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are numerous, and many of them are octagonal in

some of their parts (which is the question raised), especially the later ones. It seems that the earliest are circular altogether, then square and circular, then square, circular, and octagonal, the structural forms variously combined. The font in the church of St. Thomas, Launceston, Cornwall, is Norman. It is square, standing on an octagonal shaft. The font in the church of St. Nicholas, Eydon, Northamptonshire, is Norman. It consists of a circular bowl on a large octagonal base. The Norman font in St. Mary's Church, Hunstanton, Norfolk, is square, with a central cylindrical pillar and four corner octagonal shafts. The same description will apply to the font in St. John's Church, Southover, Sussex. The large Norman font in St. Leonard's Church, Stanton Fitz Warren, Wiltshire, consists of a circular basin on an octagonal base. In the church of St. Peter, Palgrave, Suffolk, is a square font, standing on an octagonal pillar, with four smaller cylindrical pillars, one at each corner. This is Norman. In the parish church of Stibbington, Huntingdonshire, is an octagonal font, with eight cylindrical pillars; and in the church at Stonesby, Leicestershire, is an octagonal font with a broad eight-sided base. These last two examples appear to be very late Norman, or Transition. Fonts have been badly treated. They have often been moved from their original site, and so their architectural and historical associations have been destroyed. Some years ago I discovered a large font, apparently Norman, in a farmyard in this neighbourhood, where it had long been used as a drinking-trough for cattle. It is very large and simple in form, and is composed of Purbeck marble. There is no history to it; but it probably belonged to a church half a mile distant, which has much late Norman work, with which the font is most likely coeval. The font is now in another church not far off. In my own parish church (Old Basing) we have a font that belonged to Basingstoke, and was transported hither from the larger and more important church by a former incumbent of both livings, because it was “oldfashioned,” and less beautiful than the novel

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known, in fonts of the pure Norman style. That at Perranzabuloe, in Cornwall, is a remarkable example; while Stibbington, in Huntingdonshire, and Stonesby, in Leicestershire, possess octagonal fonts of a somewhat later (Norman transition) period. Other examples doubtless exist, but they are far from common. It may be of interest to note that the octagonal form was thought, so far back as the time of St. Ambrose, to symbolize regeneration,-" for even as the old creation was complete in seven days, so the number next following may well signify the new.” If Col. Fishwick has access to the ‘Few Words to Church-builders,’ published by the Cambridge Camden Society (second edition), he will find in the appendix a classified list of octagonal fonts, as compared with those of other shapes, during the different periods of English church architecture.

Oswald, O.S.B. Fort Augustus, N.B.

QUADRUPLE BIRTHs (8th S. iii. 308).-It is stated that somewhere about seventy years ago a woman at Ashby, in the parish of Bottesford, near Brigg, gave birth to five infants at one time. My father told me this, and fully believed it to be true. I have conversed with several old people in the village who were contemporary with the catastrophe, and not one of them expressed the slightest doubt

about it. Edward PEAcock. Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey.

ANEcDoTE of QUEEN VICTORIA (8th S. iii. 309). —The story is told on the Baroness Lehzen's own authority; but the “cousins” are “aunts” in the original. See Sir T. Martin's ‘Life of the Prince Consort, vol. i. p. 14. Edward H. MARSHALL, M.A. Hastings.

TRollope's Novels (8*S. iii. 329).-I believe the correct order is as follows: “The Warden,’ “Barchester Towers,” “Dr. Thorne,” “Framley Parsonage,’ ‘The Small House at Allington,' “Last Chronicle of Barset.’ WM. H. PEET.

George Eliot (8° S. iii.307).-Miss Hickey's query reminds me of something which it may be well to make a note of in your pages. When “Adam Bede’ was published it caused a great sensation. I was at the time staying at a country house, and one morning the wife of the squire said to me, “My husband is certain the book is written by a woman.” I had no opportunity of cross-questioning at the time; but after dinner I asked him how it was that he had come to this conclusion, so contrary to what was then the popular opinion. He said that it was quite impossible for authors to disguise their sex in writings of any length, and used some subtle arguments in proof of his statement. I was interested, but by no

