, with scarlet casting hoods, and the Serjeants go in violet, with scarlet hoods. When the Judges sit upon nisi prius in Westminster or in London, they go in violet gowns and scarlet casting-hoods and tippets, upon holy days in Scarlet.”

Up to the end of the seventeenth century there was not in Westminster Hall, except the prescribed dress of the judges and serjeants, any costume

officially recognized, other than that in ordinary use in the halls of the inns of court, the cloth or stuff gown of the utter barrister, and the one with black velvet and tufts of silk which was worn by the readers and benchers. The silk gown costume, therefore, which came into use at the funeral of the daughter of James II., afforded to the leaders of the bar a convenient opportunity of establishing a uniform specially belonging to themselves. By general consent they adopted the black court dress and silk gown introduced two centuries ago as mourning, and have kept to it for their forensic costume ever since. Utter barristers wear a stuff or bombazine gown, and the puckered material between the shoulders of the gown is all that is now left of the purse into which, in early days, the successful litigant is said to have unobtrusively dropped his pecuniary tribute of appreciation for services rendered, for in the old days the feelings of the barrister were far too fine to allow of his seeking payment for his services, and he was content to accept whatever fortune thus considerately sent him in the way of a modest honorarium. In our days the barrister has overcome his scruples with regard to receiving payment, and is now content to accept as large a fee as possible, without any more indirect intervention than that of his clerk.

T. W. TEMPANY. Richmond, Surrey.

P. will find some information on this question in the Gentleman's Magazine for October, 1868, p. 657. See also Penny Post, 1874, p. 167; ‘N. & Q,' 7th S. i. 468; ii. 458. John Churchill SIKEs. 13, Wolverton Gardens, Hammersmith, W.

HENCHMAN (7th S. iii. 31, 150, 211, 310,482). —This word has been several times discussed. I write further about it solely because I have found more evidence. In ‘A Collection of Ordinances and Regulations for the Government of the Royal Household,’ London, 1790, I find several facts. The oldest spelling is henzmen. In the thirtythird year of Henry VI., we find “Henrmen 3.” This means that their number was limited to three; see p. 17* of the above-named work.

In the time of Edward IV., their number was really five (p. 99), though the ‘Ordinances’ say that their number was to be “six or more” (p. 44). But it is more important to observe that they were not mere servants, as is usually believed, but something very different. It is clear that their office was purely honorary, for nowhere are any wages assigned them. Doubtless they were a {o of pages, all quite young men or growing boys, who had a paid master assigned to teach them, and who had, moreover, servants of their own. Their place was one of some honour, and they served the king himself, and him only. They were specially as

signed “to the riding household” (p. 99); and Aug. 27, 1822.” This book does not contain 'The everything points to the fact that they were far Bride of Lammermoor'nor ‘Montrose,' but it does removed from being mere servants. I find the Kenilworth,' with Mr. Murray as Nicholas Blount latest mention of them in the time of Henry VIII. and Mrs. H. Siddons as Amy Robsart; “Peveril (p. 198). I think all this affects the etymology, of the Peak,' Mr. Murray as Lance Outram ; and and renders all connexion with the word Hans ‘Ivanhoe,' with Mr. Murray as Wamba the Jester (Jack) most unlikely-as I have always thought. and Mrs. H. Siddons as Rebecca. In the preface

The passages are too long for quotation. I can to this volume of ‘Dramas' is the following: only give a few extracts :

“ The guccess of these Plays has, in general, been "Maistyr of Gramer......[is to teach] the King's beyond the common-and in certain cases, unpreceHenxmon, the children of chapell......the clerkes of the dentedly so. The first adventurer in the track of compila. awmery, and other mon and children of courte ;......which tion was in the person of Mr. Terry, recently a member mayster......if he be a preeste," &c. (p. 51).

of the Edinburgh Theatre. Guy Mannering' was the “ Henxmen, vi Enfauntes, or more, as it shall please subject of his cboice, which he made operatic-inter. the kinge; all these etyng in the halle, and sitting at larded his own language-porverted the position of the bourde togyder......and if these gentylmen, or any of them, original characters--and thus unblushingly and fami. be wardes, then after theyre byrthes and degrees......and liarly attempted to improve on our great Author." everyche of theym an honest servaunt to kepe theyre And so on. Now was not this Mr. Terry, Daniel chambre and harneys [i. e., armour), and to array him in Terry, a friend of Sir Walter Scott's? And did not this courte" (p. 44) "Maistyr of Henxmen, to shew the schooles of

