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Haverstock Hill, which was known as "Steele's St. James in his grotto of oyster shells, I am led Cottage," was only pulled down in 1867. But to conjecture that in the case of Tommy there may Mr. Wheatley, in his edition of Cunningham's be some recondite story at present unknown to me. Handbook of London,' says that Sir Charles Perhaps a lover of folk-lore may be able to reveal Sedley died, Aug. 20, 1701, at his house in Blooms-its esoteric truth and assure me that my pennies bury Square. The nationality of Sir Charles have been spent in the encouragement of a worthy Sedley forbids his dying in two places at once. I object. A. E. P. R. DOWLING. have noticed a slight error in Mr. Wheatley's 4, Hare Court, Inner Temple. "Handbook.' Under Elmtree Road, he says that Thomas Hood died at No. 17. Hood lived at that house, and wrote 'The Song of the Shirt' there, but there is no doubt that he died at Devonshire Lodge, in the Finchley Road, which has, I believe, been since pulled down. Errors in such a work as the 'Handbook of London' are perhaps unavoidable. W. F. PRIDEAUX.

LOST OR SUSPENDED MEMORY.-In the journals of that most charming of Quakeress Caroline Fox, under date Sept. 12, 1836, Prof. Wheatstone is said to have mentioned

one extraordinary trance case of a man who was chopping down trees in a wood, and laid down and slept much longer than usual; when he awoke life was a blank; he was not in a state of idiotcy, but all his acquired knowledge was obliterated. He learned to read again quickly, but all that had passed previously to his trance was entirely swept away from his memory. At the age of fifty he slept again an unusual time; on awaking, his first act was to go to the tree which he had been felling on the former occasion to look for his hatchet; the medium life was now forgotten, and the former returned in its distinct reality. This is well


Can verifications of this wonderful story be given; the dates of the occurrences, the name and habitation of the wood-chopper, &c.? Probably in technical medical works there are similar instances with exact data, but for the general reader one such case, with the necessary setting of facts, must be of great interest. JAMES HOOPer. Norwich.

EARLDOM OF STRATHERN.-In Brayley and Britton's History of Westminster,' a contract of marriage is mentioned between Robert de Toni and Matilda, daughter of Malise, Earl of Strathern, in 1293. I cannot find this marriage elsewhere. Is anything known of it or of the parties? C. F. S. WARREN, M.A.

Longford, Coventry. "TOMMY AT TUB'S GRAVE."-Can any one explain to me the meaning of this title, given by the children about Lincoln's Inn Fields to a small garden they arrange upon the pavement in April? Three adjoining squares are outlined in grass, with a cross in one, anchor in the second, and a heart in the third, emblems of the theological virtues, and all the explanation I can extract from the little folk, as they plead with the passer-by for a backshish, is the above. Since it is the same youthful blackmailers who preserve the custom of



(7th S. ii. 246, 298, 336, 469; iii. 31, 150, 211, 310, 482; 8th S. iii. 194.)

If PROF. SKEAT had taken the trouble to refer to

my two notes (7th S. ii. 469; iii. 310), he would have found that I derived henchman from abbreviations of Heinrich (Henry), and not from Hans. I did mention Hans, it is true, but only in a note. Now, however, I am inclined to believe that Hans has more to do with the matter than I then thought. At all events, in the 'Berlin Directory' for 1885 I find Hansmann (many times), Hansemann (4 times), Hannsmann (1), Hansch (3), Hansche (3), Hanschmann (2), Hänsch (many times), Häntzsch (1), Henschmann (3), Hentzelmann (1), Heinzelmann (4). Now all these names seem to be connected either with Hans or with abbreviations of Heinrich, or to be made up out of both. To this last category belongs Henschmann, which German fashion. For Pott looks upon Hensch is nothing more nor less than henchman spelt in (= Hänsch Häntzsch) as coming from Heinrich with, perhaps, a "Beimengung von Hans "(p. 127). Hansch and Hanschmann he would probably connect with a more nor less Sclavonic form of Hans (p. 119). Heins(s)mann, too, which is like some of the Eng. forms of henchman, viz., Heyncemann (Pr. Parv.") and heinsman (Minsheu, Blount, and Bailey) is also connected by Pott with Heinrich (Pp. 127, 136, 158, 159), though he does not seem quite so certain about it as others are.

