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tine and a man being executed, a large round basket placed for the head to fall into, and the executioner in the act of pulling the rope. It is entitled "View of La Guillotine, or the modern beheading machine at Paris by which Louis XVI., late king of France, suffered on the scaffold, Jan. 21, 1793." Sports and amusements of the past and present are shown in the coaching, racing, wrestling, cock-fighting, bull and bear baiting, &c.; also in the menageries and peep-shows.
The department with Jesuit china is interesting. It is said to have been made in the sixteenth century, in order to teach the Chinese the facts on which Christian teaching is based; the Nativity, the Crucifixion, the Ascension, and some Old Testament subjects.
There is a group in china of Ridley and Latimer at the stake, with the words so well known, "Be of good comfort, Master Ridley, and play the man; we shall this day light such a candle by God's grace in England as I trust may never be put out."
Many of the designs and rhymes with reference to drinking are very quaint, and there is a set of eight plates, with pictures à la Hogarth, describing the evils of drink; No. 8 showing the drunkard in a madhouse after having murdered his wife. One white jug, with barrel and grapes in black, is thus inscribed :
Come, my old Friend, and take a Pot
While thou drinks thy neighbour's health,
It but too often is the case
While we sit o'er a Pot,
belief in quackery, are Rochester's 'Poems,' and a pamphlet, "Leeke's justly famed pills."
I hope this short account of some of the curiosities to be seen in Mr. Willett's collection may interest those people who, perhaps, have not before heard of it. I have not touched much on the different makes of the china and pottery, our view being more the history in it, not the history of it; that will be found in the explanatory Catalogue, to be had at the Brighton Museum. CHARLOTTE FORTESCUE YONGE.
A china figure on one side represents a sober man, neat and tidy; on the other a drunkard, "tight and needy," hugging his gin-bottle.
A very curious flask, in the shape of a large potato, is said to have been made in order to smuggle spirits into workhouses or hospitals.
Toby Fillpot, the jug in the shape of a stout man, whose hat forms a cup, is here seen; also the Sussex pig, of which the head comes off for a drinking cup, standing on the two ears and snout, and the body, set up on tail end, is the jug; these 1763 Vice Gascoyne, made a Commissioner for Trade and
Another statement makes Huske 441, Gascoyne 266.
Vice Huske, dead. Charles Rainsford Wallinger
1774 Hon. Richard S. Nassau
Vice Nicholas Lechmere, becoming Lord Lech
1713 Jo-eph Earle
Thomas Edwards, jun.
Sir William Daines, Knt.
1714 Sir William Daines, Knt. Joseph Earle
Thomas Edward3, jun.
It is stated that Freke and Edwards had a majority of about forty or fifty on the poll, but Daines and Earle demanded a scrutiny and obtained a majority on it. 1722 Joseph Earle
Sir Abraham Elton, Bart.
1734 Sir Abraham Elton, Bart.
Polls in Smith, 1734, 1754, 1784, 1796, 1797, 1807, 1881.
4, Montague Place, Bedford Square.
TRANSCENDENTAL KNOWLEDGE.-The following 474 passage seems to me to be of singular lucidity. I attribute it to the pen of Coleridge simply because I believe nobody else in England to be capable of writing it. I cannot, however, find it in The Friend,' 'Aids to Reflection,' or any other of his works known to me. fied point to the place where the passage occurs ? Can any reader better quali"Transcendental knowledge is that by which we endeavour to climb above our experience into its sources by an analysis of our intellectual faculties, still, however, standing, as it were, on the shoulders of our experience in order to reach at truth which was above experience; while transcendent philosophy would consist in the attempt to master a knowledge that is beyond our faculties. An attempt to grasp at objects beyond the reach of hand or eye or all the artificial ends (and, as it were, prolongations of eye and hand) of objects, therefore the existence of which, if they did exist, the human mind has no means of ascertaining, and therefore has not even the power of imagining or conceiving; that which the pretended sages pass off for such objects being merely images from the senses variously disguised and recomposed, or mere words associated with obscure feelings expressing classes of these images. A process pardonable in poetry, though even there quickly degenerating into poetic commonplace, as, for instance, fountains of pleasure, rivers of joy, intelligential splendours, and the like, but as little to be tolerated in the schools of philosophy as on the plain high road of common sense."
Polls in Smith, 1739, 1754, 1756, 1774, 1780, 1781, 1784, 1790, 1796, 1812 (two elections), 1818, 1820, 1826, 1830. It may be as well to state that many of the polls for this city as recorded in Smith are different from those in other works.