Scott sanction Terry's dramatization of his novels, urbanitie and norture of Englond, to lerne them to ryde and assist him with money in his theatrical specuclenely and surelye ; to drawe hem also to justes ; to lations? Who was the adapter of the plays in the lerne them were theyre harneys; to have all curtesy, in volume I have referred to ? wordes, dedes, and degrees, diligently to kepe them in

S. J. Adair Fitz-GERALD. rules of goynges and sittings ri.e., in rules of preceder after they be of honour (according to their rank). More. Tae QUEEN AND ROBERT OWEN (gib S. iii. 128). over to teche them sondry languages, and other lernynges

|--If this tale is true, it is curious that the incident vertuous, to barping, to pype, sing, daunce......and to kepe.....with these children dew convenitz [sic], with was not referred to when Lord Melbourne's in

rrections in theyre chambres, according to suche gentyl. judicious presentation of Owen to the Queen, in men...... This maistyr sittith in the halle, next unto these 1839, was the subject of such severe animadversion. Henxmen, at the same bourde, to have his respect unto See Torrens's "Memoirs of Lord Melbourne,' ii. theyre demeanynges......and for the fees that he claymyth 345. amonges the Henxmen of all theyre apparayle, the

EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. chamberlayn is Jugo" (p. 45).

Hastings. This shows that they were not menials at all, IRISH CURRENCY : IRISH PLANTATION ACRE but young men of high rank, who rode in tourna- | (86h S. iii. 110).—The English acre is 4,840 square monts :

yards, and the Irish or plantation acre 7,840. 196 "The officers of the ridinge housbold...... Item, five square English are equal to 121 square Irish Henxmen, and one of the seid xii squiers to be maister | acres.

EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. of them...... Item, a hackoey for the benxmen's man" | 71, Brecknock Road. (p. 99).

" Item, the king (Henry VII., A.D. 1494] would. “ TAKING THE WALL(8th S. ii. 386, 536 ; iii. suffer noe lord's servant to awaite there, but onely tbe 113).-This custom is not alluded to in the lines henchmen" (p. 109). "Master of the Henxmen, stabling for six horses "

quoted at the above references, nor are the trans(p. 198).

lations given strictly correct. Walter W. SKEAT.

Latus alicui tegere dicitur, qui virum honoratum vel

stipat ut satellos, vel comitatur ut assecla : atque ad ejus CAARLES STEWART OF BRADFORD-ON- Avon capessenda imperia est expeditus," (2nd S. vi, 327, 359 ; gth S. iii. 154).-Could says Desprez (ed. Lond., 1783), who gives the Sigma do me the great favour to give me any clue following explanatory notes :to the parentage of Cloudesley Stewart, who died “Comes exterior, inferiori parte incedens, honoris defein 1718—his mother was an Eliott ; or to that of rendi causâ. Interior comes, qui ad dextram, exterior Thomas Pym Stewart, living in 1739, nephew of qui ad laevam. Utne legam, &c., Gall. Moy? je servirois Thomas Pym, of Nevig? I should be glad to give

à eslofier à un coquin?any information I could in return. VERNON. I


Burslem. W. H. MORRAY (8th S. ii. 427, 472, 510; "The CHRISTIAN Year '(8th S. iii. 109, 138).iii. 135). —I have a volume of seven dramas MR. MARSHALL would, I think, find that about founded on the plays of and dedicated to the the year 1876 or 1877 the facsimile edition was Unknown, but immortal Author of 'Waverley,'" published and suppressed. I think one of the published in Edinburgh, 1823. According to this masters at Lancing bad something to do with it. work Mr. Murray and Mrs. H. Siddons also played But the Rev. J. Keble, of Bisley, near Stroud, in 'Rob Roy' "before his Majesty, Tuesday, would give full information. The date 1822 is

obviously wrong, since ‘The Christian Year” was first rinted in 1827, though some of the poems had n written so early as 1819. C. Moor.

