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man, and told me many interesting and circumstantial almost certainly from the Latin vola, the palm of anecdotes relative to that day ;-one, that a gunner told the hand, hence a handful—every trick. The book King James, that at that very precise moment his gun is an exquisite piece of typography. was 80 pointed, he could, in a twinkle, end the dispute for the three crowns; but James forbade him, and the

HERBERT MAXWELL. nephew and son-in-law were thus saved.” I have heard that King James's words were the N. E. D. shows that “ale-dagger” is not

' ALE-DAGGER” (8th S. iii. 387, 436).— When “No! do not leave my daughter a widow.”

mere slang or raillery, but the properly descriptive W. J. FITZPATRICK.

name of a well-known weapon of the time, it is Garrick Club.

another proof how greatly we are indebted to that How different this “saying and doing” of the learned and profound work. It may now safely Great Duke to that of Napoleon Bonaparte, who be supposed that a man might talk in this way:seems not to have held human life as of the slight- “ Boy ! I go to drink ale at the tavern, 80 give me my est value. M. Thiers, in his . History of the Con- 'ale-dagger," the light and handy one with two or three sulate and the Empire,' gives us an instance of this pounds of iron in the bilt.' Thou wilt find it on the at the Battle of Austerlitz, December 2, 1805 :

shelf by the side of the PapHatchet.'" “ Standing on the slopes of the plateau of Pratzen There can be very little doubt that these two overlooking the ponds, Napoleon perceives the disaster instruments would generally be found in the same that he bad so ably prepared. He orders a battery of the place.

R. R. guard to open a fire of balls on the parts of the ice which Boston, Lincolnshire, stand firm and completes the destruction of the flying wretches upon it, Nearly 2,000 men found a grave beneath “ COMMENCED M. A.” (8th S. ii. 8, 57, 155, 252). this broken ice."-Redhead's Translation, vol. i. p. 589, -Dr. Fitzedward Hall, replying in his Recent

John PICKFORD, M.A. Exemplifications of False Philology' to Mr. Grant Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

Wbito's objection to such pbrases as

"he com

menced poet," COGERS' Hall (8th S. iii. 346). — To the names

commenced politician," &c., says

in a foot-note (p. 40:of Keogb, O'Connell, and Curran, who spoke at Cogers' Hall, may be added (on the authority of "To commence M.A.,' &c., meaning to take the Mr. Brady, C.E., of Galway, to whom he told his degree of M.A., &c., has been a recognized phrase for

some three centuries at least. • Thei were able to have experience) the Dominican preacher Father Tom commenced maisters of arle. Barnabe Riche,' Farewell Burke. See also 'Life of Very Rov. Thomas to Militarie Profession,' p. 45. This application of comBurke, O.P.' (London, Kegan Paul & Trench, mence probably originated in an imitation of incipere, 1884, vol. ii. p. 263).

JUVERNA. which, in modern Latin, has long been used to denote

the object of college-commencements; and it is not at “TELEPATHIC OBSESSION"

all unlikely that it suggested the extension of employ. (8th S. iii. 384).

ment which the term has obtained in ordinary discourse. I would suggest that L.'s letter has nothing what- See Mr. B. H. Hall's College Words and Customs ever to do with any tendency to a belief in witch (second edition), p. 85." craft, althougb, no doubt, there is still a survival of

C. C. B. that in some country districts. L. clearly belongs See Bp. Patrick's 'Autobiography,' 1839, p. 58, to the class of mentally afflicted persons who suffer " sent to Cambridge for a certificate of my comfrom hallucinations of hearing, and, in consequence, mencing bachelor of divinity.” A surviving applibelieve that conspiracies are being formed against cation of the same phrase to ordinary use was to them, and that magnetic machines and other devices be, and perhaps still may be, seen over the chimney. are being secretly employed to act upon them. piece of the “Cheshire Cheese,” out of Fleet Street, There is a singular book by Jobo Haslam. (a in an inscription in honour of one who commenced lunatic), entitled Illustrations of Madness : with waiter there on such a date.