Another scrap, which I take to be his most certainly, is this:
tinctly carried the far greater number of all its votaries into the subtle vagaries so much laughed "The knowledge has been entitled transcendental at since as "the trivialities of the schoolmen," can aesthetic, a term borrowed from a fragment attributed hardly be said to have answered its intention of to Polemo, the successor of Speucippus, who succeeded eradicating a mental defect. Logic has failed, for Plato, the great founder of the Academic School,' little men cannot rise to a right use of it, and This I cannot find in Coleridge's published writ- truly great men do not want it at all. Still, a ings. Whilst upon the subject, is there any cata-man like Coleridge cannot write on a subtle and logue yet extant or procurable of the sale of abstruse theme, however devoid of good fruit and J. H. Green's library? Green published 'Spiritual useless the theme may be in itself, without dropPhilosophy,' a work supposed to be founded on ping pearls and diamonds of light crystallized by teachings of Coleridge. Green must have had the way; he is the diamond-clad Esterhazy, and many Coleridgean documents in his possession. where he steps diamonds drop; so that whatever he Did these come to the hammer on the dispersal may have left us will repay our looking after it of his library; and, if so, where are they? before it is too late. Oblivion is always a gaping chasm, and night is on our track. I do not think he has reconciled Aristotle and Bacon; but his paper on the subject is full of jewels none the less. C. A. WARD. Chingford Hatch, E.
What became of Coleridge's elaborate 'Logic'? It was thought to be nearly all ready for the printing-press at his death. Its first two chapters were to have been entitled "No. 1, History of Logic"; "No. 2, Philosophy of Education." The latter ought to have been of considerable value from such a man. As to logic, I regard it as a hollow farce. Coleridge himself admitted that logic was utterly useless in the investigation of nature; but he seems to have regarded it as a kind of grammar to metaphysic, or chart of the capacity of the human mind, to cure a defect in which it was invented by Aristotle. Myself, I cannot but smile at the folly of these grand men, Aristotle, Bacon, and Coleridge, in their Quixotic intention to correct the working of the most prodigious bit of vital mechanism that it has pleased the Creator of man and the universe to make us cognizant of the human brain.
W. J. LAWRENCE.
FIRST ENGLISH THEATRICAL COMPANY IN AMERICA.-In a recent review of Mr. Belville S. Penley's 'The Bath Stage,' I noticed that the Athenæum, in speaking of Lewis Hallam, pointed out incidentally that this actor, in 1752, "took over the first English company for the purpose of acting in America." This, I know, is the gospel according to Dunlop; but it may not be altogether idle to draw attention to the statement in Col. T. Allston Brown's voluminous records of 'The Theatre in America,' wherein it is affirmed that a company of English actors crossed over to New York in the winter of 1749, and remained there The answer to such preposterous intention and for some time. According to the latter-day his purpose is this: that if a genius such as Aris-torian "it consisted of Messrs. Smith, Daniels totle could succeed in making us a syllogistic Douglas, Kershaw, and Morris, and their wives, baby-jumper to keep us out of mischief ratiocina- and Miss Hamilton, the last mentioned playing tive, it would be so very hard to get into and the leading business." Comber. thoroughly control that it would require a genius abreast of his own, or even superior to his, to employ it to advantage, whilst a genins equal to any one of the three men named could very well do without it. The medieval schools employed logic as an educational mean more than any other body of men has done, and they chiefly succeeded in its misapplication. I say chiefly, for I think few will deny, after reading a few pages of the Summa Theologia' of St. Thomas, that he, at least, made an intellectual use of it that should place him on a pinnacle infinitely higher than can justly be assigned to any man of science alive to-day, simply considered as to mental quality and reach. A great deal of nonsense may also be pointed to, no doubt; but can we suppose that the same thing cannot be said of the tall talk of science of to-day? Ten lustra hence how much of it will remain unmodified? whilst much will be absolutely contradicted.
A science that, in its widest culture, has dis
FRANCIS LENNARD, FOURTEENTH LORD DACRE. Notwithstanding his opposition to the trial of Charles I., he must afterwards have submitted to the Protectorate, for we find him elected to Cromwell's second Parliament-1654-55-as one of the nine members for Sussex. His death occurred on May 12, 1662 (vide G. E. C.'s New Peerage,' sub "Dacre"). This will serve as a slight addition to the particulars given in vol. xxxiii. of the 'Dict. Nat. Biog.'
