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credit in a short description of the city, slaves in Massachusetts, therefore, was as follows: "There are few striking a mark of dignity rather than of business buildings, the houses are small, the enterprise. streets crooked and narrow, the even The large estates of the tobacco and course of the streets changes from age cotton planters of the South furnished to age, and there is no main thorough the conditions adapted to the developfare through the city."
ment of the “peculiar institution.” As Dr. E. W. G. Masterman, a member of usual what was economically profitable the excavating party, is the contributor was regarded as right. The system that of the article. In part he writes as fol- was condemned by the great Southerners lows:
of the period before the cotton gin came “The earliest inhabitants lived in to be defended by their successsor, who caves and made all their weapons and in- fancied that their prosperity was founded struments of flint. In the middle period on it. Meanwhile, the North, developing bronze is the only metal known, while at free from the influence of slavery, a time roughly synchronous with the reached a stage where the missionary imcoming of Israel, iron appears and
and pulse became overpowering and it started gradually replaces bronze.”
out to impose its ideas and standards on Work of excavating is temporarily the rest of the country. suspended, as the three years' Turkish
Thus, from one point of view the confirman has expired. It is hoped to secure flict that followed was as inevitable as a new firman, when the researches again the natural forces of protracted heat and will be resumed.
moderate temperature that produced it. Puppets, men seem to be as Tennyson
suggested, “moved by an unseen hand at The important "American Nation"
a game that pushes us off the board.” series of historical studies, now in proc
Yet after all it is impossible to avoid ess of publication, speculating whether the whole of truth is Professor Hart's New has reached the vol
embodied in this view. If men on both History of
sides had kept their temper, if Douglas Slaves.
and Abolition,” by had not revived the issue of the MisProfessor A. B. Hart of Harvard Uni
souri Compromise, the crisis might, perversity. The book, judicious and haps, have been postponed and slavery studiedly imparital, is not likely to con
might finally have succumbed before the tribute toward the revival of a dying forces of progress. To assume that it controversy. In accordance with modern was not within human power to avert ideas, it finds the ultimate causes of the
such a calamity as the war is a lame and trouble in conditions of soil and climate impotent conclusion. and not in the reasoned purposes of the people themselves.
At the time the Declaration of Inde- After digging for several years into pendence
proclaiming human the ruins of Nippur, the ancient seat of equality, slavery was permitted by law in
greatness, every English colony. Massachusetts
The Civilization the University of and Rhode Island, indeed, had early of the Cassites. Pennsylvania has enacted prohibitive statutes. But these
just published exwere a dead letter—as were those of tracts from the brick ledgers, payrolls, early Georgia. The conditions of the
census reports and other documents of northern and middle colonies, however, the great era of Cassite expansion and never made slavery profitable. In the di- prosperity. versified industries and in the intensive A sample payroll is as neatly kept as agriculture of New England, slave labor that of the Census Office. It is "lined could not compete with free. To hold perpendicularly for the year, with divi
sions into two periods of six months, and cious possession of the English-speaking horizontally for the names of the officials world, and the moral authority to interon the payroll.”
fere in its regulation must arise out of Against the names of the officials are the entire body and not from a segment marked their records, some
as absent of the roof. with pay, some without pay and one as "Any radical change such as this, for "absconded." The roll has a woman on instance, would be involved in phonetic it, who is explained as the daughter of writing, would have the effect of cutting some one, and “whole families are car- us off from the language of Shakespeare ried on it” at public expense.
and the English Bible, making this a This seems curiously modern. An
An- semi-foreign idiom to be acquired by other set of Cassite books brings them special study. completely up to date. It is the record "The proposal gradually to introduce of the statistics of their prosperity. It through the co-operation of volunteers shows them teaching the people whose a certain number of new spellings and country they had expanded into, their then, when these are well under way, religion and their civilization, debiting presumably certain others, seems them with the expense of this and credit- promise an era of ghastly confusion in ing them with receipts of produce printing offices and in private orthograenough to pay the salaries of everyone phy and hetorography as well as much iron the official payrolls and leave a hand- ritation to readers' eyes and spirits. some balance.
“The list of 300 words proposed by the The records leave no doubt that nearly simplified spelling board is a somewhat 3,500 years ago the Cassites were haphazard collection, following no very familiar with grafting, had systematized clear principle of selection. One hunexploitation and had begun reducing dred and fifty-seven of them, such as high finance to an exact science. They 'color' for 'colour,' are already in their kept it up for five hundred years, yet docked form familiar to American usage. most of us who think ourselves modern
There is no excuse, however, for 'thru' have never heard of the Cassites until for 'through' from any point of view." this present.