It may have been a Description of the Torture experienced by Bomb- this inscription that suggested to Shirley Brooks bursting, Lobster-cracking, and Lengthening of an idea, in bis ‘Silver Cord.' A frugal couple, the Brain,' London, 1810, 8vo. This book is having to make a wedding present, purchased a embellished with a curious plate, and is thoroughly second-band salver, which, being well scoured on typical of L.’s case.


reaching its destination, reveals the fact that it had East Hyde.

been presented to some one who similarly “comVOLE (8th S. iii. 187, 274,294).-While protesting

KILLIGREW. gainst arguing etymology from probability, unsup- In the eighteenth century New England colported by literary evidence, I have myself fallen leges had the long vacation in winter, in order that into the snare. I was rash enough to assume that a students might have the chance to earn vole at écarté signified and was derived from vol, a money by teaching school in the winter months. robbery. Mr. Hucks Gibbs, in his pretty little The college year commenced at commencement. volume on the 'Game of Ombre'(privately printed, Now it ends there, and begins in September. At London, 1878), has shown (p. 39, note) that it is Yale College, until 1871, commencement was cele

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brated the third week in July, nearly half way but a crest. So the older of the two called at a local through the summer vacation. The college year die-sinker's, and selected a lion rampant for his ended in June at "Presentation Day," so called family crest, and ordered note-paper for himself from the custom (disused long before) of the senior and his brother, with the lion rampant printed in tutor presenting the seniors to the president as all the colours of the rainbow. Then each brother worthy of a degree. It is said that the president sent his carriage, with a sheet of note-paper of his (although he had been instructing the class all the own choosing, to the coach-builder's, and the outprevious year) was expected to appear as if he was come was that the senior now displays on bis glad to make the acquaintance of so many excellent carriage a lion rampant gules, and the younger the young men. 0. H. DARLINGTON. same creature, but azure.

L. L. K. Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.

(8th S. iii. 368).-This verb is CARLO ALBACINI (8th S. iii. 369). -For a brief used transitively in 'Romeo and Juliet,” IIL. iii. account of the life of this Roman sculptor, who was 26 (“the kind prince hath rush'd aside the law"), one of the execators of Angelica Kauffman, see though it is possible that "hath rush’d” is an the 'Biographical Dictionary of the Society for the error for “hath thrust.”

G. J. Diffusion of Usefal Knowledge, London, 1842. This word has been used as a transitive verb in EVERARD HOME COLEMAN.

the game of croquet for at least thirty years. It “PRACTICAL POLITICS” (866 S. ii. 347, 395).- means to strike the ball you are playing so as This expression was in use nearly twenty years to hit another ball and drive it forward. James before 1887. Soon after the disestablishment of the Heath, in his 'Complete Croquet Player,' 1875, Irish Church, Mr. Gladstone, in a speech in Lanca- p. 32, says:shire (I think), said that the explosion at Clerken.

“ The object of the rush, or rushing roquet, is generally well Prison (which took place on Dec. 13, 1867), to drive the roqueted or object ball to some spot where called the attention of the people of England to it will be more convenient to the striker to take the

croquet.” Irish questions, and brought the disestablishment

The word is used in this sense in Whitmore's (in 1869), within the range of practical politics.


Croquet Tactics,' published ten or twelve years earlier,

R. O. A. PRIOR. CONSTANTIUS II., EMPEROR OF ROME (8th S. üi. 388).–Gibbon mentions, in his twenty-fifth

UNLUCKY HOUSES (8 S. iii. 224, 278).—When chapter, that the Emperor Gratianus,

son of Valen- at Bishop Barton, near Beverley, some six years tinianus I., married the granddaughter of Con-ago, I was informed that at least three of the vicars stantine the Great. This lady (see 'Ammianus

had committed suicide.