W. D. PINK.
NEWSPAPER CUTTING AGENCIES.-Subject to correction, I believe that the idea of these agencies, now indispensable to author, artist, and politician, originated with M. J. Blum, grandson of a German immigrant in Paris, formerly assistant professor of French at Trinity College, Dublin, and now teacher of languages in Paris. His relations with actors (he is not related, however, to the dramatist, Ernest Blum) had
shown him their curiosity as to "outlandish" Nat. Biog.' vol. xxxii. p. 365), says of the 'Rival opinions, and in 1875, styling himself "l'Inter- Queens; or, the Death of Alexander the Great': prète," he undertook to communicate to French "The piece was published, with a fulsome dedicacelebrities notices of their achievements appearing tion to the Duchess of Portsmouth." In 1879 I in foreign papers. He did things on a small scale, bought a copy of the first edition from John Kinsusually sending not cuttings, but written copies. man, Penzance, complete except as to the first page He was speedily imitated and supplanted by a M. of the Epistle Dedicatory, but from its terms one Chérie, who dubbed himself "l'Argus de la Presse," would imagine that Mr. Lee is wrong. It ends and London and New York followed suit. M. thus:Blum must feel chagrined yet flattered at having sown a seed which has proved so productive-for others. Sic vos non vobis. J. G. ALGER. Paris.
"QUOT LINGUAS CALLES TOT HOMINES VALES.' -An inquiry regarding the above adage in 'N. & Q.' (7th S. iii. 129), proposed by the present writer, has remained thus far unanswered. He will, therefore, state that he has found these Latin words as the motto at the head of a chapter of Vámbéry's book of far eastern travel when he went as a disguised pilgrim. Vámbéry, however, gives no intimation whence he derived the saying. As I have nowhere seen a translation, I will give one of my own, till a better one shall take its place :
Discourse in ten tongues if you can, I'll reckon you ten times a man. The Latin rhyme must have suggested analogous sayings attributed to the Emperor Charles V. and others. Will some one rich in medieval lore show us early uses of this notable utterance?
Madison, Wis., U.S.A.
JAMES D. BUTLER.
A CENTENARIAN FOXHUNTER.-In the Gent. Mag., vol. xxxiv. 1764, p. 398, is the following remarkable entry among the "Deaths":
"31 July. George Kirton of Oxnop-Hall, Yorks., Esq: in the 125th year of his age: a most remarkable fox hunter, after following the chase on horseback till 80; till he was 100 he regularly attended the unkennelling the fox in his single chair: And no man till within ten years of his death, made freer with his bottle."
ROBIN H. LEGGE.
"WHAT CHEER?"-This is generally supposed to be modern slang, but it occurs in a serious passage at least as early as 1440, or thereabouts. In the Towneley Plays,' p. 162 of the Early English Text Society's re-edition, now going through the press, Joseph says to his wife Mary (Play XV. The Flight into Egypt') ::
Mary, my darlyng dere. I am full wo for thee!
A, leyf Joseph, what chere?
F. J. F.
NAT. LEE'S ALEXANDER THE GREAT.'-Mr. Sidney Lee, in his life of Nathaniel Lee (Dict. of
"And I can affirm to your Lordship, there is nothing transports a Poet, next to Love, like commending in the right place. Therefore, my Lord, this Play must be yours; and Alexander, whom I have rais'd from the dead, comes to you with an assurance, answerable to his Character and your Virtue. You cannot expect him in his Majesty of two thousand years ago, I have only to put his illustrious ashes in an Urne, which are now offer'd with all observance to your Lordship By, my Lord, your Lordships most humble, obliged and devoted Servant, Nat. Lee."
To whom was the play then dedicated, if Mr. Lee is in error? Had it two dedications? I may add that the list of "Some Books Printed this Year, 1677, for J. Magnus and R. Bently," which follows the prologue, contains entries of three other plays, 1677 editions of which are not mentioned by Mr. Sidney Lee; but perhaps the publishers then, like some publishers now, regarded the date in a Pickwickian sense, and did not mean that the year 1677 was actually responsible for the books mentioned in a 1677 list.
Sed juvat, hoc precibus me tribuisse tuis,
Nolueram, Polytime, tuos violare capillos.
THE GRAMMAR SCHOOLS OF KING EDWARD VI.
