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working days, broken only by Sundays, upon which day ne does no work."

Upon that calculation, Mr. Marion Crawford must have written Don Orsino' in twenty-nine days, exclusive of Sundays. A remarkable record! RICHARD EDGCUMBE.

2, Reichs Strasse, Dresden.


We must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that the answers may be addressed to them direct.

where seen, that a turbulent mob, whether of
soldiers or civilians, did visit the Chartreuse, and
that their leader or officer, opening the album on
the first words of the ode, "O ta severi relligio
loci," and mistaking their drift, or being unable
to construe them, said, " Apparemment ce livre-ci
est quelque chose d'hérétique," or something of the
sort. I should be much obliged to any reader of
'N. & Q.' who will give me chapter and book for
this story as soon as possible.
D. C. T.

"THE REPUBLIC OF LETTERS." - Seeing this phrase used by Tom Paine in 1783, Mr. Moncure Conway asked me how old it was in English: did it come in about Paine's time? No dictionary

for France is Montesquieu's 'Lettres Persanes.'
Prof. S. R. Gardiner now sends me the phrase
from a letter by W. King, Archbishop of Dublin,
dated January 7, 1719: "The death of Dr. Hud-
son is a loss to the republick of letters." This is
from the new 'Catalogue of Rawlinson Documents
in the Bodleian,' MS. in vol. 742, No. 40. Can any
'N. & Q.' man give an earlier instance of this
F. J. F.

LADY OF THE BED-CHAMBER.-In an old num-gave any help save Littré, whose earliest extract ber of N. & Q.' (if any number ever is old), 7th S. v. 289, I find the remark, "Philippa Chaucer was a lady of the bed-chamber (domicella camera Regina), and therefore married, in 1366." Why "therefore"? I do not dispute it; but I desire the proof, or a reference to some authority. I may add that I believe it to be right. But we are contually being told that Philippa was not married till later. A reply, with a reference, will much oblige. WALTER W. SKEAT.

"JOSEPH DICKEN, of Burminghim, co. Warwick, short cutter." This is from a will made 1722, and I would like to appeal to a local antiquary for information, first, as to what is a "short cutter "; and, secondly, is it likely that any entry as to the parents of Joseph Dicken may be found in the books of a local guild? I am supposing that he would probably serve an apprenticeship either at Birmingham or Sheffield. F. HASLEWOOD. 2, King Edward Road, Rochester.

ENGLISHMEN WHO DIED AT CONSTANTINOPLE IN 1640-50.-Is there any record now in existence which shows the exact dates (during that period) of their deaths and burials; if so, where is it; and what is it? Where would their wills have been proved? C. MASON.

29, Emperor's Gate, S.W.

GRAY'S ALCAIC ODE WRITTEN IN THE ALBUM OF THE GRANDE CHARTREUSE.-It is stated that "the original of this, which was much valued by the monks, was destroyed during the French Revolution by a mob from Grenoble." I find this both in Mr. Gosse's and Dr. Bradshaw's editions of the poem, and believe I have seen it also elsewhere. Mitford, however, says :

"When I spent a day at the monastery, I looked over the album, and inquired anxiously for the original entry, but found that it had long disappeared. The collectors, who like vultures followed the French revolutionary armies over the Continent, swept away everything that ignorance and barbarity had previously spared."

I cannot reconcile these statements; but I have a recollection of an anecdote, which I have some

HERALDRY. What family in England bears the following arms: Three greyhounds courant argent, on a field azure; and were they borne by the Barons D'Yvetot in Normandy? SNAPDRAGON.

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COMMINES. I am searching for information as to editions of De Commines's Mémoires,' printed out of France or the United Kingdom, either in French or translated. The particulars desired are: title, date, place and printer, number of volumes, format, collation, and name of translator or of editor; but I shall be glad of any details and thankful to all who will communicate with me at the address given below.