O. E. GILDERSOME-DICKINSON. Marcellinus,' lib. xxi. c. 15) was the posthumous daughter of Constantius ; two years younger than EPIPHANY OFFERING (8th S. iii. 347, 435).--MR. her husband, she was left a widow at the age of SPENCER PERCEVAL will find a long full account twenty-two by his assassination in A.D. 383. of this custom in Chambers's 'Book of Days'

W. T. LYNN (vol. i. pp. 62–64). Ever since the illness of Blackheath.

George III., the procession and personal appearSAMUEL EVANS, RECTOR OF BROWN CANDOVER, tinged. It is not stated when first observed in

ance of the reigning sovereign has been discon. Hants (8th S. iii

. 405).-He matriculated from this country, but it was observed as a separate New College, Oxford, March 11, 1624/5, then aged feast in the year 813. Brady states : eighteen, as the son of the Rev. David Evans, vicar (1596-1624) of Bierton, Bucks, and gradu. Magi, who are supposed to have been Kings, the monarch

“ To render due honour to the memory of the ancient ated B.C.L. on Oct. 11, 1632, in which degree be of this country himself, either personally or through his was incorporated at Cambridge in 1635. He was chamberlain, offers annually at the altar on this day, instituted to the rectory of Syresham, co. North-Gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh ; and the Kings of Spain, ampton, in 1637. (Foster's 'Alumni Oxonienser,' where the Feast of Epiphany is likewise called the 1500–1714, ii. 472.)


Feast of Kings' were accustomed to make the like

offerings." 17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.

W. B. GERISH. NOVEL NOTIONS OF HERALDRY (8th S. iii. 366, TAE POETS LAUREATE (8th S. ii. 385, 535; iii. 437).-Judging by a recent squabble between 89, 131, 298, 357).—Previous to the demolition of authors of rival text-books on heraldry, about the the Danish Church in Wellclose Square, Ratcopyright of a certain anecdote, heraldic yarns cliff, did any tablet or inscription exist on its walls are scarce. The following was related to me a few to the memory of Colley Cibber, who with his years ago. There were two brothers in a country father and mother were buried in the vault town in England who got on in the world, and no- beneath ? It is interesting to know that the thing else lacked them

to complete their happiness | remains of this celebrated family still lie near


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the spot where they were buried; but one would in our house. In the village of Hamsterley, near also like to know if they are in any way com- Bishop Auckland, a public house has the sign of a memorated above ground. JOHN T. PAGE. spinning wheel. Holmby House, Forest Gate.

In the Sketch of the Life of Georgiana, Lady " YEARN (8th S. iii. 266). — For a good ex of Richmond, who gave the celebrated ball at

de Ros,' who died 1891, daughter of the Duchess ample of transitive use of this word see Gesta Romanorum' (Roxburghe Club), p. 397, “ Wise stated that, among her other acccomplishments, she

Brussels on the evening before Waterloo, it is men are but scornede, and wedowes be sore used to spin flax on a spinning wheel presented to

, yernede.” It is curious to note that in Spenser her by the Queen. She was the last survivor of yearne usually means to earn, whilst earne generally

, that famous ball, and seems to be the last also means to long for; in one instance (“Faerie Queene,' who used the spinning-wheel. book iii. chap. x. p. 21) to grieve. Yerne also

E. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP. meant to run ; see 'The Ayenbite of Inwyt' (E.E.T.S.), glossary; also Halliwell.


E. S. A. BAREE” (7th S. xi. 387, 479; gth S. iii. 372). — May I be allowed to suggest that Shakspere Another instance of the use of “Broum, broum, uses the word given as yearn in two senses, as may by a French novelist is in chapter xiii. of Balzac's be seen by referring to the folio of 1623? In Père Goriot,' where the incomparable scoundrel Henry V.,' II. (not III. as stated) sc. i., Pistol

Vautrin sings,

O Richard, ô mon roi ! Bays : “Let us condole the Knight, for Lambkins

L'univers t'abandonne, we will live” (1l. 133-4); the idea is purely sel

with the addition fish. Then in scene iii., Pistol again : “My manly

Broum ! broum ! broum ! broum ! broum ! heart doth erne” (ll. 5, 6, Folio); and “Falstaff he is dead, and we must erne......let us to France And yet a further example is to be found in suck, to suck” (ll. 56, 57). So he is think. The Mill on the Floss' (book vi. chap. vii.), ing of his own means of subsistence; he yearns wherein it is observed that Stephen Guest, when over the lost master, but has still to earn his own preparing to sing in a duet, gave a foretaste of living.