"And moreover know ye that we being induced by the singular Love and Affection which we bear towards the unripe Subjects in our Kingdom in the same our County of Warwick we do not a little lay it to heart that hereafter from their cradles they may be seasoned in polite Literature (which before our Days was neglected
when they attained to a more advanced age) going on to be more learned and increasing in Number to be useful Members in the English Church of Christ which on earth we do immediately preside over so that both by their Learning as well as prudence they may become of Advantage and an Ornament to [the] whole Dominions We do by virtue of these presents create erect found ordain make and establish a certain Free Grammar School in the said Town of Stratford upon Avon to consist of one Master or Pedagogue hereafter forever to endure And so we will and by these presents command to be established and for ever inviolably to be observed, And that the said School so by us founded created erected and established shall for ever be commonly called named and stiled The King's New School of Strat. ford upon Avon."
RESTORATION OF A PARISH REGISTER: PRESTON CANDOVER, HANTS.-The annexed entry in Baigent and Millard's History of Basingstoke,' 1889, p. 103 n., records the restoration to lawful custody of a missing register of marriages in the parish of Preston Candover:
"There was until the year 1881, preserved among the Parish Registers [of Basingstoke] a fragment of a small Register Book consisting of six leaves of parchment (the leaves measuring no more than about ten inches in length, and four in width), containing entries of Marriages from 1584 to 1692, which apparently did not belong to Basingstoke. The result of a careful examination proved that it belonged to the Parish of Preston Candover. The leaves were then flattened and bound up in stiff covers to prevent further injury or loss, and with the consent and approbation of the Archdeacon of Winchester banded over [by Mr. Francis Joseph Baigent] to the custody of the Vicar of Preston Candover."
ing of mills by men may probably have continued
the pronunciation of rind, some making it rhyme
We must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only privato interest to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that the answers may be addressed to them direct.
THOMAS NEALE.-What is known of Thomas Neale beyond the allusions in the Pepys and His Venetian lottery and the Evelyn diaries ? Seven Dials make him a Londoner of some interest; to Americans he is of some account for the Post-Office patent he obtained in 1691/2 for all English settlements in North America and the West Indies. The patent was to run for twentyone years, or until February 17, 1712/13, but expired under the the Post-Office Act of 1710. It appears, also, that in or before 1703, Neale assigned his post-office rights and debts to his 17, Hilldrop Crescent, N. American deputy, Postmaster-General Andrew Hamilton. Hamilton was a remarkable man, who DERIVATION OF THE SURNAME TURNER.- conducted a post from Virginia to New Hampshire, Lower, in bis 'Patronymia Britannica,' derives the and induced the principal colonies to pass a name Turner "from the occupation. One of the similar Post-Office Act. More than anything else most common of surnames, out of all proportion,' this was instrumental in uniting the colonies, just Mr. Ferguson ['English Surnames'] alleges, to as the dismissal of Franklin, in 1774, united the the number of persons engaged in the trade,' of states, or led to the United States, the post the lathe." Now it seems that many of the families office under American authority being established named Turner bear arms in which enters the fer in 1775 for that purpose. The American post de moline, otherwise called ink-moline, and mill-office, using the word in a national or imperial rind. This is a piece of iron of a peculiar shape, which, though shown with some variation in books on heraldry, may be described as resembling the sign for Pisces in the Zodiac, with the addition of a square or oblong link in the plane of the figure, rigidly connecting the two curves in the centre of the figure. It seems to have been let into the centre of the under surface of the upper millstone. Probably it was intended, among other purposes, to distribute the pressure of the driving axis upon the stone, and so to lessen the risk of splitting the stone. This cognizance seems to point to the turning not of a lathe, but of a mill, as the origin of the name; and its frequency would thus be accounted for. The flour-mills of the Greeks and Romans were often turned by slaves, and the turn
sense, is two hundred years old, and Neale is its father; whence this inquiry. With due reserve, I may add that the Dictionary of National Biography' is not partial to postal matters. Under William and Mary Sir Robert Cotton and Sir Thomas Frankland were the English PostmastersGeneral, and under the next reign John Evelyn succeeded Cotton; but the 'Dict. Nat. Biog.' is silent on these points. All the same, the history of your people is the history of your Post Office, and the history of your Post Office is very largely the history of your Postmasters-General. So they deserve attention, and Thomas Neale may repay an inquiry; our Massachusetts archives call him the Governor of the Post Office of North America, No doubt a case of lucus a non lucendo. His