W. ALEXANDer Smith. Red House, North Collingham, Newark,

SIR RALPH ASHTON.-Will some one kindly tell me where Sir Ralph Ashton, Sheriff of Yorks R. J. HILL. 1472-3, lived?

Salton Vicarage, York.

GESTRUM.-Will some one tell me the meaning of gestrum, 66 gestrum vel aliud defensibile trahere infra ecclesiam"? It is found in the account of the Visitation 1473. R. J. HILL.

Salton Vicarage, York.

ADAMS OF GORE HALL, KENT. - Will some one kindly give me information concerning this family? BEAULIEU.

CELTIC.-Can anybody kindly indicate to me the book which best shows (what no book can, of course, show well) the true pronunciation of the Celtic language? The Gaelic will do. The Rev.

Wm. Neilson wrote in 1808 an Irish grammar, but his orthographical instructions are simply ridiculous and impossible. He says, for instance, that every letter in Irish is sounded except f and s before lor r, and then he says ea short is pronounced as in heart; he gives ceart just as the example, so this would be pronounced cart; that is to say, the e is not pronounced at all. He pretends there are thirteen diphthongs, and half of them, as be indicates, either drop one of the vowels entirely or are pronounced each separately. These are only a few of the absurd contradictions in his book. It is quite bad enough to be bored with the natural difficulties, but if you import them grammar grows impossible. C. A. WARD.

BRIDGE AND CULVERT.-Will one of your readers be so kind as to explain the precise difference between these? I ask because a dispute has arisen in a certain county as to whether a particular structure is or is not a bridge. If it is, then the County Council are bound to take it over and keep it in order. If not, then its maintenance falls on the parish. The county surveyor reports that it is a culvert, on the ground (which seems somewhat arbitrary) that its diameter is only two feet nine inches, whereas he has never known a bridge less than three feet in diameter. The use of the structure is twofold. It takes under the road the surplus water from some marshes adjoining, and it empties the tidal waters, which not only go under it, but occasionally over it as well, road and all. But the use of the dyke which it serves to empty is not very apparent, and possibly it might be filled up with advantage, though only at very great expense. The structure has brick wings, which make it look something greater than a culvert; but whether it may be dignified with the title of bridge is the question at issue. The 'N. E. D.' does not help me, as it defines a bridge as "a structure forming or carrying a road over a river, ravine, &c." The "&c." makes the definition indefinite. H. I.

ANNE KIRKEET.-It is stated that the third wife of Sir Thomas Chamberlayne, of Prestbury, co. Glouc., who died temp. Elizabeth, was Anne Kirkeet, half sister to Anthony Monk, of Potheridge, Devonshire. Further information regarding this lady is desired. As Thomas Monk, father of Anthony, had married Frances (Plantagenet), widow of John Basset, of Umberleigh, it may be presumed that Anne Kirkeet was Basset's daughter.

Long Burton, Sherborne.


POST-OFFICE GRAMMAR.-I should like to be informed if the Postmaster-General of the day was correct in his grammar when on the back of the postcard he placed the word "only" where it is. As the instruction reads at present we are told that

"The address only to be written on this side." Might not this mean that the address may be written, but not printed? And would it not have been more correct to say, "Only the address to be written on this side"? The placing of the adverb "only" has become so varied in our speaking and writing now, that an authoritative opinion on the point would be of service. A. W. B.

[The use of the word "only" is discussed 7th S. iii. 406, 501; iv. 405.]

"CYNEGAN'S FEAST."-What is the story of this feast? It is alluded to in chap. xxvi. of Miss Broughton's 'Red as a Rose is She': "At Mas Berwyn it is generally a case of 'Cynegan's Feast,'” or enough and no waste. JAMES HOOper. Norwich.

