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So far as I am able I will explain the method of production adopted by Miers and other contemporary silhouettistes, as requested by your correspondent. I would mention en avance that David Allan, during his residence in Rome, sent home to Edinburgh his prize picture of the Corinthian Maid depicting her lover, which subject is usually styled “The Origin of Design.” Miers appears to have turned this idea to account by advertising a similar method of producing portraits in the newspapers, as well as by issuing an elaborately engraved card (vide “Watson” bequest, N. P. G., Edin.). The modus operandi was simply this: A sheet of white paper was affixed to the wall, the sitter was placed in a chair parallel, but in close proximity—at a sufficient distance to reveal the shadow of the entire side of the head reflected from a light at a suitable position. The extreme outline of the shadow was then rapidly drawn in with a crayon. I do not agree with the former reference (4° S. iv. 318), stating the outlines to be “life” size. I have seen several in looking for the Burns “shade,” believing it to be in London, and I find that the projection of the shadow displayed a head much larger than life, in proportion to the distance of the light from the sitter. This outline, or “shade,” had now to be reduced to miniature proportions, which was performed by the use of the pantograph (an instrument of very early origin). Scissors were now applied to the reduction on black paper, producing the silhouette or profile. Accepting the point of resemblance with the Nasmyth portrait, viz., the tip-tilted nose (which, by-the-by, no other member of the family possessed), and the queue of the profile, which the poet undoubtedly adopted at this period —where, may I ask, does the head of Burns come in 1 Will EFFIGIEs kindly take the cast of the poet's skull in his hands (there are many available) and view it laterally. The enormous length will probably astonish him. Altogether it is a large skull—larger than the average even of Scotch heads (twenty-two and a quarter inches in circumference). This length is due to the great magnitude of the anterior lobe. If Effigies will make an outline of the anterior view, and lay the Miers profile upon it, he will probably not waste much further thought upon this too minute “snap-shot.”
Edward BARRINgtoN NASH. Chelsea, S.W.
EFFIGIEs may be interested to read the annexed entry in a catalogue of books for the library:— 83. Burns (Robert), Poems, chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, first Edinburgh Edition, fine portrait by Beugo, with dedication to the members of the Caledonian Hunt, and List of Subscribers. 8vo, fine copy, in contemporary # calf, gilt, yellow edges, rare, 31.10s. Edinburgh, In another catalogue for November the followg are very much lower in price:–
152. Burns (R.), Poems, chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, first Edinburgh edition, portrait by Nasmyth. 8vo., half calf, very scarce, ll. 12s. 6d. 1787.
155. Burns, Poems, chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, portrait. 2 vols. in 1, post 8vo., calf, 6s. 6d. 1794.
Catalogue of the Art Treasures of the United Kingdom, collected at Manchester in 1857, gives the following, which will answer EFFIGIES's in
quiry:— Alex. Nasmyth. 317. Robert Burns. Colonel William Nicol Burns. Engraved in 1787 by Beugo, for the second edition of Burns's Poems. This picture hung in the poet's house in the poet's lifetime. 318. Robert Burns. Sir H. H. Campbell. These two pictures were hung in British Portrait Gallery, central hall, back of Saloon E. The pictures were all described under the names given by their owners at that time. FREDERIck LAwrENCE TAvARá. 30, Rusholme Grove, Rusholme, Manchester.
Small full length (posthumous).