BURNs IN ART (8° S. ii. 428,451, 472; iii. 11). —It is worth noticing that Burns was not forgotten in sculpture, though scarcely executed in recent times. Dr. Dibdin, in his ‘Literary Reminiscences’ (p. 706), mentions the famous statues of Tam o'Shanter and Souter Johnny, “sculptured by Mr. Thom, the Teniers of the chisel.” He quotes some Latin and English verses upon them, comed by the Rev. William Way, of Glympton É. Oxon. These statues were popularized and multiplied in waxwork shows and in plaster casts innumerable. One wonders in what collection the original statues are at the present time. The other day, happening to be in London, I called on Messrs. Sotheran & Co., and held in my hand the copy of the Kilmarnock edition of Burns which had been stolen from them, and was valued at 75l., published originally at half-a-crown in 1786. It was beautifully bound in morocco, with gilt edges, but the dress seemed to me much too fine for the wearer. This was the copy for stealing of which Sir Peter Edlin sentenced the thief to twelve months' imprisonment on January 4, 1892 (see ‘N. & Q.,’ 8th S. ii. 164). John PICKFord, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

AccuRATE LANGUAGE (8° S. iii. 104).--PROF. ToMLINson's paper on accurate language is calculated to do great good among thoughtful people; but then they are far less in need of instruction than the unthinking folk with whom they are necessarily brought in almost daily contact. The difficulties which surround those who strive after accuracy in expression are manifold, and come from various quarters. Some errors of expression which we have inherited from our forefathers have become so much a part of the language that we must use them, although we are aware that they do not represent the truth. Any one would be a pedant who did not speak of sunrise and sunset, because those who first used these and the like terms thought that the sun and the starry heavens went round the earth once in every twenty-four hours; but, while these and similar terms must be accepted as part of the language, it becomes more and more necessary every day that a line should be drawn somewhere, so that our tongue should not suffer deterioration, and lapse into the vulgarity in which certain so-called humorous writers seem to find so much pleasure. I do not know where the line should run; but the more exclusive we are the better.

The late Prof. Freeman did much good in directing attention to certain terms which are constantly misused. Paraphernalia was a word for which he had a great aversion, holding, rightly

as I think, that it should never be employed out of its true meaning. Within the last few months I have come across, in my reading, mention of the paraphermalia of a horse-race, of oaths, of the devil, of ecclesiastical vestments, of architecture, of asceticism, of meditation, and of the tea-table. Had I had time or inclination to pursue the search, I could have made this list many times as long. EDWARD PEAcocK.

I have read with a great deal of pleasure PROF. ToMLinson's remarks, and I hope the writer will continue to favour us with more on the same subject at an early period. . In the interests of precision too much care cannot be taken to clothe thoughts in pure diction. The slipshod methods in vogue cannot fail to have disastrous effects upon the present and the future generation of hearers and readers. Moreover it is a noble task for ‘N. & Q." to add its valuable aid in pointing out such errors, and a fit corollary to its main work of presenting to English-speaking peoples the origin of the words and phrases that meet us at every turn.

C. H. Collis.

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on sale, Mr. Bohn would, if communicated with, Garter May 12, 1446. Beltz calls him Vicompte enable your correspondent to trace it. I remem- of Chatillon. Can be moan Castelbon, which was ber remarking at the time what a pity it was that a fief of the De Foix family? such a precious record could not be secured for the This De Foix family, in whom the captalate of British Museum, especially as I found, on referring Buch was vested, had borne the name of De to the MS., that monumental inscriptions then Greilly, and only assumed the name of Foix on existing are by no means in all cases still in | the marriage of Archimbault, the third (1) captal of existence.

KENTISH RECTOR, this family, with the heiress of Foix. Archimbault

was uncle of the Captal de Buch who was one of A “CRANK" (8th S. ii. 408, 473 ; iii. 53, 132). the first founders of the Garter, if I remember -If it is my fault that my reference to Shak. rightly, the one who with his cousin Gaston Phoebus, speare's use of this word appears as a citation from Count de Foix of the old line, rescued the Countess 1 Corinthians, I must apologize. The reference is, of Normandy from the Jacquerie of Meaux. This of course, to Coriolanus,' I. i. There is a good captal was not named Foix, though his mother was instance of the use of this word in the sense of of that family. The captals of Buch were here“merry, brisk, lively, jolly,” in Groene’s ‘Groats- ditary partisans of the English. Four were Knights worth of Wit':

of the Garter. Buch lies just below the oyster“ After this Diomedis and Glauci permutatio, my

famed basin of Arcachon, not far from Bordeaux, young master waxed cranke, and the music continuing, while Foix is below Toulouse, three hundred and was very forward in dancing, to show his cunning." more miles away. That an Eoglish earldom should

. C. C. B. have been given to the captals is not surprising. Writing of American hotels, Max O'Rell says:

Whether Gaston was really a peer of Eogland I

know not. His father, John de Foix, surrendered “ You will have to be hungry from 7 to 9 A.M., from 1 to 3 P.M., from 6 to 8 P.M. The slightest infringement

the Garter in 1462, and probably the earldom was of the routine would stop the wheel, so don't ask if you simply a bare title. could have a meal at four o'clock ; you would be taken The“ doyen de Salzbery " ought to be Dean of for a lunatic, or a crank (as they call it in America)." Salisbury; but if the marriage took place on – A Frenchman in America,' pp. 25, 26.

