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"At University Heights we have two evaded any more than the law of gravismall colleges, which are removed more tation. than half an hour from the six under- "We must contend against the desire graduate and professional schools that to get something for nothing. are downtown. One is the College of “We must learn that to secure real Arts and Pure Science, the other, the
intellectual and moral advancement we School of Applied Science. They are must supplement the training in the distinct in their faculties and adminis- three 'R's' with the the three 'H's' tration, in their courses of study and roll head, hand and heart. of students. Their fellowship is like two “We must learn that children are neighboring colleges in an English uni- happy in proportion as they are versity, on the athletic field, and in their selfishly employed. social and religious life. They are suc- “As far back as history goes,” concessful examples of colleges built upon tinued the superintendent, "men were the platform of four planks that I have advocating the reform of society through named. Such an experiment with de
some system of education.
These retached undergraduate colleges had not forms have usually had some little sucbeen attempted by any university in a cess only to eventually fail because of city until twelve years ago.
We at- the narrow view of education taken on tempted it with doubt and misgiving account of some ridiculous extreme. In They have entirely disappeared. With spite of the efforts of the schools, we are us the datached small college as a part told that crime is increasing, that the of a university is beyond the experi- schools are failing to do their work. mental stage. I have deeply at heart the “The public, the press and the pulpit, supporting and perfecting of detached in their concern for those evils, occasmall colleges, whether two in number or sionally lose faith in our educational infour or six, as the best solution of the stitutions. Upon investigation it seems undergraduate question in a large uni- certain we shall come to the conclusion versity.”
that, so far as the school is responsible
for crime, it is due to the failure to apEdwin G. Cooley, Superintendent of proach the problem from the right point Schools of Chicago, gave his ideas on of view, to its failure to conduct its work the right way to
so as to interest all classes of men and Proper Education
uplift public morals women. Will Uplift Public
in an address be- "The old-time curriculum made little Morals.
fore the principals' appeal to and had little interest for many association of that city. The reform of of our children. The conception of the society, he asserted, must be started up- school, as an institution that should apon a foundation of education and he peal to all and should be of assistance added that the increase in crime is due to all, is a comparatively new one. I to the lack of the right sort of education. doubt whether the idea has penetrated
The following lessons, the superin- the heads of all classes to-day. We octendent said, must be learned by every
casionally hear of schemes of education child, if public morals are to be im- that expressly disclaim the power of the proved :
intention of reaching some of the so“We must insist upon the old virtues
called lower classes of society. It goes of industry, obedience, self-control and without saying that such a scheme will punctuality.
not do very much toward reaching the "We must develop in the children a so-called lower class and eliminating respect for public property, and the per- crime. sonal rights of others.
“While admitting our shortcomings “We must teach children that moral in point of view, in curricula, in method, laws are natural laws and cannot be I wish to call attention that in the past
the schools have done much in the way time in our high schools which show that of preparing citizens for their future re- the school must look to its morals as sponsibilities and duties."
well as its laurels. Interschool rivalry Superintendent Cooley asserted that has led many a school principal to enthe schools of years ago laid the founda- courage the attendance of young men tion for character by teaching punctu- whose only service to the school was on ality and obedience. Then he went on: its football team. When students are
"Punctuality, which is so much a paid for going to school to play football, hobby of the schoolmaster, is then worth when the school spirit condones or even more to the child than spelling or writ- encourages slugging disreputable ing; and the school, by insisting on this work of other kinds, athletics become a virtue, is doing much to suppress a cer
source of demoralization, not only to tain kind of selfishness that seems to be those who play, but to the entire school inseparable from those who refuse to world. In place, then, of being a school conform to time regulations.
virtue it is a school vice.” "Obedience based merely and finally on external coercion is slavery, but when based upon intelligence, conformity to
The degree-giving habit, says the principles that are a part of the life and
World's Work, came to us from the character of civilized men, is a badge of
English universities, freedom."