A. HALL. the tune in his deep' brum-brum,' very pleasant

to hear." MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT (8th S. iii. 88, 173). —

It may, of course, be noted that in Dr. Murray's The Earl of Sunderland, writing to the Earl of New English Dictionary,'“ brum” is defined as Rutland, Feb. 17, 1684/5, says :

“ to murmur, hum," with the reference to BlackHis Majesty......not doubting but you will......em- wood in 1844, “ Now this is the strangest well ! ploy all your interest that good members may be chosen ......always humming and brumming.”. for the approaching parliament.”

ALFRED F. ROBBINS. The Marquis of Granby to the Duke of Rutland, April 12, 1719, says:

SECOND SIGHT (8th S. iii. 307, 412).-Second “ I am told several members have talked of bringing a sight, by which is meant throwing aside spectacles pan of charcoals into the House to burn it (the Peerage in old age, occurs to those who were short sighted Bill], others sending for pairs of shears to cut it, and 'tis in youth, and proceeds from the like cause that certain there are precedents of both being done."

requires persons with normal sight to use them, Sir Thomas Hussey, Bart., to Sir Thomas viz., the flattening of the eye in the one case Williamson, Bart., May 1, 1679, in declining to requiring to be corrected with magnifying glasses, stand for election (at Grantham ?), says :

while in the other case the same flattening of the "I neither do nor ever did feed any distastes between eye brings it into its normal state. Sr Robt Car, and myselfe, and much lesse between the

E. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP. rest of the members of Parliament and me,

however my actions have been represented to you."

I have not Dr. Holmes's delightful books at W. B. THOMAS.

hand for the reference, but somewhere, in the Heaton.

'Autocrat' or the Professor,' he tells of an

elderly gentleman of his acquaintance, who bullied In his Miscellanies' Aubrey mentions one his failing eyes_into vigorous renewal of their Edward Gunter as being chosen Member of

powers. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. Parliament"; and speaks of a certain Col. Remes Hastings. a Parliament man. W. F. WALLER.

The late Mr. John Stewart, of Belladrum, InOLD ENGLISH SPINNING (8th S. iii. 368, 411). verness-shire, sometime M.P. for Beverley, re-Spinning wheels were in constant use in the covered his sight and left off the use of spectacles north sixty or seventy years ago in many cottages. long after he was seventy. He died some twenty Even ladies used to spin, and have their spinning years ago, aged nearly ninety. made up into table-cloths. There is one preserved


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AUSTRIAN FLAG AT ACRE (8th S. iii. 427).- Almanack' that I can find just at the moment is Your correspondent will have considerable difficulty that for 1885. On p. 69 is a list of new pieces in procuring an authentic copy" of this fag. produced at London theatres ; and under the headHowever, he may try his luck by consulting G. ing of “Court” is “ My Milliner's Bill, duologue, Koehler's or Boeheim's book on early war materials. by G. W. Godfrey, March 6" (1884). The former is in the British Museum, if not the

E. S. N. latter. The duke whose flag Richard L. outraged This word was invented some fifty years ago, to at Ptolemais was Leopold V., who was Duke of describe the usual way in which mattins and evenAustria from 1177 to 1194. I believe the oldest song were rendered in our churches, as a duologue known representation of a coat of arms borne by a between parson and clerk, the congregation reDuke of Austria occurs on a seal affixed to a deed maining silent. Sometimes it was described as a of 1202, and shows the lion of Styria, which Leopold Ví. bore as duke of that country. The of the past.

parson and clerk duet." Happily, now a thing

E. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP. earliest known representation of the well-known Austrian, or rather Babenberg, escutcheon—Gules, DUMBLE” (8th S. iii. 447). — Why not a a fess argent-is shown on a seal to a deed of 1234, variant of “ dimble"

(a form cognate with if I remember rightly. Cf. Sava, ‘Die Siegel der " dimple”), a depression, hollow, or valley ? Comoester Regenten’(Vienna, 1871). Old Siebmacher pare the name Dumbleton, in Gloucestershire. The has, I believe, a legend about the origin of this word is used by Ben Jonson :device.