Sept. 29, 1502, the difficulty is that there was no “Lunatic," with us, is more freely applied to those dean. Edward Cheyne, the late dean, died July 25 who are of sound mind than to those who are not, in that year, and bis successor was not elected and I presume that crank is employed in the same until Oct. 10. If, as the quotation from the irresponsible manner. The history of our own ambassador's letter written February, 1503, seems times, in the chapter belonging to this very day to say, the marriage did not take place in 1502, (February 28) contains the telegram by which Mr. but in 1503, then the Dean Thomas Rowthall Mackay, the Silver King, assures his wife that he might easily have been the “ Ambassadeur du Roy is not much the worse for Rippi's attempt to mur-d'Angleterre."

THOMAS WILLIAMS. der him. It runs :

Aston Clinton. “ The old crank that shot me to-day is seventy-three years old. I don't know him ; never saw him before.

Dneces The doctors cut out the ball; the wound is slight. No about the identity of this personage. “Lo doyed reason for the least uneasiness. (Signed) "John,"

de Salzbery" can be no other than the Dean of

St. SWITHIN. Salisbury. This agrees with Sanuto's description “SALZBERY” AND “SOMBRESET" IN 1602 (gth S.

of the ambassador as a doctor and priest. That iii. 101).— I think that the French authority quoted

the ambassador should have been an ecclesiastic for the parentage of Apne, wife of King Wladislaus

ought not to surprise L. L. K., who has noted the

mission of Warbam on another occasion. of Hungary, is right in saying she was a daughter

S. G. H. of Gaston de Foix, Earl of Kendal. Of course Candale is a corrupt form; but I fail to see con- MOUNT ALVERNUS (8th S. iii. 110). This is the fusion. Is there any Candale; or was there then ? mountain alluded to by Dante ('Paradiso,' xi. 106) Anne's mother was Caterina, daughter of Gaston in the words de Foix, Prince of Bearn, by Leonora, Queen of

- crudo sagso intra Tevere od ArnoNavarre. The French writer is wrong in making the mountain on which St. Francis of Assisi Gaston's mother a daughter of Duke Richard de la

Da Cristo preso l'ultimo sigillo, Pole; but she was, I have always believed, a

Che le sue membra due anni portarno. daughter of Michael de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk. The saint's habitation is thus described by the According to the information accessible to me, Bollandist (* Acta Sanctorum,' Oct. ii. p. 647) :-this lady was named Margaret, and she married John Gaston de Foix. He was, as I believe, the cele

“Eremitorium illud ibidem infra [i.e., in the life by

Celanensis) dicitur a loco, in quo positum est, Aumna same person as John de Foix, Earl of Kendal and

hal and nominatum, solo, nisi fallor, apographi nostri vitio : nam Captal de Bach, who was elected a Kaight of the let Tres Socii, et S. Bonaventura, et Anonymus, qui Cela

nensis Opusculo maxime usus fuit in Vita secunda, the last of an ancient family of Normanton, York. locum montem Alverno appellant, isque alias etiam shire, of whom a very good account is given in the Alvernus, Italis il monte Alverno dictus...... Est autem mons hic in arduis Apennini jugis altitudine procerus,

| Dictionary of National Biography. Pepper ab aliis montibus separatus, super quos caput extulit | Arden, afterwards Master of the Rolls and Lord omnes...... Fagi amplæ sunt in cacumine.” '

Alvanley, is also claimed by Dr. Zouch, in a letter Besides the Italian name given in this quota

I have seen, as a pupil of his, but this must have tion the mountain is also called “il monte d'Als been at Cambridge, as Arden was called to the vernia” or “della Verna";* and Miss Starke, who bar before Zouch went to Wycliffe. In another computes its distance east of Florence at about unpublished letter of the doctor's, written in May, fifty miles, writes the name in her well-known | 1814, be laments that during • Guide' (ed. 1829, p. 87) “Lavernia (mons the last twelve months, seven gentlemen who were Alvernus)." The Latin name occurs in the Roman once my pupils have sunk into the grave. Sir Levett Breviary in the sixth lection at matins for the