from the Germ. Hengstmann, to which he still

With regard to PROF. SKEAT's own derivation


to adhere (although I thought I had knocked it on the head by showing that Hengstmann cannot be found earlier than 1731, and then only in a special sense, whilst henchman dates back to 1415), I cannot see that he bas furthered it by his recent quotations. These tend to show that henchman was at one time used of "a page of honour" of more or less gentle birth, and I have no wish to dispute the fact. But this meaning is at least as far removed from PROF. SKEAT'S definition of Hengstmann as 46 a horse-boy or groom," as the "male servant" or "C superior sort of body-servant," which I claimed for my etymologies. The only point in which PROF. SKEAT can claim to be a little nearer the mark than I am

shirts for the master, at 18d. Making and reveinge, with draught work of the same, at 8d. Thirty pairs of hosen at 4s.; ten pairs of scarlet hosen at 8s. To Cornelis Johnson, for twenty pairs of double-soled shoes at 12d.; 40 pairs of pynsons at 4d. Eighteen caps for nine henxmen at 2s. 6d.; 18 hats at 2s. Two caps for the mr at 3s. 4d. Five yards of sarsenet for ten hatbands at 4s. 8d.; 20 laces of silk at 2d.; 20 girdles at 8d.; poynts of silk ribbon at 8d.; points of lether, ld." (2-3 Hen. VIII., 52/2, A.) HERMENTRUDE.

is in showing that the henchman (often rode on horseback. But a page often rode on horseback also, and yet there is nothing in the word itself to indicate this. A knight was constantly on horseback; but where is the horse in the word itself? And the question is, Had a henchman, on his first introduction in 1415, anything to do with horses? I trow not. At all events, he is defined in Prompt. Parv.' (about 1440) as a gerolocista, and if this is the same as Diefenbach's gerulasista (with which he compares his gerulus), I cannot MISTAKE MISTAKEN (8th S. ii. 404; iii. 19). make out that the word meant more than Cot--I was too hasty in accepting Dr. Hodgson's grave's "load-carrying drudge" (see s. v. Sommier). opinion as to the use of these words. The followWith regard to the form henxman, which PROF. ing quotation from a long letter on the subject, SKEAT tells us is found as early as 1415 and is the which appeared in the New York Nation of earliest, this was very quickly succeeded by Feb. 16, a copy of which has kindly been sent to heyncemann, henchemanne (Pr. Parv.,' circa me by the writer, from whom I have asked per1440), and by hencheman (or henshman) in 'The mission to reproduce as much of it as is necessary Flower and the Leaf.' Then from 1455 to the here, will probably be accepted as conclusive. The time of Henry VIII., in six or seven passages writer of the letter takes for his text the line, given by PROF. SKEAT, we have henxman again. “Mistaken souls, that dream of heaven"; and This jumping about from one form to another-if after reviewing and dismissing a great many in the same parts of England-is very curious, and explanations of the phrase-mostly condemnatory would seem to indicate that the x of henxman was-by various authorities, he thus continues :used rather =s (as often in French at the end of "In the same boat with the mistaken souls' aforewords) or as an Eng. ce than as cs or ks. Some said, for which there are seventeenth century precedents, little evidence in favour of this view I find in Ellis are, in the contemplation of grammar, advanced (i. 580) where he gives the following remarks of scholars, aged saints,' apostatized churches,' backMr. Payne, viz.: "In the thirteenth and four-slidden sinners,' 'coalesced parties,' 'decayed cheeseteenth centuries, x=(s) in Norman and often leases,' fallen angels, gone sinners,'' grown women,' mongers,' departed joys,' 'escaped convicts,' 'expired perhaps in English." This may refer to words of practised writers, 'relapsed heretics,' retired statesFrench origin only, but it shows, at any rate, a men,' strayed sheep,' vanished charms,'' waned moon,' tendency to pronounce x like s. F. CHANCE. 'risen Lord,' and-in heaven above, in the earth beneath, Sydenham Hill. and where good Presbyterians would send naughty Professor Briggs-a miscellany of other persons and things far too numerous to particularize. Clamans in deserto, and therefore unheard by the far-off world, I proclaimed all this, substantially, one and-twenty-years ago, in my Recent Exemplifications of False Philology,' p. 37, where' mistaken eulogist,' eulogist who errs, is adduced in the course of a discussion aiming to establish that experienced, in experienced man 'is not based directly on a substantive. Curiously enough, the nicety on which I am dwelling was lately proposed afresh for consideration by Mr. Thomas Adolphus Trollope, immediately after he had read my book just named, as he informed me in a pleasant letter of eight pages, written but five days before his sudden and lamented death. That what I there say has a distinct bearing on that nicety must have escaped his notice.