Sophy Daws (7th S. vii. 248, 314, 432; 8” S. ii. 537).-The latest investigation of this interesting story, which undoubtedly played a great part in bringing about the fall of the Orleans family, is to be found in a recently published book, “Marie-Amélie au Palais-Royal.’ It is there stated that “Sophy Dawes” was the daughter of a poor fisherman in the Isle of Wight, was born about 1795, and obtained her influence over the Duc de Bourbon in 1817. In 1818 the duke married her to a man whose honour has never been in doubt, who believed her to be the duke's daughter, and who separated from her very shortly afterwards when he discovered the real facts. Louis Philippe, although his politics and those of the Duc de Bourbon were very different, had always been extremely civil to the duke and to Madame de Feuchères, as well as to the duke's wife, his aunt, who was separated from her husband. Oddly enough, Louis Philippe became, directly or indirectly, the heir of both duke and duchess, so curiously does wealth go to wealth. The date of the will of the last of the princes of Condé, in favour of Louis Philippe's son and of Madame de Feuchères, was 1829. Louis Philippe spent with the Duc de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, the day of the signature by Charles XI. of the famous ordinances, but Marie-Amélie went with him, which, as Madame de Feuchères was the hostess, was an act with which the future queen was much reproached. The very palace at which the Orleans family were received in July, 1830, by the Duc de Bourbon had been left, as they were aware, to Madame de Feuchères by the will mainly in favour of the young Duc d'Aumale, made in the previous year. A letter of September, 1829, from the duke to Marie-Amélie, shows that there was no possibility of concealment of the fact
that the will had been obtained through the in- shakos. In 1824 Lady Londonderry appeared in fluence of Madame de Feuchères. The division of a busby, as if in protest, at a review of the 10th the fortune between the Duc d'Aumale and Light Dragoons (Hussars) by her husband. (See Madame de Feuchères is computed to have given Liddell's Memoirs of the i0th Hussars.') But about five millions sterling to the former and neither the 10th nor the 8th, who were equipped about half a million sterling to the latter,
as Hussars on return from India in 1824, nor the Immediately after Louis Philippe had come to other regiments of like equipment, received furthe throne by revolutionary means, the last of the caps for some years. In 1840 the 11th Light Condés tried to fly the country, concealing his Dragoons were not only equipped as Hussars, but departure from Madame de Feuchères, and was received their absolute title as such, other registrangled in the night. S. D. S. is not quite right ments still retaining the title Light Dragoons, in saying that the great trial bad been in 1832, as with the explanatory (Hussars) in parentheses. In Hennequin's speeches were made December 9, 1841 Her Majesty was“ pleased to approve of the 1831, and January 13, 1832. Madame de Feu: | 10th or Prince of Wales's Own Royal Regiment of chères won her case, and was received at the Dragoons (Hussars) resuming the fur bussar cap palace by the king and queen for the remainder of formerly worn by that regiment." (See Liddellis her life, although the latest historian points out 'Memoirs.) that Dupin (the first), the brother of her advocate, In 1846, however, the head-dress is described in would not himself receive her.
T. L. I.
the Dress Regulations as a busby. In Malet's
1History of the 18th Hussars,' where December 25, BUSBY (8th S. ii. 468, 491).-Although it is the 1807, is given as the date of the regiment's receivthing, and not the word, about which MR. Gossing permission to be clothed as Hussars, the words asks for information, it may be presumed that he “busby-bag blue” occur. Though the words are would not have written his query without pre- not given as a quotation, the ‘N. E. D.' accepts vious reference to the ‘N. E. D.' for information this as an early use of the word busby. As it on both, and that he is dissatisfied with what he seems exceptionally early, it would be interesting finds. This may well be, as it is only as an to know if the words are those of a warrant or example of the use of the word that the those of the author recording the fact. 'N. E. D.' quotes the 'Imperial Dictionary' to As for the history of the word, MR. Goss is the effect that the bag appears to be a relic of a doubtless aware that Dr. MURRAY, wbile preparing Hungarian head-dress from which a long padded his letter B, applied, like a wise lexicographer, to bag hung over, and was attached to the right 'N. & Q.' for further information, dissatisfied, shoulder as a defence against sword-cuts. The apparently, with the suggestions already made in only alternative I can offer to MR. Goss is that its pages. These were two. The first (6th S. ii. many years ago, “when I first put this uniform 455) was that it originated in the Hungarian word on," I received the impression that the busby vasföveg : turning the v's and f into b's we get originated in the red cotton night-cap, the top of something very like busbybag. But what is the use which, of different material and subject to varia of this if vasföveg does not mean the tbing in tions of colour, still hangg down outside the fur. question ?-and it is not pretended that it does. cap, while the fur-cap itself was in the first place The second (6th S. iii. 95) was that it came from a only a roll of fur to keep the head warm in cold firm of hatters, Busby & Walker having sold hats weather--a fact much impressed upon my head as in the Strand till 1812, and Busby & Son in Bond I rode one warm August from London to Leeds. Street in 1831. This was an ingenious suggestion,
One does not obtain much guidance in the notwithstanding the want of practical acquaintmatter from the circumstances attending the first ance with the subiect shown by the suggestor in equipment with fur - caps of regiments in the presuming that the term was never officially used. British service, particularly as the term fur-cap There are now many Busbies trading in London, seems not only to have been in general use from and some farming in Warwickshire; but I find their introduction in about 1807 to their abolition pone connected with the batting interest. Howin 1822, but to have been used again on their ever, Dr. MURRAY'S query elicited no further inresumption by the same regiments in 1841. formation, and the word appears in the 'N. E. D.' British Hussar troops had existed in the last without a pedigree.