Hangon will probably make the eighth, as the last feast of St. Francis, where it is said that the saint

account from Denmark represented him very dangerously

ill." " se in solitudinem montis Alverni contulit." There is a local fitness in Macaulay's comparison

In 1793 he was presented to the living of of the big Tuscan's fall to that of a thunder

Scrayingham, Yorkshire, and in 1796 took up smitten oak on the lordliest of his native moun.

his residence at Sandal, on inheriting property taing—“il più glorioso tra gli Apennini di Toscana,

there at the death of his brother Henry. In 1805 anzi di tutta l'Italia," as it is described by Venturi,

he was made a prebendary of Durham, and in 1807 a commentator of Dante. But the simile is appa

refused the bishopric of Carlisle, partly because it rently British rather than Italian, for we see that

I would be a pecuniary loss to him, the ecclesiastical the Bollandist writer notes only beeches as grow

revenues accruing to him at that time being of ing on the summit of the “Monte salvatico." I

greater value than the bishopric. Hunter, the

Yorkshire antiquary, records the doctor's second borrow this appellation from the 'Fioretti,' where, too, we are told that the saint had a little oratory

marriage in his diary (now among the MSS. in the (celluzza povera) erected for bimself“ a piede d'un

| British Museum), under August, 1806, with a faggio bellissimo," which is afterwards referred to

few personal notes about him; he describes the as the “cella del faggio."


bride, Miss Brooke, as "a stiff, formal, old maid." 105, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.E.

Of Henry Zouch, Hunter writes in another of his

manuscript collections that he was an odd man, Alvernus, or Alverno, a mountain in Italy. It and chose to be buried in his own garden, which was there that St. Francis is said to have received adjoined Sandal Churchyard, the minister who the “Stigmata," or marks of the Passion. In officiated standing in the churchyard to read the memory of this Benedict XII, instituted the Feast service; no stone or inscription was put up for him. of the Stigmata of St. Francis.

He was a correspondent of Horace Walpole, and

GEORGE ANGUS. his letters are to be read in Cunningham's edition. St. Andrews, N.B.

Henry Zouch was a very active justice of the peace, Is not this intended for the Mons Alburnus in

and in a letter from him to the Earl of Dartmouth, Lucania ? Smith's 'Dict, of Geography' says that,

in February, 1777, he says:according to Claverius, it is still covered with “My living is under 1001. a year, but a small indeforests of holm-oaks and infested with gadflies. pendency enables me to keop an assistant, and therefore See Virgil, Georg.,' iii. 146. C. DEEDES.

to devote more time to the public service as a deputy

lieutenant and a magistrate than otherwise I should Brighton.

choose to spare." Thomas ZOUCH, D.D., AND HENRY ZOUCH

J. J. C. (8th S. iii, 125).-The following particulars of these HERALDRY (8th S. iii. 127).—The evening divines, in addition to those supplied by MR. paper in question stated a fact well known to HIPWELL, may prove interesting; some of them students of heraldry. Cf., e.g., Mr. Woodward's have not, I believe, previously appeared in print. Treatise on Heraldry' (1892), chap. ii., “On the Thomas Zouch was of Trinity College, Cambridge, Origin and Development of Coat Armour." and took his degree as third wrangler in 1761.

L. L. K. He became a fellow of his college, and in 1770 was presented to the living of Wycliffo on Tees.

St. GrasinoS (8th S. ii. 107). - "Item in Here for ten years he took private pupils, three

Palæstina ad ripam Jordanis S. Gerasini Anaat a time; among them were his nephew, William

choretæ, qui tempore Zenonis Imperatoris floruit" Lowther, afterwards Pitt's friend and first Earl of

|(Martyr. Rom.,' Baron., ad Mart. 5). There is Lonsdale, and the eccentric Sir” Lovett Hanson,

reference in the notes to Lipom., t. v., Surius,

t. V., with “De aliis admirandis ejusdem rebus * “Si chiama il monte della Vernia " ( Fioretti di gestis habes in prato spirituali, cap. 107.” He was S. Francesco,' Florence, 1845, p. 176).

commemorated in the Greek Church on March 4.

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