local topographer, 1839, tells us that this village BANGOR, PRESTON CANDOVER, HANTS.-A has in its neighbourhood several barrows, and a road passes over the tract of land which was down before the enclosure, and which may possibly have been of Roman origin, leading from their numerous stations in the north-western parts of the Whether Mr. Duthy is right in this identification country towards Farnham, the ancient Vindomis." of Farnham as Vindomis of course is doubtful, but the existence of many barrows near the drove attached to a wood near this road reminds us (as way is a fact, and the survival of a name Bangor the late Lord Carnarvon tells us in his lecture upon Hampshire) that "the Candovers with their The word is said to denote the high or conspicuous Bangor copse is a name breathing Druidism." choir. Bangor in Preston Candover is on the highest ground of the immediate neighbourhood; as the Bangor in Carmarthen is said to have been If Druid or early Christians, before the arrival of a college of the mysterious priests called Culdees. priests from Rome, inhabited such a place, it is possible that the name Preston or Priest Town may have had an earlier explanation than that of the clerici and presbyter mentioned in Domesday Book. Are there any references in Anglo-Saxon records or charters to such a college in the country of the Belgæ, or in a district which may be referred to North Hants, or, indeed, in the south of England; and if so, where? What is the accepted derivation at the present time of the word Bangor; and what modern book gives the latest views of the early inhabitants of the country by whom these places were so named? VICAR.

COFFEE.-Is there any reference to coffee in any English writer before Parkinson? He describes it (Theatrum Botanicum,' London, 1640, p. 1622), under the head of Strange and Outlandish Plantes," as "Arbor Bon cum suo Buna. The Turkes Berry drinke." His work being somewhat rare, the description may perhaps be quoted here:


Alpinus, in his Booke of Egiptian plants, giveth us a description of this tree, which as hee saith, hee saw in the garden of a certaine Captaine of the Tanissaries, which was brought out of Arabia felix, and there planted as a rarity, never seene growing in those places before. The tree, saith Alpinus, is somewhat like unto the Evonymus Pricketimber tree, whose leaves were thicker, harder, and greener, and alwayes abiding greene on the tree; the fruite is called Buna, and is somewhat bigger then an Hazell Nut and longer, round also, and pointed at the one end, furrowed also on both sides, yet on one side more conspicuous then the other, that it might be parted in two, in each side whereof lyeth a small long white kernell, flat on that side they joyne together, covered with a yellowish skinne, of an acid taste, and somewhat bitter withall and contained in a thinne shell, of a darkish ash-colour with these berries generally in Arabia and Egipt, and in other places of the Turkes Dominions, they make a decoction or drinke, which is in the stead of Wine to them, and generally sold in all their tappe houses, called by the name of Caova; Paludamus saith Choava, and Rauwolfius Chaube. This drinke hath many good physicall properties therein for it strengtheneth a weake stomacke, helpeth digestion, and the tumours and obstructions of the liver and spleene, being drunke fasting for some time together."

He adds more to the effect that the berry is an emmenagogue and a purgative, and gives an excellent figure of a branch of the plant, with fruit detached. This appeared some ten years before coffee itself was introduced into England. Rauwolff's account of coffee occurs in his Travels' (p. 92 of Staphorst's translation, Ray's' Collection,' London, 1693). He says it is

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a very good Drink, by them called Chaube, that is almost as black as Ink, and very good in illness, chiefly of the Stomach; of this they drink in the Morning early in open places before everybody, without any fear or regard out of China Cups, as hot as they can, they put it often to their Lips but drink but little at a time, and let it go round as they sit."

His description of the plant agrees with that of Alpinus, quoted by Parkinson, but he calls the fruit bunru, and says it comes from "the Indies." In the catalogue of Egyptian plants given by Ray at the end of his 'Collection the coffee-plant is included, with a reference to Parkinson : Ban vel Bon arbor J. B. Item Buna, Bunnu, & Bunchos Arabum ejusdem. Bon arbor cum fructu suo Buna, Park., &c."

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C. C. B. [Purchas, under the head of 'Observations of Mr. Finch, Merchant,' says: "Their best entertainment is a china dish of Coho, a blacke bitterish drinke, made of a berry like a Bayberry, brought from Mecca, supped off hot, good for the head and stomache." The date of the voyage was 1607. Bacon, in Sylva Sylvarum, written in 1624, says "They have in Turkey a drink called Coffee made of a berry of the same name, as black as soot," &c. See Robinson's Early History of CoffeeHouses in England.']