KILLIGREW. century. But it was only on April 14, 1811, that & warrant sanctioned the equipment of four regi. A most atrocious etymology of “busby” from ments of our Light Dragoons as Hussars. These Magyar föveg was published many years ago in regiments, which received fur-caps as part of their ‘N. & Q.' The 'N. E. D.' is more cautious, of equipment, were the 7th, 10th, 15th, and 18th course, and states that its derivation is unknown. Light Dragoons, the last of which was disbanded According to the same authority, Busby is the in 1821, and resuscitated in 1858. In 1822 British name (1) of a place, (2) of a family, (3) of a wig, Light Dragoons equipped as Hussars received and (4) of the well-known military head-gear.
Busbies of the exact shape worn in our days by occasionally to hear him preach, and being much English regulars and volunteers were worn by the struck with his fine commanding appearance and Hungarian body-guard of Maria Theresia at her massive head, indicating intellect of the highest coronation in 1741, as shown on a contemporary order. At that time Alderman Gibbs, concerning engraving in the Pozsony town museum. The whom so much was said and at whose expense Punch prototype of the busby-i.e., a cloth bag or cap, was facetious, was church warden of St. Stephen's, trimmed with fur more or less deep-was worn by and in that year (1844) he was elected Lord Mayor. Hungarian soldiers as far back as the times of the A fine and life-like bust, in marble, was executed Emperor Maximilian I. at least, and is shown on of Dr. Croly, representing him in cassock, gown, Burgkmair's 'Triumphzug Kaiser Maximilian 1.' and bands, and this was engraved on a reduced It is probably much older than the fifteenth cen- scale in the Illustrated News, about 1845, accomtury, and is common to the whole East, where panied by a memoir. He died in 1860. winters are cold and furred animals common.
John PICKFORD, M.A. If we are to believe your correspondent D., Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. the only people who wear busbies in Hungary are
I have a strong impression that my parents used the three “common” ministers for foreign affairs, to speak of him as sometime curate of St. Paul, joint finance, and war, and their subordinates,
ates, Covent Garden. The period would agree viz., because these are the only people who happen
prior to 1835.
DOSSETOR. to be Austro-Hungarian officials.” May 1, there
* Tunbridge Wells. fore, inform him that the busby forms part of the national (not "local") Hungarian dress, and may « TO BONE" (8th S. ii. 190, 312, 456).—There be worn by anybody
L. L. K. cannot be a doubt that MR. ADAMS is correct in This head-dress has its origin ag the national his interpretation of this expression. In my new hat of the Hungarians. From 1806, the year in
edition of Phrase and Fable,' which I am prewhich the first English Light Dragoon Regiment parios,
paring, I explain the word thus :was clothed as Hussars, and certainly up to 1821,
"Shakespeare (“2 Hen. VI.,' Act I. sc. iii.) calls the the only term by which their head-dress was
ten fingers, the ten bones: ‘By these ten bones, my lord';
......and Hamlet (Ill. ii.) calls them 'pickers and known was the “fur-cap." I should be glad to stealers.'” know how and when the name busby originated.
Putting the two together, there can be no doubt For the last few years I have heard this name of
that “to bone" is to finger, that is, to pick and busby given to the Fusilier cap, though bearing steal.