In response to inquiries regarding the
significance of his address, President Commencement exercises of Leland Wheeler suggested that an international Stanford University, which were post
academy might be founded to have poned from last authority in matters of language President Wheeler
June, were held last changes. While discussing his Stanford Opposes
month. The adReformed Spelling.
address he said: dress was delivered "My position is determined from the by Benjamin Ide Wheeler, president of point of view of the science of language the University of California, on the sub- in its relations to human civilization. It ject of "Phiology.” In the course of his certainly is of the highest importance to address he said :
the most sacred civilized interests that no "The establishment for the United changes be made such as have been proStates of a standard of written English posed without more careful consideration different from that recognized elsewhere and co-operation of all branches of the in the English-speaking territory is an English-speaking world. isolating and decisive movement promis- "My idea is that there should be ing loss and waste to intercourse and created an international academy repreculture, introducing consciousness of sentative of England, America, Auscontrariety where the opposite is desired. tralia, New Zealand, Canada and even
"The English language is not the prop- India and South Africa, a parliment of erty of the people of the United States, the English-speaking world which should still less of its government: it is a pre- have oversight of reforms in the lan
guage just as the French Academy and the university; both institutions have an Spanish Academy have done."
important place in our system of educa
tion. Both are necessary to meet present A significant token of progress in
day demands. There is a growing disOklahoma is the establishment of institu- position on the part of college students to
do supplementary work in the university The Modern
and many are taking their initial course throughout that terSectarian School. ritory. At the con
at college and completing their collegiate
training at the university. vention of the Christian church, which ended recently wonderful step in the evolution of liberal
The modern religious college marks a at El Reno, it was definitely decided to build a Christian college at some town in
ideas and its present status is a result of the new state. This church has decided
years of progress toward higher ideals of
education. that a college is needed in Oklahoma to meet the requirements of that denomination and to keep abreast of the advance An impassioned warning and protest made by other church organizations that against all forms of "occultism” is made are establishing schools in the territory.
in the current issue The sectarian school has a rightful Superstition of the Liberal Replace among our modern institutions. As
and Mania. view by Professor it is constituted to-day it represents the
Larkin, director of result of a slow process of evolution. the Mount Lowe Observatory. Within the memory of many persons Professor Larkin begins by making now living the religious college was a the interesting and surprising statement place where dogmatic doctrine was pre- that "an observatory receives mail from ferred to a thoroughly liberal education. all parts of the world, on every subject The doctrines of Calvin or of Wesley or that brain can think about," and he deof Campbell represented the curriculum clares so many letters come from people of the college and mathematics and liter- suffering "unspeakable mental agony” ature held a secondary place so far as the that he set himself to looking up the essentials were concerned. There was causes of such widespread trouble. formerly much criticism of these schools, In other words, it would seem that perespecially the smaller ones.
sons subject to mystical obsessions, reThe modern sectarian school is de- ligious vagaries and victims of cults apnominational in name alone. No attempt peal to astronomers and physicists, and is made to teach religious doctrine to Professor Larkin believes that we have the exclusion and subordination of the
no proper comprehension of the horrors modern college curriculum. Doctrine is of these mental disorders, and no proper incidental, and if taught at all, is hardly realization of the extent of the ravages perceptible. The modern sectarian col- of such obsessions or mental irregularilege is liberal to a degree. In fact, it is ties. possible for the student to attend a Pres- Professor Larkin furthermore asserts byterian college to-day, receive his sheep- that these evils are spreading. “There skin and know nothing of the doctrine of are actually now, here, in the United predestination or of total depravity. The States, magazines and papers devoted to aim and purpose of the modern sectarian astrological myths.
astrological myths. The silly oracles of school seem to be to inculcate the spirit Eleusis, Dodona and Samothrace are beof religion without forcing upon the ing made articulate again by priestesses students formal precepts and the dog- in our modern cities. Vast sums of matic doctrine of any particular sect. money flow into their clutches as in
The modern sectarian college is the Jerusalem, Thebes, Memphis, Athens complement of the purely
secular and Rome.' Fires of necromancy, schools, the college is the complement of sorcery and invocation are blazing again;
and rivers of bitter waters from ages of criminal code is a crude engine, and the superstition are pouring into our villages, limits of intellectual freedom are and towns and cities. Read the street signs. should be wide. So the worst evils of Black magic, or the art of casting malign superstition can never be met save by one spells over people at a distance, is here. means. The spread of exact knowledge It was one of the scourges of antiquity. must tell in time. And though many Magicians, medicine
men, nature like Professor Larkin are sometimes disworkers, rainmakers, augurs, mesmerists couraged by the persistency of the anand diviners by cups, sticks and straws cient errors and follies, light penetrates and dice are round about, and fake heal- farther every day, and shines upon more ing at a distance. Talismans, hearts, rab- minds. bits' feet, magic belts, amulets and charms to ward off imaginary evils are
We are all familiar with the small colworn yet.