L. L. K.
Within a bushy dimble she doth dwell.

CHAs. Jas. FÈRET. HAWISIA DE FERRERS (8th S. iii. 429).- The additional name of Havisa, wife of Robert, first In "A Supplementary English Glossary,' by Earl of Derby, was De Vitri. Probably further the Rev. T. L. 0. Davies, I find the following :information may be given in 'Antiquities of Betsey called it [monk's-bood] dumbledore's delight, Lacock Abbey,' by W. L. Bowles and J. C. and was not aware that the plant in whose helmetNicholls, p. 264.


rather than cowl - shaped flowers that busy and best

natured of all insects appears to revel more than in any I have somewhere met with the statement that other is the deadly aconite of which we read in poetry. she was a De Vitré. If so, she was probably |--Soutbey, 'The Doctor,' chap. cviji.

S. J. A. F. daughter of André de Vitré by Agnes, daughter of Robert, Comte de Mortain. André's grand- CHARLES II., THE FISH, AND THE ROYAL son Robert (the second) died in 1174.

SOCIETY (866 s. ii. 526 ; iii. 234, 377).—MR. W.

Taos. WILLIAMS. WEBB seems to bave studied the problem of ArchiDUOLOGUE (8th S. iii. 406). —The word and the medes imperfectly, or he would not have fallen entertainment indicated by it are not of such in water“ would displace à balk of water equal to

into the error of supposing that a body immersed recent date as DR. CHANCE seems to suppose,

its own weight.” though it is quite true that dictionaries are silent on this head, even Cassell's edition of 1892 omitting 73c in water, it displaces a quantity of water equal

Suppose a mass of gold to weigh 77in air, and it. The following two quotations may show (1) to its own bulk, weighing 4.4. If the weight in that some five years ago duologues took their rise air be divided by the loss of weight in water, that in drawing-room entertainments, and (2) of what nature this kind of recitation is ? “Her taste for is, 77 by 4, we get 194 as the specific gravity of recitations and drawing-room duologues is growing is 192 times heavier than its own bulk of pure

gold, that of water being 1. In other words, gold rapidly" (Punch, 1888, i. p. 229); “It reminds

water at 60° F. me of one of those duologue entertainments, where the lady comes on the stage first, and does her Archimedes had to solve. A known weight of

It may be useful to restate the problem that speech and solo; then exit 'she,' and enter on the other side he,' and immediately gives his speech, gold was delivered to an artist for conversion into his solo; then exit 'he. Re-enter she'; to her a votive crown for Hieron, King of Syracuse (or, enter 'he': dialogue, duet, dance, and exit one delivered was of the proper weight, but a suspicion

as some say, for his son Galon). The crown as of them, and so on, until the final duet, and somehow arose that a fraud had been perpetrated. curtain" (Punch, 1888, i. p. 185). The two quotations prove one thing more-viz., that the examination, but, as it had some artistic value, be

The crown was accordingly sent to Archimedes for word may be used both as a substantive and as an adjective. K. TEN BRUGGENCATE.

was not allowed to melt it down into some simple Leeuwarden, Holland,

geometrical figure, so as to be able to compare it and

measure it with a similar figure in pure gold. If I believe this word is a good deal older than Dr. the crown were an alloy of gold and of some less CHÀNCE thinks. I have known it for a long time, dense metal, and yet of the same weight as one of though I cannot say how long. The earliest “Era pure gold, the alloy would be of larger dimensions

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than that of the noble metal. While meditating Wars of the Jews,' cap. xxv., under the name of on the subject Archimedes went one day to bathe, “Baaras-root." Perhaps these works will throw and the bath happening to be quite full, he saw light on the origin of the superstition he is that a quantity of water overflowed precisely equal desirous of tracing. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. to his own immersed bulk. The idea flashed 71, Brecknock Road, upon him that the crown lowered into a vessel

In the latter half of your correspondent's quotaquite full of water would, if of pure gold, displace tion there is an obvious allusion to the sbriek and cause to overflow a quantity of water equal to uttered by the mandrake when it was subjected to that which would be displaced by a mass of gold of violence :any shape, but of the same weight as the crown.

I last night lay all alone If, however, the crown were an alloy, it would dis- On the ground to hear the mandrake groan. place a larger volume of water than would be

Ben Jonson, Masque of Queens.' displaced by a crown of gold. In fact, it appeared Sown next the vines, the mandrake might give that Hieron's crown was an alloy, of gold and warning of the presence of depredators.