ST. THOMAS OF WATERING. How did this name arise? I have seen two derivations suggested-a translation of Aquinas and a well dedicated to Becket. Is the derivation known with certainty ? HERMENTRUDE.



(8th S. iii. 126.)

Stilbon appears to be a mediæval form of Stilpo. Cooper's Thesaurus' (1587) has, "Stilbo, a Philosopher, looke Stilpo," who, it appears, was a Stoic philosopher of Megara. He flourished 336 B.C. (see Lemprière). The name occurs also in the Entheticus' of John of Salisbury, 1. 211:—

Transit in Amplexus Stilbontis Philologia. It is just possible that Chaucer may have seen the name there, as he appears to have been well acquainted with the Polycraticus'; and I am inclined to think that the influence of the Latin writers of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries on the writings of Chaucer seems scarcely to have been fully realized by his commentators. For instance, the deification of Nature, which forms the subject of more than one note in Bell's edition of Chaucer, is largely traceable to the influence of Alanus de Insulis. In his work 'De Planctu Naturæ,' Nature appears in gorgeous apparel, and complains of the depravity of the human race. She is addressed as "Regina cœlestis," » "Mundanæ regionis regina," &c., and declares herself to be "Dei gratia mundane civitatis vicaria procuratrix" and "vicariam sui." Compare Chaucer (Bell's ed., vol. ii. p. 58):—

And vol.

For He that is the Former principal
Hath maad me his viker general.
ii. p. 375:—

Nature, the vicar of the Almightie Lord.
Assembly of Foules,' Chaucer appears to

In the
have been further indebted to

Alain in the Plaint of Kinde,

for his list of birds, although, as was his wont, he has made large omissions and alterations. Thus Alan: "Illic Bubo, propheta miseriæ psalmodias funereæ lamentationis præcinebat." Chaucer:

The oul eke, that of deth the bode bringeth.

Alan: "Illic gallus, tanquam vulgaris astrologus suæ vocis horologio horarum loquebatur discrimina." Chaucer:

The Cocke, that horiloge is of thorpes lite. Alan: "Illic olor, sui funeris præco." Chaucer:

The jelous swan, ayenst his deth that singeth. Alan: "Illic gallus silvestris, privatioris galli diridens disidiam, peregre proficiscens, nemorales peragrabat provincias." Chaucer substitutes the pheasant for the woodcock; but if this may be considered as the original of the line

The fesaunt, scorner of the cocke by night both the sense of the line and the character of the "fesaunt" will be clearer.

The quaint expression of the "smale foules" defiance of the fowler and his "sophistrye," in the

'Legende of Goode Women,' may perhaps have its origin in Alan's "Illic perdix, nunc aeriæ potestatis insultus, nunc venatorum sophismata, nunc canum latratus propheticos abhorrebat."

Chaucer appears to have been well acquainted with the works of John of Salisbury, Nigellus Wireker, Alanus de Insulis, Geoffrey of Vinsauf, and other Anglo-Latin writers (I am inclined strongly to the opinion that the reference to "Bernarde the Monke," Prologue Leg. of G. Women,' applies to the English-born Bernard of Morlaix, but Prof. Skeat will none of it), a careful study of whose works would probably elucidate many passages in Chaucer. E. S. A.