means convinced at the time. Shortly after it was which I quoted, intended to provide only salt demonstrated that he was right in this case. I fish. You might hope for a very good dinner at confess, however, that, even now, I am in doubt his hospitable table, as, indeed, you might from a whether sex must necessarily show itself. I must friend who should say, “Come and take pot-luck admit that the person of whom I speak was a with me.” Dr. Campbell offered “ Poor Jack" great authority. There was probably no one then -Lenten fare-as the Spaniard does, but perhaps living who had a wider knowledge of English a haunch of venison smoked on the board. literature, English history, and the life of our The Dictionary of the Academy recognizes both people, from the highest steps on the social ladder spellings, bacalao and bacallao, but the former is to those who lie at the base and are crushed by the more familiar to my eye and ear. the classes above them. It would be a gain to

HENRY H. GIBBS. knowledge to have the matter settled, if such a

Dunstan's. thiog be possible.

ASTARTE.

TITUS OATES (6th S. ix. 445 ; 7th S. xii. 209 ; Perhaps the query implies more than appears at gib S. ii. 156, 254).-I copy from H. K. Cawston's the first blush, and may bave been written later Howard Papers 'the following relating to Titus than the publication of "Jubal.' For Mr. Bayard Oates :Taylor's opinion is that :

« Titus Oates was born at Oakham, in Rutland, son of "It is amazing to see how admirable her verse is, and Samuel Oates, a weaver by trade, and Anabaptist teacher, how near to high poetry-as if only a sheet of plate against whose proceedings the clergy of Rutland peti. glass were between-and yet it is not poetry. Her lines tioned Parliament (Lords Jour., v. 9 and 10), afterwards are like the dancing figures on a frieze, symmetry itself, parson of Hastings, in Sussex (Oldmixon, Hist.,' p.612). but they do not move."— Diversions of the Echo Club,' • Titus Oates, Rutland de Oakham, filius Samuelis p. 142.

Dates clerici, anno natus 18. Literis institutus in Com EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.

Sussex, admiseus in Collegium. Gonv, and Caii, June 29, Hastinge.

1667. 'Idem admissus. in Coll. Jo. subsizator pro ma

gistro Collegii, tutore Mr. Watson, 2. Feby, 1668.”RAYMED DEEDS (8th S. iii. 147, 233). — A

| Reg. Coll. Jo., Ad. MS. 5860, fo. 288, B.M. Lib.

"At the age of two and twenty be obtained the small parallel to the grant of John of Gaunt, given at

living of Bobbing juxta Milton, in Kent. Titus Oates, the former reference, is quoted in Worth's 'History A.B., inducted 13 March, 1672."-Hasted's 'Hist. Kent,' of Devonshire,' p. 163:

vol. ii. p. 640. I, John of Gaunt,

In the marriage licence Titus states his age to Do give and do grant

be about forty-five, which agrees with that in the Hatherleigh Moor

college register :-
To Hatherleigh poor
For evermore.

“ In 1685. Titus was whipped from Aldgate to New.

gate, and 48 hours after, in a stupefied condition, quite In the well-known Devonshire legend of 'Childe unable to stand or walk was dragged on a sledge from of Plymstock'there are two versions of the rhymed Newgate to Tyburn, and it is said received 1,700 stripes will which he wrote with his own blood, or his

in the course of the journey. In Partridge's. Almanack' borge's, when he was lost on Dartmoor and had for 1692 it is stated that Oates was whipt with a whip given up all hope of saving his life. They are

of six thongs, and received 2,256 lashes, amounting to

13,536 stripes.” given in Mrs. Bray's 'Borders of the Tamar and the Tavy,' vol. i. pp. 387-9, as follows :

If born in 1619, he would be sixty-five or sixtyHe that finds and bringe me to my tomb,

six years old in 1685 ; too old, one would think, to • My land of Plymstock shall be his doom.

have any chance of living, after such punishment,

another twenty years ; for the date of his death is and

stated to be some time in 1705. 0. H. I. G. They first that find, and bring me to my grave, My lands, which are at Plymstock, they shall have. Me. E. H. MARSHALL, M.A., can hardly have

The latter is copied from Prince's Worthies.' | read my communication on this subject, or be and the following variant of it occurs in Mrs. would not have written that 1619 is thirty years Whitcombe's Bygone Days in Devonshire and | later than 1649. The references to previous Cornwall,' p. 56 :

volumes of 'N. & Q.' would have shown him that The fyrste that fyndes, and brings me to my grave,

the one thing certain about the birth of Titus The lands of Plymstoke they shall have.