lege and its appeal to local pride; but a “Magianism, rosicrucianism, gnosti
recent contribution cism, occultism, together with Mosaic
the publication and Hermetic mysteries, are all flourish
called Science suging in this country and Europe. Packets,
gests that the small locks of hair, wands, vagaries, fakes and
college does not monopolize the designamorbid mental states due to these are on tion "home college," as we have been all sides. How can mental physicians tempted to believe. The compiler of this keep up with the new brain diseases ? article, Mr. R. Tombo, Jr., shows by reSuperstition is now intensely alive, and
search that nearly all the great universiall kinds of mind distortion, born in pre
ties are as largely provincial in their historic and barbarous ages, when men membership as the smaller institutions. did not know a single law of nature, are
In New England, for example, out of rife, even in the shadows of universities
453 students at Amherst, 351 come from and colleges. Dreams, hallucinations,
New England and New York, and these phantoms, prophecies, seership and men
geographical limits also contain 865 of tal lapses are still believed in as they were
Dartmouth's 995 and 305 out of Wilin Nineveh, Tyre and in palace and
liams' 445 students. Out of 3,268 stuhovel alike in that vast center of debas
dents in the University of California, ing mythology-Rome."
3,093 live in that state. Illinois supplies There can be no doubt of the terrible
2,872 of the 3,667 students of its unisignificance of these facts, of which this versity, and 2,046 of 2,914 at the Unipriest of science, from his remote moun- versity of Pennsylvania are drawn from tain top, turns from the study of the stars territory within state limits. Harvard, themselves to warn us.
which counts 4,319 students, has 3,257 Furthermore, the facts are notoriously from New England and New York, and true. To dwellers in great cities, indeed, 2,383 from Massachusetts. Columbia, they are so familiar as to be ignored. with 4,083 students, draws 2,774 from Yet there is no doubt that as a world evil New York. these terrible illusions and delusions are Eminent as comparative exceptions, worse than any plague against which the Princeton and Yale are the most cosmight of modern science arrays itself, mopolitan. Princeton has 1,364 enrolled, worse than any curse of "habit” against including 277 from New Jersey, 272 which reformers and societies labor, from New York, 357 from Pennsylvania, more insidious, more uncontrollable,
45 from Maryland, 59 from Illinois, 45 more disastrous, and infinitely more diffi- from Ohio, and under 30 each from cult to cure.
Massachusetts, Kentucky, Indiana, Iowa Frauds and cheats are a small part of and Missouri. Yale counts 3,063 stuthis evil, and with comparative ease and dents, of whom 1,057 are from Connectieffectuality may be dealt with. But the cut, 608 from New York, 188 each from
Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, 147 the study of English language in Italy from Illinois, 135 from Ohio, 112 from and of the Italian language in America New Jersey, and 187 from the south at will also be established.” large.
Meanwhile the old controversy between the university and the small col- Chancellor MacCracken, of New York lege seems as far from settlement as ever. University, in his opening address "welIn general, the great university has more
comed the reaction facilities for comprehensive and exhaust- MacCracken of public opinion in ive culture in scientific or humanistic'at- Advocates the Small favor of small coltainment, while the small college sur
leges,” defining as passes in giving to the student the close such one which gathers less than 500 personal touch of master minds and the undergraduates under one faculty. He means for formation of strong character. As time goes on, character will be more “'I count to-day a fitting time to call athighly prized than culture, favoring the tention to the principal planks of the small college. On the other hand, the small college platform. I have been undergraduate ought to have his charac- standing on this platform for a quarter ter formed at home, so that he can enjoy of a century and can claim to speak with facilities of the great university without authority. surrender to its temptations.
"The average undergraduate should
continue in college from eighteen years Dr. Joseph S. Kennard, who recently of age to twenty-two. This formative returned from Italy, reports that ar- training between school and life occupaAmerican and Italian
rangements for the tion should be preserved. There should Professors to
exchange of uni- be no cheap chromo diploma for a two Interchange.
versity professors years' bachelor of arts course offered by
between that coun- any university as a premium for graduattry and the United States on the same ing in law or in medicine. The college lines as the system now in force between course should have at least half of its America and Germany, but on a larger subjects prescribed and prescribed work scale, had been completed.
should include a good measure of logic Through the efforts of Dr. Kennard, and psychology, of language and of who represented the interests of several mathematics. of the principal American universities- "The undergraduate who does not notably the University of Chicago and want logic or mathematics is usually the the University of Pennsylvania-the man who needs them more than anyking of Italy became interested in the thing else. The same is true of the one movement. He issued a decree calling who does not want a thorough training attention to the importance of the move- in language or in science. He ought to ment from a national standpoint. The have them in a fair measure. The last decree called upon the people of Italy to plank of the platform is that there should work with Dr. Kennard toward the de- be close contact of the mind of the prosired end. As a result the Italian- fessor with the mind of the student for American Educational alliance is now the highest moral results. New York established on a firm basis.
University expects each professor to "The whole country exhibited the care for the moral as well as the intelkeenest appreciation of the value of the lectual well-being of the student. It asalliance," said Dr. Kennard. “Under the signs to every under-graduate student a system for exchanging professors Italian professor to be his adviser, who is reprofessors will come to the American col- quired to know how the student passes leges to lecture and American professors his time as well as how he passes his exwill go to Italian colleges. Circles for aminations.