and the medieval Mr. Cooley denounced the spirit of and the Degree. badge once meant vandalism among the school pupils, then
something to eduadded :
cated men. But now, remarks the "It seems clear to me that if we are writer, it no longer has any special sigto change this spirit, this attitude toward nificance to any body of men, and men public trust, we must get rid of the dis- of actual attainment are quietly dropping integrating influence of 'pull.' The ad- the explanatory letters that are supposed vocacy of high standards by moralists to indicate their educational achieveand churchmen will be rendered com- ments. Nowadays a college graduate paratively ineffective if practical exem- has spent from two to five years in an plification of different ideals are to be institution where he may have eaten a seen in politics, in business and even in substantial intellectual meal, or may the management of the schools. It will have tasted instead a vast number of be of little use to teach the ethics of tempting educational dishes—or merely civil service reform or the sermon on the had a good time and hired a coach to do mount in a school where the principal, the required thinking. He may have enteachers and pupils, who have seen tered college after a thorough training around them day after day, evidences of in a good fitting school, or he may have the working of 'pull' and 'graft.'” been "accredited” by a perfunctory
Mr. Cooley said the spirit of commer- school teacher, and have been really uncialism has taken possession of some prepared for any higher studies. Under parts of schools. The athletic depart such conditions the conferring of dement of some colleges and universities, grees is a piece of scholastic buncombe, he said, is often the advertising depart- endeared by tradition and of some supment, which is built up and looked after posed commercial benefit to the recipisystematically by paid instructors, and
It is natural enough that young "as a result the college team is often people in college should confound the largely made up of persons who are not taking of a degree with the getting of an real students, but professional athletes." education. But what is really more la
"The high schools are imitating this mentable is that American colleges seem practice,” he continued, "and there are unable to put their stamp upon their many things occurring at the present graduates in some more enduring man
ner than by giving them little rolls of views that may present themselves with parchment and the right to add some the inch rule belonging to any science or capital letters to their names.
philosophy which its adherents regard
as fixed and perfect. President Faunce of Brown Univer- Another influence leading to pride of sity delivered an address a short time ago opinion and a self-complacency that pre
in which he urged vents intellectual progress, is the nature Narrowness of the importance to of the authority wielded by male eduEducators. every man of ob- cators. They are autocrats in their lit
taining breadth of tle, field. Their subordinates, commonly view, and recommended travel as one of women, are obliged to assume an attithe best means of broadening out life. tude of meek subservience and to flatter He made special application of his ad- them as the price of retaining their vice to teachers who have, he pointed positions, though often privately holdout, a special advantage in this direction, ing them in utter contempt because of because of the three months' vacation in their inferiority and pettiness. The auschools and colleges. “We need," he thority thus wielded and the flattery said, “to get in contact with men whose heaped on them fosters a sense of supethought is different from our own.” riority to their subordinates in general
No statement could be more sound. and to womankind in particular which All men need the friction of other minds often manifests itself in a laughable upon their own, but this is particularly way, but as often works injustice to the true of teachers. Yet it happens they deserving. get less of it, as a rule, than men of There is no doubt that President other callings. There is something cu- Faunce is right in saying that educators riously narrowing about the educational need broadening. The importance of life. Many women teachers of the rank this should be urged on them without and file are well aware of this tendency ceasing, for dogmatism, self-conceit and and lament its effect upon themselves, illiberality of opinion among teachers are but the narrowing influence is even more
bad for the students under them. They marked upon male educators in higher should get away from each other whenplaces. It is seldom, however, that the ever possible and put themselves in touch latter recognize the fact and admit it as
with the world of progress. President Faunce does. Naturally, the more intolerant they are of new ideas The agricultural renaissance of the and the more liberal they become, the West goes on apace. Though it seems less they are likely to discover their own
like misuse of sad condition.
Training for words to speak of The causes for these mental limita
the Farm. the rebirth of farmtions on the part of many educators are
ing in connection obvious to onlookers. Each school and
with a territory that has been for generacollege is a little world in itself. The in- tions one of the garden spots of the terests of teachers and professors are
world, the phrase fits the situation exconcentrated there. When they go out- actly. For now in the West for the first side they are likely to seek the society of
science and agriculture have their kind. In their vacations they flock formed a partnership that never will be together; they attend Chautauquas and
dissolved. teachers' conventions; or, if they travel This partnership between science and abroad, it is in parties composed of agriculture is not a new thing, strictly teachers. They are continually in the speaking, except in some of its later school atmosphere and continually talk phases. Colleges under state manageshop. They are saturated with pedagogy ment have conducted schools devoted diand are disposed to measure all new rectly to the training of farmers. The
government has established experiment future will be more likely to stay on the stations in all the states and territories, farm and take up the work where his which, aided by state appropriations, father leaves off. have added untold millions to the wealth In a material way the influence of this of the West. The railroads have sent new idea contains limitless possibilities. out "good seed trains," with lecturers Productive as is the West, it is far from to spread the gospel of scientific farming. being as productive as it might be.