SIR JEROME BOWES (8th S. ii. 382).—I find I have overlooked an important letter in Martens. It is Queen Elizabeth's reply to the Czar, dated March, 1586, which Sir Jerome Horsey took back with him on his return to Moscow. The queen, in this letter, refers once more to the sword incident, and tells the Czar that in England it would be considered great dishonour if a gentleman were obliged to give up his sword, and that the treatment received at the hands of the Czar's servants has deeply wounded her ambassador's (Bowes's) feelings, who has not yet got over the affair. However, continues the queen, as Horsey tells her that it is customary in Russia to give up the sword before an audience, she will forget the incident and not dwell further thereon (vol. ix. (x.) p. xlix). It is difficult to reconcile this statement by Horsey with the account given in his book of Bowes's first reception at the Russian Court. We are told that the streets were lined with people and a thousand gunners from the ambassador's lodgings to the Czar's palace. A "duke" called for the English ambassador, but as the horse ridden by the "duke" was a better one than the one intended for Bowes, our expert in etiquette best suited for semibarbarian courts point-blank refused to accept the horse, and "mounted on his own foot-clothe," as Horsey puts it, that is, preferred to walk. The populace, displeased with his message, the purport of which they guessed, jeered at him, and received him with shouts of "" carluke," which Horsey translates as "crane's legges," but which was probably intended for the Russian word for "dwarf" or mannikin." Arrived at the palace, another "duke" received Bowes, and intimated to him that he had kept the Czar waiting; to which Sir Jerome bluntly replied that he had come as fast as he could. And so forth; every small incident is mentioned, but not a single word about a demand for his sword. We have very detailed descriptions of the receptions of other ambassadors at the Russian Court, as, e. g., those of Herberstein in 1517 and 1526, related by himself; of Stephen Kakas, Rudolf II.'s ambassador to Boris Fédorovitch, in 1602, related by himself, and another


version of the same reception by his servant, George Tectander von der Jabel, who has left also an account of the audience of Henri de Logau, ambassador from the same emperor to the same czar, in 1604. All these descriptions, like Horsey's own of Sir Jerome Bowes's audience, are silent on the alleged custom of delivering the sword. Probably, therefore, Horsey's statement in this matter was only a diplomatic" one, such a one as does occasionally fall from the lips of clever diplomats and courtiers brought up in the school initiated by Ananias, developed by Macchiavelli, and brought to perfection by Talleyrand. Sir Jerome Bowes had several audiences, and it seems strange that it should have been at the very last that the Russian courtiers should have thought it necessary to teach him the rules of etiquette followed at the Czar's Court. L. L. K.

HARVEY FAMILY (5th S. xi. 449 ; xii. 32).—The Sir John Scott in question was a wealthy "merchant" ("Cit. and Soapmaker") and D.L. of London, who resided at Enfield, co. Middlesex, and was knighted at Windsor Castle March 18, 1707/8. He died Oct. 10, 1719. Will dated Aug. 28, 1719, with codicil Sept. 10 following; proved P.C.C., Feb. 24, 1719/20 (Shaller, 43). The original of the MS. pedigree referred to is among our old family papers, now in my possession; but the statement therein that Catherine Harvey married "a son of Sir John Scott," is apparently incorrect. Her husband, John Scott, also "of London, Soapmaker," being his nephew. She died March 7, 1719/20, ct. twenty-five, and was buried at Uxbridge Chapel, co. Middlesex (Admon. P.C.C., 23 same month). He died Feb. 24, 1722/3, at. thirty, and was buried near his wife, both with M.I.; will dated Feb. 16, 1722/3, and proved P.C.C., 25 same month (Richmond, 39). These Scotts appear to have descended from a family of the same name at Stapleford-Tawney, co. Essex, whose arms were, according to Warburton, Per pale indented arg. and sa., a saltire counterchanged.

W. I. R. V.

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injustice to "that excellent man and excellent poet William Cowper," as Macaulay rightly calls him, to say that "it was the immortal labours of Clarkson, Wilberforce, and others, that first awakened the national conscience to the iniquities of the traffic in human beings." "The Task' was finished in 1784; and near the beginning of book ii. Cowper denounces the slave trade, and nobly says he would much rather be

himself the slave,

And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him, In 1784, Wilberforce was twenty-five, Clarkson twenty-four, Zachary Macaulay sixteen, and Sir T. Fowell Buxton was not born. See also Cowper's poems, 'The Negro's Complaint,' 'Pity for Poor Africans,' and 'The Morning Dream,' written at the request of Cowper's relative General Cowper, the first in 1788, the two others about the same time. When were these three last-mentioned poems first published? No doubt it was Wilberforce and his colleagues who first fully "awakened the national conscience to the iniquities of the traffic in human beings," but I think Cowper also deserves to be honourably remembered in connexion with the matter. Heaven bless the gentle poet's memory!