Oates is that it took place at Oakham in or about R. PEARSE CHOPE.

1649. Not to mention his school days at Mer(See 6th 8. xii. 84, 194, 253, 314, 410, 475; 7th 8. i. 94,

chant Taylors' and Seddlescomb, it would have 231, 316, 376.1

been absurd even for so adroit a dissembler as the

Salamanca Doctor to attempt to pass himself off as “EATING POOR JACK" (8th S. ii. 529 ; iii. 76, eighteen at his matriculation in 1667, or as “about 131, 215).-MR. WALLER has misread my note. forty-five" at bis marriage in 1693, if, as MR. I did not imply that the Spanish Amphgtrion, if MARSHALL asserts, he had been born in 1619. he invited you to dinner in the modest phrase A verbatim extract from the Hastings registers

would be more welcome than the repetition of the loose statements of a handbook already given at the first reference named above. It is not impossible that the handbook may have misprinted 1619 for 1649. Will MR. MARSHALL examine the register itself? A. T. M.

Folk-Lorr (8° S. ii. 305, 416, 511; iii. 134).— See Brand’s “Popular Antiquities, iii. 351 seqq. (ed. Bohn, 1849), where the familiar passage from Theocritus (iii. 31) is quoted.

P. J. F. GANTILLON.

“WENTRE-SAINT-GRIs” (8th S. i. 453; ii. 49, 131, 232, 289, 398, 529).-As Dr. CHANCE unites with me in condemning Dr. BREWER's suggestion and so vigorously supports me against M. RAMBAUD, I regret that there should be the semblance of a difference between us. I do not dispute—it would be absurd to dispute—the theory that saintoaths (to employ a convenient term) are substitutes for deity-oaths, or indeed that all oaths other than these last are used for the sake of avoiding blasphemy. But it is evident from DR. CHANCE's latest note that I took his theory in a sense which he did not intend. His statement, however, that his theory is quite distinct from the question of personal identity, makes explanation on my part needless.

I am more concerned with my French critic's strictures. He impeaches my logic when I decline his reading, “per sanctum ventrem Christi,” for the very reason which he urges in support of it— namely, that “the word “saint’ cannot be applied to the Law-giver Himself.” What is M. RAMBAUD's reason for contending that in the expressions (1) “Bon gré saint Gris,” (2) “Par sainct Gris,” (3) “Ventre, saint Gris,” to which I may add a fourth quoted by Le Duchat—

La gente Poitevin'rie,
Car & cors & bians en ertiant
De tot, Saint Gris, mis a niant—

“Gris” means Christ in the third, and what you please, except Christ, in all the others ? No other reason, forsooth, than that it is “correct to say ‘par le ventre saint du Christ.’” He does not tell us that such an oath has ever been in vogue. I am sure it was not current among Frenchmen of the seizième siècle, and if it had been it would have been phrased “par le saint ventre de Christ,” with the adjective before ventre, and de instead of du. Of analogous oaths in full I have already mentioned “Par le saint Sang bieu" and “Par le sainct sang breguoy” (8° S. ii. 131), and I may refer to another Rabelaisian specimen which I dare not reproduce (‘Pantagruel,’ v. 16, ed. Moland). M. RAMBAUD knows little of the old language— how should he know much of it with such a contempt for bouquins f. The weight of evidence is against him, and it will be early enough for him to call me illogical when he can turn the balance to

his side. When he succeeds in doing that he will have put to confusion a band of distinguished savants of his own country, such as Paul Lacroix, Louis Moland, and Frédéric Godefroy, all convicted of being as illogical as myself and DR. CHANCE. In his first note M. RAMBAUD asserted, with anything but “the modesty of a savant”: “It is quite certain that ‘Saint-gris’ does not mean St. Francis,” when the three erudite Frenchmen just named, among others, are agreed that it does mean St. Francis. In his latest note he says only that he is “very doubtful,” having been converted to this degree of “modesty” by M. Quitard, the one authority whom he consulted. It seems to me . that English readers are likely to find it “highly instructive and amusing” to see a foreigner dealing with a question on which he is so poorly informed. In thanking M. RAMBAUD for pointing out what he regards as an error, I regret to say that I cannot accept his correction. I do not treat the question relating to gris as one of etymological descent—nor am I aware that any French scholar has ever done so—but as one of wilful substitution. F. ADAMs.