May I send a few interesting notes from the Wardrobe Accounts, as a help to the study of this subject?

"1420. For nine henxmen of the King, broidering nine gowns of scarlet with green damask silk, with cages of Cyprus silver, and worked above with besants and bolions of silver, and with silk and other stuff......For the henxmen, gowns and doubtlets of red damask silk cloth for the Queen's coronation; and of green cloth of lir, furred with martr' throtes, martr' hedes, marton pec', and black lamb, for the Feast of St. George...... For William Bourghchere, Richard Vere, Thomas Beauchamp, John Norbury, Baptist St. John, &c., henxmen of the Queen, robes of scarlet cloth for the coronation." (8-9 Hen. V., 46/14, Q R.)

"1435? For the henxmen, four gowns of sanguine ingrain, furred with martr' skins; four hoods of black cloth, four pairs of hosen, 16 breches. To each of them four pairs of schone, one pair of botes. Three ray gowns furred with black lamb, three riding hoods of black cloth, three felt hats, three pairs of spurs, three doublets." Temp. Hen. VI., undated, but about 1435, since it contains provision for the Duke of Bedford's funeral. (70/2, Q.R.)

"1510. Richmond, 5 November, anno 2. Thirty-one yards of tawny medley, for nine gowns for the henchmen, at 58. 8d. per yard; 16 fox furs, at 10s., for the same. Twenty-two yards of black velvet at 12s., for nine doublets, for the same. Twenty-four ells of linen for 27 shirts for the same. Nine ells of linen for three

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Expired leases' affords one of the many instances of the adjectival use of the past participle of a verb intransitive; and, if the verb mistake had been intransitive only, who would not have perceived at once that

mistaken souls,' as here discoursed on, is precisely on all fours with it? And, as it is, who, unconfused by the thought of the transitive mistake, can help perceiving that I am mistaken,' I have fallen into error, has a perfect analogue in the leases are expired'? Obviously, too, if, as we have no practical transitive miscarry, we had no transitive mistake, the employment of 1 mistake,' I err, 'I have mistaken,' I have erred, and the like, would be much more current than is now the case.

"No one, assuredly, could have had any difficulty in justifying the phraseology under treatment, if he had reflected on the fact that, whereas the combination

formed by have and a past participle is dynamic, that which is formed by be and such a participle is static. Has expired' denotes action; is expired,' as likewise expired qualifying leases, denotes state resulting from action. In the latter, expired is virtually, though not in scientific nomenclature, an adjective. Only in being derived from a verb does it partake of the characteristics of a participle.

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"It must, by this time, be clearly evident that the mistaken man, the erring man, and the man is mistaken,' in error, are to be explained, in rigid strictness, as 'the man in the condition of having mistaken, or of having made a mistake,' and the man is in the condition, and so forth. Practically, however, the mistaken man,' or the man who is mistaken,' in error, is he of whom mistaking, making a mistake, whether in the past, the present, or the future, may be predicated. Time is here indeterminate, as it is in a running streain.'

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"Though mistake, intransitive, has so early authority as that of Robert Mannyng, about 1330, the transitive mistake, as I learn from Dr. Murray, of the New English Dictionary,' has not been observed to have come up till some fifty years later. On the transitive use of the verb, on the substantive mistake, the participial adjective mistaking, the adverbs mistakingly and mistakenly, &c.,

there is no occasion that I should touch.

"Mistaken souls,' indeed, and mistaken from peculiarity in their gift of apprehension, must be those who, after patiently pondering what has been set forth above, refuse to accept the proffered rationale of the phrase by which they are to be designated."

The letter is signed F. H., and the writer will easily be recognized by all readers of 'N. & Q.' C. C. B.

TRURO STANNARY COURT (8th S. iii. 329). The Secretary of this Court is Mr. R. M. Paul, M.A., solicitor, of Truro. He, if he can, will doubtless tell MR. MARTIN all he wants to know. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A.

Raimbach himself. Wilkie painted for his friend and patron Lord Mansfield, for thirty-five guineas, the picture Village Politicians'; he afterwards borrowed it from his lordship; the plate was engraved and published, and, said Raimbach, "I have already paid Wilkie 800l. on account of his share of the profit, and the print is still selling! Raimbach's works have not merely spread over Europe, but through the civilized world, doing honour to Great Britain, to Wilkie, and to himself, by adding to the rational pleasures of civilized DANIEL HIPWELL.