When, one by one, sweet sounds and wandering lights He wore no less a loving face because so broken-hearted.


Ropley, Alresford.


MISTAKE: MISTAKEN (8th S. ii. 404; iii. 19). -The use of mistaken in the sense of being in error, or guilty of a mistake, is older than Milton's time. Shakespeare has the word more than once: How will this fadge? My master loves her dearly; And I, poor monster, fond as much on him; And she, mistaken, seems to dote on me.

"Twelfth Night,' II. ii. 34-6. You are mistaken. 'Cymbeline,' I. iv. 89. I beseech you, pardon me, my lord, if I be mistaken. King Lear,' I. iv, 69-70. I have used the Globe edition of Shakespeare's works. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY.

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MARROW-BONES AND CLEAVERS (1st S. x. 87; 3rd S. v. 356, 467, 524; vi. 40, 158, 275; 7th S. xi. 287, 478).—The following document, which I found amongst some old family papers, may, I think,

interest the readers of 'N. & Q.':

"My Lord,-May it Please your Lordship with Permission. We, the Kings Royal Bell Ringers and the Marrowbones and Cleavers Payes our Usal and Customary Respects in Wishing your Lordship Joy of Comenge to your Titles and Estates and your Safe arrival to Toun hoping to Receve a Token of your Lordships Goodness as We have from other Noblemen on the Like Honourable Occasions. Being in Waiting your Lordships Goodness and have our Book of other Noblemen's Names to Shew. Having our Marrowbones & Cleavers all Ready to perform if Reqired."

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"BROUETTE" (8th S. iii. 27, 70).—The following item from the Almanach du Voyageur à Paris' for 1785 (which I have just disentombed from my lumber) is, I trust, sufficiently interesting to

deserve addition to my note:

sortent guère de la ville: elles se prennent à l'heure, à la journée & à la course. Leur prix est de 18 sous pour la première heure, & 16 sous pour les suivante [sic]." La course se paye 18 sous.

"Brouettes et Chaises à Porteurs.-Ces voitures ne

"Les Chaises à Porteurs se payent 30 sous par course, & autant pour la première heure, & les suivantes à 21


This appears at p. 104, and at p. 106 we learn that there was actually a Bureau des Brouettes in the Rue Saint-Victor.

MR. BOUCHIER must be quite satisfied with the replies he has received, but his picture of the "female markis" in a wheelbarrow is not so visionary as may be thought. Génin, who has a lengthy note on the brouette at the place cited in my previous note, says that once when he was turning over a manuscript of the Bibliothèque Impériale - the prose romance, he thinks, of 'Merlin'-he noticed a miniature representing a woman seated on a wheelbarrow which was drawn along by a young man. Let MR. BOUCHIER note here that a wheelbarrow is poussée or traînée according to the whim of the mover. As to the other brouette-the "petit carrosse à deux roues qu'un homme traîne au lieu de cheval," to quote Cormon's description of it in 1789-it has long vanished from use, says Génin, and almost from memory. F. ADAMS.


MR. BOUCHIER asks, "Are not wheelbarrows used at the present day as a means of personal conveyance in China?" They are. The present writer in 1890 saw them at Shanghai in every rican pattern, so that two passengers could sit They were wider than the common Ameabreast, or a man would have his trunk carried beside him. A French traveller of the same year described this vehicle as a brouette. It seemed to be viewed as a more plebeian carriage than a jin-rik-sha, and was built just after the English type of wheelbarrow. Madison, Wis.


PARISH EKE-NAMES (8th S. iii. 46, 132).—I wish to supplement what other correspondents have said

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