M. RAMBAUD says the word saint cannot be attached to deity, yet is there St. Esprit and Ste. Trinité; Jesus Christ is called in French “le Saint des Saints,” and in the beginning of his life in the “Petits Bollandistes” (vol. xvi.), we read “La vie de...... Jésus-Christ doit naturallement trouver sa place dans la vie de Saints qui l'Eglise honore dans le cours de l'année.” In the two genealogies, from the first and third Gospels, the name of Jesus stands under that of (Saint) Joseph, and a line of other names to which the Catholic Church has attached the word “Saint”; and he is called over and over again the “Saint Enfant.”. I think, therefore, that our phrase “St. Saviour's.” is not so preposterous as M. RAMBAUD seems to intimate.

When I stated that there was a “ St. Jesus.” and also a “St. Christ” in the Bollandist collection of saints, I distinctly said it was a rather curious coincidence; and no one could possibly suppose I referred to the son of Mary, especially as I gave the days devoted to these two saints.

In regard to Gris, as a corruption of Cris (as in Cris or Criss Cross), I would emphatically insist that slang expressions, to which category vulgar oaths belong, are not to be placed on the bed of Procrustes like standard words. They are almost always fanciful perversions, often phonetic puns, and always intended to conceal their derivations, as “'zounds,” “odsbud” or “odsbuddikin,” “zooks” or “gadzooks,” “bleu" (in French) as “ventrebleu,” “corne'bleu,” “sambleu,” “sandis,” which M. RAMBAUD truly says is a corruption of “par le sang de Dieu,”“cadedis," i.e., “par le cap [tétel de Dieu,” &c.

It is “contrary to every scientific method to originally settled by Scotch emigrants, I copied support a French etymology with facts of linguistics the game inscription as that given at the last observed in England," is M. RAMBAUD's axiom ; reference by C. Č. B. The stone-cutter, however, but if accepted, Grimm's code, I fear, would have evidently did not “hold by" the dictionary, for to be abandoned.

"affect," " waisting," and "sigh's," appear for the That “saint " in the compound word under corresponding words of the English record. The consideration may belong to ventre and not to gris date was 1757.

M. C. L. is unquestionable. M. RAMBAUD allows it, and New York City. we have “ La Terre Sainte," "Les lieux saints,” |

A propos of MRS. C. A. White's note at the “ Vie Sainte,” &c., to confirm the statement. I last 'reference, may I remind your readers of our Without for one moment disputing that the

moment disputing that the good friend Mrs. Jarley? ordinary meaning of Ventre is the belly, I yet con-| «• That' said Mrs. Jarley in her exhibition tono, as tend that its perversion into corpus is quite in Nell touched a figure at the beginning of the platform, accordance with slang; and that Ventre-dieu or is an unfortunato Maid of Honour in the Time of Queen Ventre-bleu=corpus Dei, and not “God's belly," Elizabeth, who died from pricking her finger in conwhich to an English ear sounds horrible indeed.

sequence of working upon a Sunday. Observe the E. COBHAM BREWER.

blood which is trickling from her finger; also the gold.

eyed needle of the period with which she is at work."CAUSE OF DEATH (8th S. ii. 428, 533 ; iii. 76, •The Old Curiosity Shop,' chap. xxviii. 154, 275). – Perhaps one of the very oddest monu

JONATHAN BOUCHIER. ments of the kind referred to under this head is

LADY OF THE BEDCHAMBER (8th S. iii. 247).the tablet at Farringdon Church, Berks, in memory When I wrote the article to which PROF. SKEAT of a soldier who had his left leg taken off“ by the refers (716 S. v. 289), I was under the impression above ball," an actual cannon ball being inserted that ladies filling this office not only are, but at the top.