17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.

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MARTIN LISTER, M.D., F.R.S. (1638-1712), NATURALIST (8th S. iii. 286, 337).—It is probable that Susanna Knowler was not Dr. Martin Lister's only child. There is an epitaph in the eastern cloister of Westminster Abbey which is supposed to commemorate a larger fatherhood. Dean Stanley thus writes in his 'Historical Memorials ' of the church :

"It is touching to observe how many are commemorated from their extreme youth......The sigh over the premature loss is petrified into stone and affects the more deeply from the great events amidst which it is enshrined. 'Jane Lister, dear child, died October 7, 1688.' 'Her brother Michael had already died in 1676, and been buried at Helen's Church, York.'"-P. 302.

A foot-note runs:

"This seems to show that her father must have been Dr. Lister, author of a Journey to Paris' and other works on natural history, who came from York to London in 1683. He is buried at Clapham, with his first wife, who is there described as his 'dear wife.' There is no Register in St. Helen's at York between 1649 and 1690."

A life of Sir Martin Lister was written by the late Robert Davies, F.S.A., and printed for the Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Journal; but to that I am just now unable to refer. ST. SWITHIN.

HUNTER FAMILY (8th S. iii. 229).-1. MajorGeneral Robt. Hunter died in Jamaica on March 31, 1734. Presumably he was buried there, though a Latin epitaph, written by the Rev. Mr. Fleming for him, does not appear among those still extant in Jamaica collected by Major Laurence Archer ('Dict. of Nat. Biog.,' vol. xxviii. p. 300).

Longford, Coventry. ABRAHAM RAIMBACH (1776-1843), ENGRAVER (8th S. iii. 126, 294).-Raimbach rose to distinction at the beginning of the present century-during the war-when book embellishment constituted the principal employment of English engravers. The rare talent and industry he displayed combined with the dignity of mental independence to distinguish him above his professional contemporaries. Subsequently, when peace was restored, he engraved and published a series of large prints from pictures by Wilkie. In these works the painter and engraver were joint proprietors; and, while the result helped to enrich Wilkie, it enabled Raimbach to bequeath to his family the comfort of pecuniary independence. The conditions of this partnership were, that Wilkie, in return for each of his paintings that he borrowed from their respective proprietors for Raimbach to engrave, became entitled to one half share of the produce of the sale of the print engraved from it, after Raimbach had deducted the price agreed on as being the value of the plate and all the expenses of publication. The following anecdote of the first of this series of important works was related by to Metcalfe's 'Book of Knights' there were two

2. Major Banks Hunter left no issue (Dict. of Nat. Biog.,' vol. xxviii. p. 290).

3. In Paterson's 'Hist. of Ayrshire' (vol. ii. P. 146), Mrs. Hunter of Kirkland's death is recorded on March 24, 1825, leaving two sons, Marion. The marriage of the younger daughter George and Robert, and two daughters, Jean and to Mr. Wodrop of Dalmarnock is alone mentioned.


Woodside, Beith, Ayrshire.

SIR JOHN POOLY (8th S. iii. 328).-According

Sir John Pooleys knighted in Dublin in the year 1599-the one on July 12, the other "at Sir Robert Gardiner's house" on Sept. 24. One of these doubtless would be Sir John Poley of Columbine Hall, Suffolk, second son and heir of Edmond Poley by his wife Jane Grove, which Edmond was the third son of Edmond Poley of Badley and his wife Mirabell Garneys. In the 'Visitation of Suffolk,' 1612, Sir John Poley, of Columbine Hall, is stated to have married Ursula, daughter and coheir of Sir John Gilbert, of Great Finborough, Suffolk, and have issue then one son, Henry. The other knight of the name would seem to be Sir John Poley, of Wormegay, whose father, Thomas, was fourth son of John Poley, of Boxted, who died in 1580 (vide Burke's 'Landed Gentry'). W. D. PINK.

HYDE PARK IN 1824 (8th S. iii, 325).—In the passage cited by F. J. F. mention is made of "privates in the Guards......with their rusty mustaches." Gronow, who belonged to the 3rd Guards, appears in his portrait, which must have been done about this time, with an elegantly pencilled little moustache. But did the privates of the Guards' regiments wear moustaches? Presumably the warriors to whom the Rev. N. S. Wheaton refers were troopers of the Life Guards or the Blues. One wonders, though, why "rustiness" struck him as the characteristic of the "growth that fringed their lips." It was no new growth. These distinguished regiments had worn moustaches since Capt. Crawley's time. W. F. WALLER.