E. COBHAM BREWER. no resemblance to the Hussar busby.
Harold Malet, Col. POEMS IN THE GREEK ANTHOLOGY (8th S. ii. See the 'New English Dictionary.'s. .. where | 149, 337).—The original of “ Dead, my first-born," it is stated “ derivation unknown."" W. 6. B. will be found in ' Appendix Epigrammatum,' 278,
vol. iii. of the Tauchnitz (1829) edition of the The origin of the Hussar or Artillery cap being
P. J. F. GANTILLON. called a busby has often been the subject of an inquiry in ‘N. & Q.,' but at present without any BALE (8th S. ii. 389).—Mr. Charles Sackville satisfactory reply being received. See ‘N. & Q.,' Bale, a distinguished and very wealthy collector of 2nd S. iii. 508; X. 429; 5th S. viii. 49; 6th S. ii. works of art and antiquity, a liberal lender of his 247, 454; iii. 94; iv. 98; 7th S. iv. 27, 334. acquisitions for public enjoyment, a man of con
EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. siderable accomplishment and a fine and curious 71, Brecknock Road.
taste, died on November 28, 1880, aged eightyRev. GEORGE CROLY, LL.D. (8th S. ii. 446). —
nine years, and his collections were sold at Allibone's 'Dictionary: gives the date of the birth
Christie's on May 13, 1881, and, in six portions, of this divine and great writer as 1780, the 'Im
during eighteen days following. They comprise, .perial Dictionary of Universal Biography'as 1785.
besides pictures, Italian medals, drawings, No mention is made of him in Jerdan's Men I:
engravings of all sorts, and minor items. All Have Known' (not “ Jordan,” as spelt on p. 447),
these things were of first-rate quality, the sale 80 one cannot suppose him to have been a very
called together half the amateurs and dealers of intimate friend, por should I say that Jerdan ever
Europe, and it realized nearly 71,0001. The Girtin had sufficient influence to obtain a Crown living
W. O. W. refers to was probably 'A Mountain for Croly or for any one else. In 1835 Croly was
Landscape,''The River Exe,''Hereford Cathedral,' appointed by the Lord Chancellor to the benefice of
'Durham,' or 'Morpeth Bridge.'
und St. Benet Sherebog with St. Stephen's Walbrook, I personally knew a Mr. Charles Sackville Bale, a church close to the Mansion House. Sir John a tall, fine, elderly gentleman, of about seventy to Vanbrugb is buried in it.
seventy-five years of age. He was living about the I can remember when a boy, in 1844, going year 1880 at No. 71, Cambridge Terrace, Hyde
Park, London, and had a fine and valuable collec- course, could reach further than others, and the tion of coins, medals, Indian curiosities, &c., which longest reach won by “a long chalk," as com. I think after his death were sold and dispersed. pared with the shortest chalk. Any attempt at He probably was a descendant of the Bale family cheating or over-reaching brought prompt retribufor whom your correspondent is inquiriog.
tion, as the player lost his balance and tumbled O. GOLDING.
forward. Boys played the game for buttons or Colchester.
marbles, and mon for halfpence or pence, the
“long chalk” taking the pool. It may be as well BUCKETING (8th S. ii. 365).-Burton, in his - Anatomy of Melancholy,' says (part ii. sec. ii.
to say, perhaps, that the landlord's ale-score in
chalk behind the door of his bar against certain mem. 2):
customers was also very often “a long chalk," and cuacus (c. ??..commends allome baths above the
was known as such. nest; and Mercurialis (consil. 88) those of Luca in that
Thos. RATCLIFFE. hypochondriacall passion. He would have his patient
Worksop. tarry there 15 days together, and drink the water of Dr. Brewer, in his Dictionary of Phrase and them, and to be bucketed, or have the water poured on his Fable,' p. 154, states, with reference to the phrase, head.” F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY.
“I beat him by long chalks': Thoroughly, in allu
sion to the old custom of making the merit marks LEGEND OF ST. FFRAID (8th S. ii. 465).-The with chalk, before lead pencils were so common." account given of St. Ffraid's fishes is almost as I do not think the word long, here used, can refer marvellous as the legend of their origin. Spar- to the length of the chalk, or of the mark made by dings (eperlans) are none other than what we eat the chalk, but is used in a qualifying senseas smelts, with a smell and taste of cucumber or “ most thoroughly." Davies has this idea also in rushes. Fancy a smelt between the size of a his "Supp. English Glossary,' p. 112, where he salmon and herring! Smelts are called sparlings states: "By long chalks=by many degrees"; and in Lancashire, and I fancy in other parts of Eng-quotes ‘Ingoldsby Legends' ('St. Romwold'):land.