J. T. F.

always were, married women. If this be not the Winterton, Doncaster.

case, I must ask pardon for my “therefore." But In Herne Churchyard, Kent, on an old tomb-I may add that whenever I have traced the position stone to the memory of John and Martha Smith, of any woman thus entitled, I have invariably is the following :

found her married ; and in the case of Philippa A pale consumption gave the fatal blow;

Chaucer, unless it can be conclusively shown-as The stroke was certain, but th' effect was slow; I believe it never has been yet—that Chaucer was With lingering pains death saw me long opprest : her maiden as well as her married name, then the Pittied my sigho, and kindly gave me rest.

fact of her being termed Philippa Chaucer on the On the tombstone to the memory of William

Patent Roll in September, 1366, goes far to show that May, in Chislet Churchyard, Kent, the following she was Geoffrey Chaucer's wife at that date. The appears :

exact reference to the Patent Roll is 40 Edw. III., Affliction sore long Time I boro

pt. 2, membr. 30. Philippa Pycard was pensioned Physicians was in vain;

by that name three years after that date. Till God did please & Death did cease

HERMENTRUDE. And eas'd me of my Pain. Slightly altered, the same verse is given on two | In a 'Life of Chaucer' by S. W. Singer, prefixed other tombstones. On the one, in the second line. to Chaucer's poems in the “British Poets” (edition « were” is given for “was": 'the third line ends of 1822), we read as follows :“ to give me ease"; in l. 4, “ free " displaces. "His (Chaucer's] marriage took place about the year "eas'd.” On the other. “ were" occurs in 1. 2. / 1360, when he was ibirty-two years old." “me to release" in the third, and “ease" in the Alexander Chalmers makes the same assertion, last.

KNOWLER. and in almost the same words, in his 'Life of In Ampthill Churcb, Bedfordshire, on the south

Chaucer' in the “ Works of the English Poets from

Chaucer to Cowper":wall of the chancel, within the communion rails, is a mural monument to some officer whose name I the year 1360, when he was thirty-two years old.”

“He accordingly married her (Philippa Rouet), about cannot remember, as it is thirty-five years since I saw it. In the upper part the cannon ball with

I do not know on whose authority Singer and which he was killed was let in the slab, and de

Chalmers make this assertion, unless it is on that scribed as “instrumentum mortis et victoriæ.

of Speght, author of an earlier Life of Chaucer' John PICKFORD, M.A.

which I have never seen. In the Canterbury Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

| Tales of Chaucer,' &c., by Thomas Tyrwbitt (edition

| of 1798), we meet with quite a contrary statement. It may be worthy of a note, to show how such

Tyrwhitt says :mortuary verse is copied from stone to stone, that in an old and now unused graveyard of a little Rymer." R. II., vol. ii. n. 3), that Chaucer, on the 24th

|_ “ It appears from the Exitus, Pasch., 4 R. II. (MSS. village about twenty-five miles from New York, May, 1381, received at the Exchequer a half-year's pay.

meat of his own two annuities of 20 marks each, and careful inspection of the individual words would also a half-year's payment of an annuity of 10 marks, I seem to be required, as many anomalies present granted by Edw. III. and confirmed by Ric. II, to his * wife' Philippa, nuper uni domicellarum Philippe

themselves ; for instance, righ, king, is pronounced nuper Reginæ Angliae.' The title given to her of ree, and tigh, house, Dearly as French taille. Dif.

domicella proves that she was unmarried at the time ference of etymology explains this, the former of her being in the queen's service. There is a patent word being Irish ri, gen, rig, Lat. rex; the latter, in Rymer, 43 Edw. III., by which the king, about four Ir. tech Greek Teosisea Windischigoj. Gram ? months after Queen Philippa's death, grants annuities to nine of her Domicellæ,' viz., to four of them 10 marks,

but the result is confusing all the same. Add to to two 5 pounds, and to three 5 marks. One of them this that “there are sounds in the Gaelic to which is called 'Philippa Pykard,' and might very well be sup there are none perfectly similar in English, nor posed to be the lady whom Chaucer afterwards married, if perbaps in any modern European tongue," and it it were not for two objections, 1, that the annuity granted will be seen that this branch of Celtic might be to her is only 5 pounds, whereas Chaucer's wife appears by this record to have had one of 10 marka : and 2 that characterized somewhat in the manner of Brad. the historians, though they own themselves totally sbaw's succinct account of Russian :ignorant of the Christian name of Chaucer's wife, are all “Language. - The Alphabet numbers 36 letters, agreed that her surname was Rouet, the same with that founded on the Slavic of Cyril's translation of the Bible, of her father and elder sister, Catherine Swynford." about A.D. 800, and the pronunciation and accentuation Tyrwhitt appears nevertheless to think that the

of words are nearly as irregular as in English." two objections can be explained away. In the