FIRST SECRETARY OF CONTINENTAL CONGRESS, &c. (8th S. iii. 180).-Among the identifications sought are the following:


The Duchess," as a writer of popular novels, is understood to be Mrs. Margaret Hungerford, an English or Irish woman, I believe, but I cannot give her nearer address.

"Gail Hamilton" (not "Gaol ") is the pen-name used in various trenchant articles appearing in magazines and reviews, by Miss Abigail Dodge, a cousin of the late Secretary of State, James G. Blaine, and a member of his immediate family for many years. In accordance with Mr. Blaine's | intention, and by Mrs. Blaine's wish, Miss Dodge will prepare the authorized memoir of the lamented statesman.

"The First Secretary of the Continental Congress" was Charles Thomson, Irish by birth, but from early boyhood resident in or near Philadelphia, Penn. By religion he was a Friend, or Quaker, and was master of the Friends' Academy in Philadelphia, where he was the intimate friend of Franklin. Like many of the Pennsylvania Quakers of that day, his love of peace led him to sympathize with the Indians, and at one time he filled the unique position of secretary to a chief of the Delawares, during a conference aiming to restrain the

incursions of the savages. He was enriched by marriage; and although not a member, he was elected Secretary of the First Continental Congress, and continued in that office throughout the subsequent sittings, from 1774 to 1788, and was also chosen for the same position in the first United States House of Representatives. The copies of the Declaration of Independence, transmitted, July 5, 1776, to the colonial assemblies, were authenticated as by order of Congress by the signatures of Hancock, president, and Charles Thomson, secretary. He died in 1824. M. C. L.

New York.

"PROFUSE LACHRYMATORY" (8th S. iii. 127). — Consult the list of Rich's pamphlets contributed by Mr. Peter Cunningham to vol. xi. of the Percy Society's publications.


LADY OF THE BEDCHAMBER (8th S. iii. 247, 355).-I am much obliged to HERMENTRUDE, whose answer is what I expected it would be. I believe it to be right. I would further ask if there is any sure distinction between the "domicella" and the "domicella camera." Surely, "domicella camera" must have been a married a woman, even if a mere domicella" was, occasionally, not so.

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I cannot find that there is the slightest reason for pretending that Philippa Chaucer's maiden name was Chaucer. It was a mere assumption, made to bolster up an improbable theory; and I think we are bound to abandon it.

The lives of Chaucer by Singer and Chalmers probably owe somewhat to Godwin's 'Life of Chaucer,' the second edition of which is dated 1804. It is, in all probability, the most imaginative and worthless biography ever produced in English; if any one can mention one that is more so, I shall be much surprised. There is no proof at all that Chaucer was married in 1360, nor that he was then thirty-two years old. One thing is certain, viz., that his father, John Chaucer, was still unmarried "unkore dismarie" — in 1328 (‘Life-Records of Chaucer,' Chaucer Soc., p. 127, where "unkore" is misprinted "nulson ").

Philippa's maiden name remains unknown. The guess that she was a "Rouet" is wholly founded on the assumption that Thomas Chaucer was the son of Geoffrey. This is quite possible, but has never been proved. I know of no more astonishing fact than this in the whole of our literary history. Here are two men, Geoffrey and Thomas Chaucer, both of high distinction, whose relationship to each other is never mentioned in any authentic contemporary document. All the positive evidence is limited to the fact that Thomas may have used Geoffrey's seal; and even here there is a doubt about the true reading of the

seal. And, somewhat later, Thomas Gascoigne asserts positively that Thomas was Geoffrey's son. If any one can point out any document or authoritative statement, earlier than 1400, in which the relationship of Thomas to Geoffrey is either asserted or denied, he will solve a great many doubtful points in Chaucerian biography. Every one has hitherto failed in this. I have done my small endeavour in this direction, and have failed utterly.

No one knows but those who have verified the references how hopelessly bad and how entirely worthless are the statements made in every life of Chaucer previous to that written by Sir H. Nicolas. In that work, for the first time, true statements appear.

WALTER W. Skeat.