J. C. J.
They whipp'd and they spurr'd, and they after her THE VERB “TO WARP" (8th S. ii. 446, 492).
But Sir Alured's eteed was by long chalks the best. I think the intention of the word "warping” in
De Quincey, 'System of the Heavens': “As rethe line quoted from 'Paradise Lost'
gards the body of water discharged......the Indus Of locusts warping on the Eastern wind
ranks foremost by a long chalk." is to show that locusts, like vessels steering against
W. B. GERISH. a head wind, flow crossly, i. e., warped (see Richardson's 'English Dictionary'), or tacked, as of admiration in playing leap-frog, marbles, or
In my schoolboy days “long chalks” were notes ships would, to reach their destination.
jumping ; they being chalk marks placed to record G. T. P.
the progress of the game and the distances A pitchy cloud achieved.
A. H. Of locusts warping on the Eastern wind. I should say “expanding" is the precise intentional | YATES FAMILY (8th S. ii. 467).—Manchester equivalent, in this locust passage, for warping. Faces and Places, vol. i., November 11, 1889,
ROBERT LOUTHEAN. in a notice of Mr. Joseph Magbull Yates, gives the Thornliebank.
annexed details relating to his family :CHALKS: LONG CHALKS (8th S. ii. 469).
“Mr. Yates, whose portrait appears in this number,
It is has had the honour to be appointed First Recorder probable that the word “chalks," or the phrase of Salford, having received his appointment from “long chalks," comes from the playing of a game the Home Secretary on the 19th September, 1889. which thirty to forty years ago was common Mr. Yates is not only a barrister of 'high standing, among boys and grown men alike in Derbyshire,
and a popular member of the northern circuit, but and no doubt in other counties in the Midlands.
• he is the most recent Judge in a family which has been
notable for producing lawyers of eminence. His father The game was known as “long chalks," and was was the late Joseph St. John Yates, County Court played thus: A chalk mark was made on the Judge for the Macclesfield and Congleton District of ground, not less than two feet long. The players Cheshire, and whose judgments, particularly as affect-and any number could join in the game-held
ing the trades and customs of the district, are regarded
as valuable precedents. One ancestor of the present a piece of chalk in the right hand, and, toeing Recorder was Sir Joseph Yates, Knt., one af the Justhe mark, bent the body as low as they liked, tices of the Court of Queen's Bench, and afterwards of
ht hand with the lump of the Court of Common Pleas. He died June 7th, 1770, round the back of the right leg, reached and was buried in the chancel of Cheam Church, Surforward-or “wramed," as they called it-as far
rey. His widow married Dr. John Thomas, Bishop of
Rochester and Dean of Westminster. The earlier 28
ark on the ground with branches of the family of Yates of Stanley House and the piece of chalk held in the hand. Some, of Peel Hall, from which the Recorder is descended, were
connected by marriage with local families of note. There is an excellent portrait of him by Dighton, Joseph Yates, the grandfather of Sir Joseph, obtained in knee-breeches and drab gaiters, when he was a decree in 1683, on behalf of the inhabitants of Man- eighty-two years of age. See Horsfield's 'Hischester, against Edward Bootle (his father-in-law), Oswald M
Mosley, and other trustees of Clarke's Charity? | tory of Sussex,' vol. ii. pp. 53-6 in Appendix. he was buried in the Library (Jesus chantry) of the
Jas. B. MORRIS. Collegiate Church, Manchester. A sister of this Joseph Eastbourne. Yates was married at Blackburn (Jan. 24th, 1670171) | to Oswald Mosley, of Ancoats, and had, with other |
It is as well to be accurate in 'N. & Q.,' even issue, Oswald Mosley, of Ancoats, created'a baronet by in a quotation. The Weekly Dispatch is certainly George I. on the 18th June, 1720. Another sister in error in stating that Mr. T. W. Coke sat in married Ralph Leycester, of the family of Toft, in the Parliament down to 1837. He was not in the county of Chester. A brother of Sir Joseph Yates | House of Commons later than 1831 or 1832. married Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Humphrey Trafford, of Trafford," by his wife Anne, daughter of Sir
E. WALFORD, M.A. Ralph Assheton, Bart. The father of tbis gentleman
Ventnor. was leggee, with Dr. Dawson, of the School Mills, Man- | chester.”