What silver, let us suppose in the proportion of 20 to 7 says the context ?

F. ADAMS, by weight.

Now suppose, for the sake of avoiding decimals, INSCRIPTION ON Brass, OxTED CHURCH, we take water, the standard of comparison, to be SURREY (8th S. iii, 387). —The following inscrip100. Then,

tion upon a slab—now placed vertically-in the The weight of a cubic inch of water equals


north aisle of the church of Lanivet, near Bodmin, The weight of a cubic inch of gold

1,925 is interesting, as not only recording the “last The weight of a cubic inch of silver

1,053 words” but also the 'Cause of Death' (8th S. ii.

428, 533 ; ii. 76, 154, 275, 355):The weight of 20 cubic inches of gold

38.500 The weight of 7 cubic inches of silver


“In memory of Ann the only child of John Pasco and

Dorothy his wife of this Pøb, who was buried the 27th The weight of 27 cubic inches of the alloy 45,871 day of April, 1724, in the 14th year of her age. The weight of a cubic inch of the alloy


“She was very Religious from her Infancy And much

given to Prayer and Especially in her Death bed, where Hence the specific gravity of the alloy is 1,698, she sung ye 84tb Psalm and said ye following verse. that of water being 100; but if the crown had Farewell Parents dear, Father and Mother. been of pure gold its specific gravity would have You 'll lose youre Daughter dear, tho' you 've no other. been 1,925.

Pray do not grieve for me, for I am going. The overflow method devised by Archimedes

Where there are joys sor e'er, like fountains flowing. has long been superseded by the hydrostatic Reader who e'er thou art, that view these lines. balance (which gives far more accurate results) and she was the hopes of Father, and of Mother.

Our mourning is for one, cut off betimes. various forms of hydrometer, an instrument said to Their only Child, they never had another. have been invented by Hypatia, a learned Greek Her Piety, and virtue so Divino lady of Constantinople. 0. Tomlinson, F.R.S. Few of her years so vertuously inclin'd. Highgate, N.

She Prayy and Praised, ye Lord while she had Breath.

Till by a raging fever, brought to Death. HIGALAND LIGAT INFANTRY REGIMENT (86h S. She cry'd I go to Christ, friends do not mourn. iii. 367). — This regiment has on its colours twenty- Almighty God, He knows what's for her best.

You 'll come to me, but I shall ne'er return. eight battles. The 60th Royal Rifle Corps has a We hope her soul, with her Redeemer rests. record of thirty battles, but cannot show them on its colours, as rifle regiments do not carry colours.

The thought of “fountains flowing” was no

doubt “ heavenly" to this girl upon her bed of F. O. K. fever.

Č. E. GILDERSOME-DICKINSON. MANDRAGORA (8th S. iii. 429).—The various

Eden Bridge, speculations respecting the mandrage, its pro- In Tomson's version of the New Testament perties

, strange fables, legendary lore, is an endless (Genevan Bible) there is a marginal note to "from subject. If J. E. S. wishes to go deeply into the euill” (Matt. vi. 13), which runs

“ From the ridiculous tales told of this plant he should refer to Gerardo's 'Herbal' (1597); Rev. A. Dyce's

deuil, or from all aduersitie.

J. F. MANSERGH. Glossary to Shakespeare's Works'; 'Folk-lore of

Liverpool. Plants,' by Rev. T. F. Thiselton-Dyer; 'Folk Etymology,' by Rev. A. S. Palmer; 'Mystic Trees and “SALLER MONY" (8th S. üi. 408). —This was a Flowers,' by Moncure D. Conway; Fraser's toll, or custom, paid for salt, especially so used in Magazine, 1870, ii. 705 ; Timbs's Things not Cheshire. The gallery, or fee for collecting it, was Generally Known,' p. 103 ; All the Year Round, called "salarium" as early as Edward III.'s reign. second series, x. 520, xxxvi. 371, 413 ; *Dic- Probably it may occur in the church accounts tionary of the Natural History of the Bible,' by mentioned, in connexion with some revenues in Dr. Harris ; Nares's 'Glossary'; and Josephus's that parish from pits or customs. Also “Sallicher”


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