EDITORS (8th S. iii. 186, 276). See also Crabbe's severe lines-too severe, I should hope-in 'The Newspaper,' dated 1785:

I sing of News, and all those vapid sheets

The rattling hawker vends through gaping streets;
Whate'er their name, whate'er the time, they fly,
Damp from the press, to charm the reader's eye:
For soon as morning dawns with roseate hue
The Herald of the morn arises too;
Post after Post succeeds, and all day long
Gazettes and Ledgers swarm, a noisy throng.
When evening comes, she comes with all her train
Of Ledgers, Chronicles, and Posts again,
Like bats, appearing when the sun goes down
From holes obscure and corners of the town.
Of all these triflers, all like these, I write.

LI. 49-61.

Further on Crabbe calls them " a base but constant breed." Cowper, in 'The Task' (bk. iv., 1. 50 et seqq.), which was almost exactly contemporary with Crabbe's poem, speaks much more kindly of the "folio of four pages, happy work!" It is curious that both Crabbe and Cowper mention Katterfelto à propos of newspaper advertisements; so Katterfelto, empiric or otherwise, has been saved from "longâ nocte" by two "vatibus sacris." JONATHAN BOUCHIER.

Ropley, Alresford.

THE ROSES OF KILRAVOCK (8th S. iii. 142) Since my last note on the subject of the descent of the Roses of Kilravock from the Chisholms and Lauders was written I have further examined into the question of representation of the latter two families, which would appear to be involved in obscurity. That the Roses did not, however, acquire more than a small estate by the marriage of Hugh Rose of Kilravock with Joneta, daughter of Sir Robert Chisholm, is evident from two summonses and a subsequent pleading which are printed by Mr. Cosmo Innes (Gen. Deduct. Fam. Rose of Kilr., p. 181), in the first of which William Sutherland of Duffus and Quarelwood is cited as "are and successour til vmquhile schir Robert Chesholme of Quarelwood knych," to appear before the King in Council, to answer, at

the instance of Hugh Rose of Kilravock, “are and successoure til vmquile Huchoun Ross of Kilrawok, his foregrantsire," as to his tenure of the lands of the two Cantrays and the half of the lands of "Vchtervrquhoil," after the form and tenor of the charter and infeftment made by the said Sir Robert Chisholm, "his predecessour," to the said Hugh, his great-grandfather, and his heirs (June 10, 23 Jac. I.). The second summons is served upon Christian Sutherland, spouse to the late William Oliphant, of Berrydale, as "are and successoure til vmquhile Sir Robert Chesholme of Querelwood, knycht" (June 10, 23 Jac. I.). The final pleading, dated April 20, 1512, sets forth that Muriel of Chisholm, daughter and heir to the late John of Chisholm, of all his lands of Chisholm, and the half of "Ouchterurquholl, and the ourlordschip of the two Cantrayis, and the tothir half of Ouchterurquholl," was wife of Alexander Sutherland, of Duffus, and that their great-granddaughter, Christian Sutherland, "lady of Baredall," was "air of lyne to folow and persew the landis of Chesholme in Twidale, togiddyr with the landis of Paxstoun and vtheris landis, of the quhilk scho is very heir to." From this it is clear that Joneta Chisholm was not an heiress, but that the representation of the family passed to her brother, John Chisholm, and by him was transmitted to Muriel Chisholm, the wife of Sutherland of Duffas. From the Sutherlands the representation of the family appears to have passed to the Oliphants; but who is now the heir of line of Sir Robert Lauder, Governor of the Castle of Urquhart, I am unable to say.


"THE REPUBLIC OF LETTERS" (8th S. iii. 247). -This reference can certainly be carried back earlier than Archbishop King or Montesquieu's 'Lettres Persanes.' I have before me an odd volume called Nouvelles de la Republique des Lettres, published at Amsterdam in 1687, being the second half of the issue for that year of a wellwritten and interesting monthly review of books and bably well known to some of your readers. Heutopics of literary, scientific, or religious interest, promann's 'Conspectus Reipublicæ Literaria,' of which the third edition was published at Hanover in 1733, has a dedication to Johann Burchard Mencke, dated Göttingen, Sept. 30, 1718, which precedes Archbishop King by some months, and the 'Lettres Persanes' by some years.

B. W. S.

This phrase occurs more than once in the Spectator. See No. 529, dated Nov. 6, 1712, where the phrase "Commonwealth of Letters" is also used. This number is written by Addison, and is a few years earlier in date than the letter of Archbishop King referred to by Prof. Gardiner. GIGADIBS.

TELEPHONIC (8th S. ii. 488; iii. 77, 174).-AD LIBRAM asks why we turn so hastily to Greek or

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