COL. CHARTERS (8th S. ii. 428).-In addition to Mr. Yates will be most likely to supply more par- the matter concerning Col. Charters (or Charticular investigations relating to it if H. V. y. teris), of Hamisfield, co. Haddington, which SEBASwrites to him.
TIAN has noticed in Warton's 'Pope' and WalFREDERICK LAWRENCE TAVARÉ.
ford's Tales of Great Families,' he will find in 30, Rusholme Grove, Rusholme, Manchester.
the Trustees' Catalogue of Satirical Prints in the
British Museum,' vol. iii. part i, 2031, an account For some account of Lady Peel, and of ber of the colonel, who is conspicuous in Hogarth's father and grandfather, see Dr. Smiles's 'Self- A Harlot's Progress,' Plate 1, where he appears Help,' chap. ii.
J. F. MANSERGH.
as an old man leering at the maid fresh from the Liverpool.
country, who was destined to an evil fate, and,
as the painter indicated, by his means. See, in JENNINGS OF COURTEENHALL AND HARTWELL (8th S. ii. 468).—Col. Chester refers to this family
the same Catalogue, Nos. 1840 and 1841. It apin his Westminster Abbey Registers,' p. 428, and
pears from the Grub Street Journal, No. 3 and
No. 9, that he lived in George Street, Hanover impugos the accuracy of the pedigree in Burke's “History of the Commoners,' quoted by Mr. Mayo.
Square, and died Feb. 24, 1732, not long before
the publication of the prints of 'A Harlot's ProMary Pearce, granddaughter of the Robert Jennens who died in 1779, married, July 13, 1786,
gress," and was reputed to be worth 200,0001.
Janet, his only daughter and heiress, was married John Farr Abbot, elder brother of Lord Cola
in 1720 to the fourth Earl of Wemyss, who died .chester.
in 1756. The colonel was, justly or unjustly, the Mr. James Coleman, the well-known genea- subject of many satires and amplitude of blame. logical bookseller, advertises some special sources See 'Don Francisco's Descent to the Infernal for the Jennings family. A. L. BOMPAREYS. Regions : an Interlude,' London, 1732. (B. M. 187, Piccadilly, W.
Library, 840, b. 9/4.)
F. G. S. FATHERS OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS (8th S.
SEBASTIAN can find wbat he requires by referii. 327).-Here are two to add to the list : (1) Lord
ence to (1) Anderson's 'Scottish Nation,' p. 635, George Cavendish, who was M.P. for Weymouth and (2) ‘Biog. Britt.' (Kippis ed.), vol. i. p. 240. and Melcombe Regis from 1751 to 1754, and for
The surname has been spelt Charters, Charteris, Derbyshire from 1754 to 1780. and from 1781 | and Charterhous.
LEO COLLETON. until his death on May 2, 1794. (2) The Right
A.M. AND P.M. (8th S. ii. 483). -Is it too much Hon. Charles Watkin Williams Wyon, M.P. for
to hope that DR, CHANCE's timely note may lead Old Sarum from 1797 to 1799, and for Mont
to some reform of our clumsy way of indicating gomeryshire from 1799 until his death on Sept. 2,
the hours, particularly those between midnight 1850. I rather think that the Hop. George Cecil
and midday? A little obscurity is caused by the Weld Forester, who represented Wenlock from
fact of DR. CHANCE's friend having luncbed, 1828 until October, 1874, when he succeeded as
and, without having lunched too well, he might third Baron Forester, was another father.
not immediately realize the meaning of a notice G. F. R. B.
about “]2.30 A. M." confronting him in the middle Sir Charles Merrik Burrell was elected member, of the day. But supposing that he realized that in the Tory interest, for New Shorebam, Sussex, it referred to the middle of the night, was he in 1806, and continued to represent that consti- wrong? The time intended to be signified was tuency in conjunction with Bramber through four- | 12 hr. 30 min. after midday, and only thirty teen consecutive parliaments (fifty-six years), and minutes after midnight. The porter's ingenious died in 1862, the father of the House of Commons. explanation is not workable till "1 A.M.," which