J. YOUNG. 'Encyclopædia Britannica' (ninth edition), under

Glasgow. the heading Chaucer, we read :

“ WHETHER OR NO” (8th S. üi. 186, 238).-That “By this time (1360-1366) he would seem to have “ more or less unknown writer of the Elizabethan been married, if the Philippa Chaucer, one of the de- lage" quoted by St. SWITHIN used this "locution' moiselles of Queen Philippa, who in 1366 was granted a yearly pension of 10 marks, was, as is most probable,

in common with many others. It is to be found his wife (see the discussion of the question in Sir H. in our modern Bibles, and in all the early ones. Nicolas's memoir).”

Coverdale gives Deut. viii. 2 :It may be that the marriage took place in 1366, “And thynke vpon all ye waie thorow the which the but as the pension was not granted till foar

Lorde thy God hath led the this fortye yeares in the months after the queen's death-between the time

wyldernesse, that he mighte chasten the, and prove the,

me to wete what were in thyne herte, whether thou woldest of the queen's death and the date of the granting kepe his comaundemētes or no." of the pension.

C. W. Cass.

Matthew, Taverner, Cranmer, all “no," but

Wyckliffe has “eithir nay"; thas supporting St. WALTER Long (8th S. iii. 207, 295).-Walter

SWITAIN'S theory. Long, son of Thomas Long, of Melksham, and

“ Whether or no" is in common use here, and Mary Abbot, died without issue, 1807, ot. ninety

means “in any circumstances "_"nothing shall five. He bad four sisters Mary, died 1776; Anne, hinder "_"I pledge myself positively." died 1802; Ellen, died 1787; and Catherine, died

R. R.

Boston. Licolnshirë. 1814, all unmarried. Walter Long and his sisters Ellen, Anne, and Catherine were buried at Whad. If Shakespeare sinned in asing this expression, don, and Mary Long at Wraxall. E. H. D. so too did his contemporary Bacon. There are at Teddington.

least two instances of its use in The Historie of

the Reigne of King Henry the Seventh.' The CELTIC (8th S. iii. 247).--I have a 'Pronouncing passages which contain them are hardly suitable Gaelic Dictionary,' by Neil M'Alpine, Edinburgh, for quotation here, but they may be found on 1833, a second-hand copy of which I believe MR. pp. 205-6 of the edition of 1629. C. M. P. WARD should be able to pick up in the Scottish

MR. BIRKBECK TERRY should read an article capital. The work contains “a concise but most

entitled 'Idiom-haters' in the Saturday Revier comprehensive Gaelic grammar," from which it

for Dec. 1, 1888 (vol. Ixvi. p. 641), which contains appears that the thirteen Irish diphthongs are

inter alia a stout defence of the vicious locution equalled in number in Gaelic and are supplemented

be denounces.

F. ADAMS. by five triphthongs ; this is confirmed by the

105, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.E. grammar prefixed to the 'Highland Society's Dictionary' and by Stewart's 'Gaelic Grammar.' ACL GOETHE'S 'FausT'(8th S. iii. 187). — According cording to this latter authority, the thirteen diph. to Eogels ‘Bibliotheca Faustiana,' the English thongs have thirty-four sounds divided amongst version of Goethe's 'Faust' which was printed by them, whilst ten sounds are allotted to the five A. Taylor, in 2 vols. 8vo., Lond., 1838, without triphthoogs. In M‘Alpine's Dictionary'the word the translator's name, had been already preceded by ceart, instanced by MR. WARD, is pronounced not fewer than seven versions, where the translators kyart (y in yard), whilst cearc, hen, differing are known, viz.: Gower (1823), Anster (1828), only in the final letter, is pronounced kerk. A Hayward (1833), Knox (1834), Blackie (1834),

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