But now the West is going farther in Take, for example, the last wheat crop this direction, and is carrying this sort of of Kansas. The state board of agriculinstruction into the lower grades of its ture's recent report gives the average of educational system. Hitherto the train- the yield as less than fifteen bushels to ing offered the farming population has the acre, while thousands of acres largely appealed to the mature man. yielded more than twice the average. Now the coming generation is to have Now, seed selection and culture and the opportunity to learn scientific agri- climate are not all of the elements of a culture during the formative years of great yield. It is the full understanding youth.
of the needs of the crop and the ability This new idea is to make farming a to utilize the powers of nature that gives part of the high school course. Into the the educated farmer a yield so far above high schools has been introduced a sys- the average. If the farmer can be edutem that includes the selection of seed, cated to the point where the greatest the planting of crops, and the judging yield shall be the rule and not the exof cattle. Wherever the experiment has ception, the prosperity of the West, albeen tried the result has been an in- ready the wonder of the world, will be creased attendance of boys from the doubled, if not tripled. farms and a genuine interest in the gen- In the farming communities where eral work of the school. The legitimate the education of the farmer has been end of this experiment is the training of most thorough the grain average has the farmer for his work just as the pro- been greatly increased. When this modfessional man is trained.
ern training has been extended to the This training of the farm boy during schools and made more or less compulhis formative years should do a vast sory, instead of being limited to the amount of good in two ways that are comparative few who are willing to atwidely distinct. Hitherto it has been an tend an agricultural college, the possiaxiom of the sociologist that the farm- bilities of increased production are raised boy early sickened of the unin- pleasing to the imagination. telligent and never-ending drudgery of That this new idea will be carried out the farm and made his escape early to extensively in the agricultural West is the cities, and that the more intelligent certain. It is too plainly practical not and ambitious the boy the more inevit- to be given a fair trial. able his departure.
There is reason to assume that this tendency on the part of the farm boy will Dr. Simon N. Patten, who occupies now be much modified. He will be early the Chair of Political Economy in the informed of the possibilities of the life
University of Pennwhich he has hitherto despised. He will Shall Wives Be sylvania and has see in the farm the prospect of a com- Wage-Earners? written many books fortable income. He is apt to see in
on economics, says the fascinations of the new agriculture in The Independent of Sept. 20 that an outlet for his ambition. And as farm brides whose husbands earn less than, life takes on a more satisfactory outlook say, twenty dollars a week, ought to the attraction of the city will prove less
work in the factory, or in the shop or strong In short, the farm toy of the office, according to previous training,
to help out the family expenses. Wives from a cramped tenement-house existused to do a great deal of household ence, Dr. Patten would have enacted a work that specialized labor has taken special National labor law. He would from them, such as weaving, butter
the factory transformed for making, and the like, therefore modern woman's convenience, “the factory rehusbands must find them harder to sup- garded as a public utility and regulated port. The wife's work
work as a home- for the general welfare as the streets are maker, too, has fallen in estimation: cleaned for the city's healthfulness;" he
As agencies outside her home begin to would supervise the areas of production, do her work better than she can, her and “Federalize them if need be, to bulmethods, in the natural course of events, wark the citizens of an industrial repubbecome obsolete, and she struggles for lic;" and he predicts that “radical proviher successes with tools which command • sions will undoubtedly be necessary to less respect from her group than they safe-guard the hard-won rights of the did when their use impressed husband swelling numbers of women in the facand children with her competence and tories.” mastery of resource.
He speaks sympathetically of the situation of the wife imbued with the old
A most interesting feature of the spirit of "service-altruism”-that is, of August Yale Alumni Monthly is a list exercising an influence for good over
of questions and rehusband and children through perform
The College plies giving the ance by her own hands of “the unsalaried
in Retrospect. opinions of the functions of cook, laundress, and dress
class of 1896, now maker." "Income-altruism," the con- 10 years out of college, as to methods of tribution from some gainful occupation education while they were at New to her husband's salary, is her true way Haven. At the time of their graduation of salvation:
the members of this class voted on the Her affairs are frequently complicated question of making religious exercises in further by her husband, who is likely to chapel optional instead of compulsory, as belong to the class that pours forth enor- they then were. This question is now mous numbers of half-equipped, half-en- put to the members of the class, and with ergized men. Her typical mate is of the 10 years to mature their opinion they economic rank between those of the day vote 5 to 1 for compulsory chapel exeraborer and the business man of initia- cises, about 60 per cent. of the class tive and independent movement—the members voting. On the question grade recruited with clerks, stenogra- whether too much time was given to the phers, and salesmen - indifferently
indifferently study of Greek, the class is almost equaltrained, perfunctory people, absent- ly divided, and on the kindred mindedly following routine ways. Task questions to whether their for task, they are inferior to their wives, “grasp of Greek literature and life” gave for they do not steadily care to maintain them satisfaction commensurate with the high traditions, to gauge themselves at time devoted to it, nearly all replied that the last notch of their engine. They are their “grasp," while feeble, had been all slovenly when neatness would increase satisfaction, on 10 years' reflections. On their value, and wastefully careless in the elective system of studies, there is a execution when precision would follow strong majority for the old fashioned concentration of thought. Industrial method of faculty-prescribed studies and shiftlessness condemns the wife to a hours, the argument being that the prohopeless round of harder work than the fessors are better qualified to judge than man will ever do.
the best intentioned students as to what For the benefit of these wives, and will prove the most beneficial studies to especially for such as would be freed pursue. And to the question, "What rela